VOLUME 3 - ISSUE 2
Neither International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law (IJPSL) nor its editors, publishers, owners or anyone else involved in creating, producing or delivering International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law (IJPSL) or the materials contained therein, assumes any liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information provided in International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law (IJPSL), nor shall they be liable for any direct, indirect, incidental, special, consequential or punitive damages arising out of the use of International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law (IJPSL)or its contents. While the advice and information in this journal are believed to be true and accurate on the date of its publication, neither the editors, publisher, owners nor the authors can accept any legal responsibility for any errors or omissions that may be made or for the results obtained from the use of such material. The editors, publisher or owners, make no warranty, express or implied, with respect to the material contained herein.
Opinions, discussions, views and recommendations in the publications are solely those of the authors and not of International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law (IJPSL) or its publishers.IJPSL and its editors, publishers or owners make no representations or warranties with respect to any action taken by any person following the information offered or provided within or through the IJPSL. IJPSL and its publishers will not be liable for any direct, indirect, consequential, special, exemplary, or other damages arising therefrom.
The information presented in International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law (IJPSL) is not intended to replace legal, policy or any other professional advice offered.
In case you submit a paper, you agree to hold harmless and indemnify International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law (IJPSL), its editors, publishers, owners, their agents and contributors to International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law (IJPSL), against any liability for any claims and expenses, including reasonable attorney’s fees, relating to any violation of the terms of this Agreement or arising out of any materials submitted by you. Any legal action, suit or proceeding arising out of or relating to this Agreement or a breach thereof, shall be instituted in a court of competent jurisdiction, and you hereby consent and submit to personal jurisdiction of such court, waive any objection to venue in such court and consent to service of process at your last known address.
International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law (IJPSL) may contain links to web sites operated by other parties. These links are provided purely as educational purposes. Such links do not imply International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law (IJPSL) endorses the material on any other site and International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law (IJPSL) disclaims all liability with regard to your access to such linked websites.
International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law (IJPSL) reserves the right, at its sole discretion, to change the terms and conditions of this Agreement from time to time and your access to International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law (IJPSL) or its website will be deemed to be your acceptance of and agreement to any changed terms and conditions.
Social Exclusion of Trans Persons in India: Law, Citizenship and Healthcare
Rajeev Anand Kushwah
Volume 3, Issue 2
28 February 2023
Page No.: 4036-4047
This paper attempts to look at the social exclusion of trans persons through a social exclusion framework. It traces the history of transgender citizens as the subject of the law highlighting the politics of language and how citizenship overlooks transgender subjects with an emphasis on ‘The Transgender Persons (Protection of Rights) Act, 2019.’ There is also a focus on ‘identity’ through a psychosocial model of social exclusion, highlighting the question of liveability. It addresses the discrimination within biomedicine and healthcare by taking a brief look at the study titled “An Exploratory Study of Discriminations based on Non-Normative Genders and Sexualities”, conducted and published by Advanced Centre for Women’s Studies, TISS, Mumbai.
M.A. Women’s Studies, Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Mumbai
 Achuthan, A. (2021). Gender-affirmative technologies and the contemporary making of gender in India. Economy and Society, 50(3), 423-447. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/03085147.2021.1883322
 Anuvinda, P., & Siva, T. (2016). No Country for Transgenders?. Economic & Political Weekly, 51(37), 19-22. https://www.epw.in/journal/2016/37/commentary/no-country-transgenders.html
 Brahmam, G. N., Kodavalla, V., Rajkumar, H., Rachakulla, H. K., Kallam, S., Myakala, S. P., … & IBBA Study Team. (2008). Sexual practices, HIV and sexually transmitted infections among self-identified men who have sex with men in four high HIV prevalence states of India. Aids, 22, S45-S57. https://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/Fulltext/2008/12005/Sexual_practices,_HIV_and_sexually_transmitted.4.aspx
 Berger, B. E., Ferrans, C. E., & Lashley, F. R. (2001). Measuring stigma in people with HIV: Psychometric assessment of the HIV stigma scale¶. Research in nursing & health, 24(6), 518-529. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/Nur.10011
 Butler, J. (1997). Merely cultural. Social text, (52/53), 265-277. https://www.jstor.org/stable/466744
 Butler, J. (2016). Frames of war: When is life grievable?. Verso Books. https://www.raco.cat/index.php/Lectora/article/download/247835/331872/0
 Chakrapani, V. (2010). Hijras/transgender women in India: HIV, human rights and social exclusion. http://archive.nyu.edu/handle/2451/33612
 Chauhan, C. (2020, October 20). Transgender activist Sangeetha found dead at her Coimbatore home. India Today. https://www.indiatoday.in/cities/chennai/story/transgender-activist-sangeetha-dead-coimbatore-home-1733953-2020-10-22
 Choudhary, P. (2021, May 16). Less than 4% vaccinated – Transgender Indians have been ‘othered’ by vaccines and forms. The Print. https://theprint.in/opinion/less-than-4-vaccinated-transgender-indians-have-been-othered-by-vaccines-and-forms/659091/
 Foucault, M. (1990). The history of sexuality: An introduction. Vintage. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/David-Halperin-2/publication/249982646_Forgetting_Foucault_Acts_Identities_and_the_History_of_Sexuality/links/5652972108aefe619b18d7c2/Forgetting-Foucault-Acts-Identities-and-the-History-of-Sexuality.pdf
 Gupta, A., Mehta, S., Godbole, S. V., Sahay, S., Walshe, L., Reynolds, S. J., … & Bollinger, R. C. (2006). Same-sex behavior and high rates of HIV among men attending sexually transmitted infection clinics in Pune, India (1993-2002). JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 43(4), 483-490. https://journals.lww.com/jaids/Fulltext/2006/12010/Sex_behaviour_of_men_who_have_sex_with_men_and.00016.aspx
 Jackson, C. (1999). Social exclusion and gender: Does one size fit all?. The European Journal of Development Research, 11(1), 125-146. https://www.academia.edu/download/35278240/Social_exclusion_correct.pdf
 Jose, J.P., Davidson, K.A., Santhosh, K.J., Sabu, K.U., Sebastian, J. & Cherian, A. (2009). Unwed tribal motherhood in India: Interplay of stigma, discrimination and subjective well being, Report Seriers002, Centre for Social Work Research & Practice-India. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/2158244019850041
 Jose, J.P., Vinod, C. V., and Sabu, K. U. (2011b). Tribal Unwed Motherhood in South India: The Causes, Process and Consequences in Perspective. Dr. Verlag Muller Publishers: Germany https://www.researchgate.net/publication/215553804_THE_TRIBAL_UNWED_MOTHERHOOD_IN_SOUTHE_INDIA_The_caused_process_and_consequence_in_Perspective
 Jose, J.P., & Sultana, S. A. (2012a). Towards a psychosocial model of social exclusion of transgender women in India. Paper presented in an international conference on counselling and psychotherapy with marginalised individuals, Department of Psychology, Christ University, Bangalore on 41h to 61h January 2012. https://transreads.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/07/2021-07-16_60f1811f9c4fc_0974354520140106.pdf
 Kessler, R. C., Mickelson, K. D., & Williams, D. R. (1999). The prevalence, distribution, and mental health correlates of perceived discrimination in the United States. Journal of health and social behavior, 208-230. https://www.jstor.org/stable/2676349
 Konduru, D., & Hangsing, C. (2018). Socio–cultural exclusion and inclusion of trans-genders in India. International Journal of Social sciences and management, 5(1), 10-17. https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/IJSSM/article/view/18147
 Laqueur, T. (1992). Making sex: Body and gender from the Greeks to Freud. Harvard University Press. https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=XR2BcRwiG-sC&oi=fnd&pg=PP17&dq=%E2%80%A2%09Laqueur,+T.+(1990).+Making+Sex:+Body+and+Gender+from+the+Greeks+to+Freud.+Cambridge,+MA:+Harvard+University+Press.&ots=wYDxsNaKb0&sig=b9aUB81ObyvWQKyH9FOmSrpTHn8
 Mankatali, D. (2021, December 7). ‘Don’t Have Just One Identity’: Transgender People Urge Govt to Rethink Quota Under OBC Category’. The Wire. https://thewire.in/rights/dont-have-just-one-identity-transgender-people-urge-govt-to-rethink-quota-under-obc-category
 Nanda, S. (1986). The Hijras of India: Cultural and individual dimensions of an institutionalized third gender role. Journal of homosexuality, 11(3-4), 35-54. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1300/J082v11n03_03
 Reddy, G. (2005). Geographies of contagion: Hijras, Kothis, and the politics of sexual marginality in Hyderabad. Anthropology & Medicine, 12(3), 255-270. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/13648470500291410
 Richardson, D. (2000). Rethinking sexuality. Rethinking Sexuality, 1-192. https://www.torrossa.com/gs/resourceProxy?an=5017596&publisher=FZ7200
 Scambler, G. (1998). Stigma and disease: changing paradigms. The Lancet, 352(9133), 1054-1055. https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(98)08068-4/fulltext
 Shaikh, D. P. (2018, October 6). Disha Pinky Shaikh at the PUCL Public Meeting: 377 and beyond. PUCL Maharashtra. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SP1Ko6S_bdM&t=759s
 Sharma, D. (2018). The State and the Construction of Non-Normative Citizen. J. Indian L. & Soc’y, 9, 18. https://heinonline.org/hol-cgi-bin/get_pdf.cgi?handle=hein.journals/jindlas9§ion=5
 Sheikh, D. (2014, April 14). Not just his and hers. The Indian Express. https://indianexpress.com/article/opinion/columns/not-just-his-and-hers/
 Singharoy, D. K. (2001). Social development and the empowerment of marginalised groups: Perspectives and strategies. SAGE Publications Pvt. Limited. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/315728596_Social_Development_and_the_Empowerment_of_the_Marginalized_Groups
 Soumya, E. (2014, June 18). Indian Transgender Healthcare Challenges. https://www.aljazeera.com/features/2014/6/18/indian-transgender-healthcare-challenges
 Stauffer, J. (2015). Ethical loneliness: The injustice of not being heard. Columbia University Press. https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=iwRaCgAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PT8&dq=%E2%80%A2%09Stauffer,+J.+(2015).+Ethical+loneliness:+The+injustice+of+not+being+heard.+Columbia+University+Press.&ots=zPHqbRPreo&sig=h3LygkfJmFS6bH3g5AMw4tSCzdc
 Udayavani (2021, July 21) Kerala: Trans activist Ananya Kumari Alex found dead. Udayavani. https://www.udayavani.com/english-news/kerala-trans-activist-ananya-kumari-alex-found-dead
 Ung Loh, J. (2018). Transgender identity, sexual versus gender ‘rights’ and the tools of the Indian state. feminist review, 119(1), 39-55. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1057/s41305-018-0124-9
 Verma, V. (2011). Conceptualising Social Exclusion: New Rhetoric or Transformative Politics?. Economic and Political Weekly, 89-97. https://www.jstor.org/stable/41319488
 Vinod, C. V. (2011). Socio-Economic and Cultural Conditions of Dalit Christians: A case study of Trichy and Chengalpattu in Tamilnadu (Doctoral dissertation, Doctoral thesis submitted to Jamia Millia Islamia University: New Delhi). https://www.academia.edu/9635601/A_Study_on_Socio_Economic_status_of_Dalit_Christians_in_Tirunelveli_District_of_Tamil_Nadu
 ZAhArIJevIć, A., & Milutinović Bojanić, S. (2017). The Trajectories of the Concept of Life in Judith Butler’s Tthought. Isegoria. Revista de filosofia moral y politica, (56), 169-185. http://rifdt.instifdt.bg.ac.rs/handle/123456789/1414
Kushwah R. A. (2023). Social Exclusion of Trans Persons in India: Law, Citizenship and Healthcare . International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law, 3(2), 4036-4047.
Creating Gender Inclusive Education: An Exploratory Study to Eradicate Homophobia and Stigma Through the Introduction of Non-Binary Genders in Mainstream Curriculum
Volume 3, Issue 2
28 February 2023
Page No.: 4048-4081
Gender constructivism has been an issue in South Asia for a long time which could be understood by its rich history of visibility. Though gender expressions have been socially recognized on the subcontinent since the Vedic era, their prevalence in social structures has been limited. The evidence of restricted transgender practices could be witnessed in India during the British administration when they were not allowed to move freely and were punished severely on account of free expression. It delimited the position of transgenders in society and led to the implementation of The Criminal Tribes Act which classifies transgender people as a “criminal tribe”. Apart from this, transgender people were mocked and subjected to cruel treatment under the British administration which impacted their position and inclusion in mainstream society.
The present research thereby focuses on gender non-binary inclusion in school textbooks and curricula to create gender-inclusive education. It will help in developing and promoting a safe and secure environment for all genders irrespective of their trans, non-binary, and Queer identities. It includes using these school curricula as a powerful medium to teach children different concepts, traditions, and cultural heritage. The research includes a critical approach and a mixed-method approach combining both qualitative and quantitative data. In order to do this, this study also adopted an interview protocol which was developed by the researcher to investigate the need of creating a gender-inclusive curriculum by introducing non-binary characters in the school curriculum
M.A. English Literature, M.Ed, Delhi Board of School Education, New Delhi
 Asongu, S., Nnanna, J., & Acha-Anyi, P. (2020). Inclusive education for inclusive economic participation: the financial access channel. Gender in Management: An International Journal, 35(5), 481-503.
 Bakker, M. (2018). Getting into the Schwing of Things: Hunter x Hunter’s Progressive Gender Depictions and Exploration of Non-Binary Possibilities (Doctoral dissertation, Open Access Te Herenga Waka-Victoria University of Wellington).
 Brill, S., & Kenney, L. (2016). The transgender teen. Cleis Press.
 Broomfield, Alyssa. “An Introduction to Creating Gender Inclusive Classrooms.”
 Clarke, Sarah. “Creating Gender-Inclusive Classrooms for Students of All Genders.” (2016). 4. Crawley, Stephen Adam. “Be who you are: Exploring representations of transgender children in picturebooks.” Journal of Children’s Literature 43.2 (2017): 28-41.
 Cutler, B., Adams, M., & Jenkins, L. (2022). Working towards LGBTIQ-inclusive education: perceptions of pre-service teachers’ comfort and emotional experience. Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education, 50(3), 295-310.
 De Shutter, O., Lemmens, P., Kukova, S., Sturma, P., Olsen, B. K., Bielefeldt, H., … & Harris, D. (2009). Homophobia and discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation in the EU Member States. Part I-Legal analysis. Publications Office of the European Union.
 Drescher, J., Byne, W. (2012). Gender dysphoric/gender variant (GD/GV) children and adolescents: Summarizing what we know and what we have yet to learn. Journal of Homosexuality. 59(3), 501-510
 Ellis, S. J., Peel, E., & Riggs, D. W. (2019). Lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans, intersex, and queer psychology: An introduction. Cambridge University Press.
 Erickson-Schroth L. (Ed.) Trans bodies, trans selves: A resource for the transgender community (2014). New York: Oxford University Press.
 Grant, R., Nash, M., & Hansen, E. (2020). What does inclusive sexual and reproductive healthcare look like for bisexual, pansexual and queer women? Findings from an exploratory study from Tasmania, Australia. Culture, Health & Sexuality, 22(3), 247-260.
 Gray, R., Walker, T., Hamer, J., Broady, T., Kean, J., Ling, J., & Bear, B. (2020). Developing LGBTQ programs for perpetrators and victims/survivors of domestic and family violence. Australia’s National Research Organisation for Women’s Safety.
 Grossman, Arnold H., and Anthony R. D’Augelli. “Transgender youth and life-threatening behaviors.” Suicide and life-threatening behavior 37.5 (2007): 527-537.
 Harbin, Brielle. “Teaching beyond the gender binary in the university classroom.” Vanderbilt University Center for Teaching (2016).
 Johnson, R. Burke, and Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie. “Mixed methods research: A research paradigm whose time has come.” Educational researcher 33.7 (2004): 14-26.
 Knopp-Schwyn, Collin, and Michael Fracentese. “Challenges and possibilities for bisexual picturebooks.” Journal of Bisexuality 19.3 (2019): 414-439.
 Lao, K. A. C., Lao, H. A., Siason, V. A., Cabangcala, R. B., Cadapan, E. D., & Alieto, E. O. (2022). Attitude towards Inclusive Education (IE) among Prospective Teachers: Is there Gender Polarization?. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SPECIAL EDUCATION, 37(3).
 Lau, H. (2018). Gender recognition as a human right. The Cambridge Handbook on New Human Rights: Recognition, Novelty, Rhetoric (edited by Andreas von Arnauld, Kerstin von der Decken & Mart Susi), Forthcoming., UNC Legal Studies Research Paper.
 Macbeth, A. J. (2022). Non-binary individuals’ experiences of gender dysphoria: A phenomenological exploration (Doctoral dissertation, Iowa State University).
 Miroiu, Mihaela. “Guidelines for Promoting Gender-Inclusive Curriculum in Higher Education.” UNESCO-CEPES (2011): 229.
 Mouchritsa, M., Romero, A., Garay, U., & Kazanopoulos, S. (2022). Teachers’ Attitudes towards Inclusive Education at Greek Secondary Education Schools. Education Sciences, 12(6), 404. 20.
 Ong, F., Vorobjovas-Pinta, O., & Lewis, C. (2022). LGBTIQ+ identities in tourism and leisure research: A systematic qualitative literature review. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 30(7), 1476-1499.
 Russell, S. T., et al. “Gender nonconformity and school safety: Documenting the problem and steps schools can take.” California Safe Schools Coalition Research Brief 12 (2010).
 Sherer, I., M.D., Baum, J., M.S., Ehrensaft, D., P.H.D., & Rosenthal, S. M., M.D. (2015). Affirming gender: Caring for gender atypical children and adolescents. Contemporary Pediatrics, 32(1), 16-19. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1655129753?accountid=1477
 Slee, R. (2018). Inclusive education: from policy to school implementation. In Towards inclusive schools? (pp. 30-41). Routledge.
 Smith, J. J., Jas, Y., Tolu, L., Tolu, M., McCarthy, K., Janib, A., … & Simms, D. (2020). Non-Binary lives: an anthology of intersecting identities. Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
 Teich, N. M. (2012). Transgender 101: A simple guide to a complex issue. New York: Columbia University Press.
Sharma A. (2023). Creating Gender Inclusive Education: An Exploratory Study to Eradicate Homophobia and Stigma Through the Introduction of Non-Binary Genders in Mainstream Curriculum. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law, 3(2), 4048-4081.