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Social Exclusion of Trans Persons in India: Law, Citizenship and Healthcare

Rajeev Anand Kushwah
Volume 3, Issue 2
28 February 2023
Page No.: 4036-4047

This paper attempts to look at the social exclusion of trans persons through a social exclusion framework. It traces the history of transgender citizens as the subject of the law highlighting the politics of language and how citizenship overlooks transgender subjects with an emphasis on ‘The Transgender Persons (Protection of Rights) Act, 2019.’ There is also a focus on ‘identity’ through a psychosocial model of social exclusion, highlighting the question of liveability. It addresses the discrimination within biomedicine and healthcare by taking a brief look at the study titled “An Exploratory Study of Discriminations based on Non-Normative Genders and Sexualities”, conducted and published by Advanced Centre for Women’s Studies, TISS, Mumbai.

Rajeev Anand Kushwah
M.A. Women’s Studies, Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Mumbai

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[2] Anuvinda, P., & Siva, T. (2016). No Country for Transgenders?. Economic & Political Weekly51(37), 19-22. https://www.epw.in/journal/2016/37/commentary/no-country-transgenders.html

[3] Brahmam, G. N., Kodavalla, V., Rajkumar, H., Rachakulla, H. K., Kallam, S., Myakala, S. P., … & IBBA Study Team. (2008). Sexual practices, HIV and sexually transmitted infections among self-identified men who have sex with men in four high HIV prevalence states of India. Aids22, S45-S57. https://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/Fulltext/2008/12005/Sexual_practices,_HIV_and_sexually_transmitted.4.aspx

[4] Berger, B. E., Ferrans, C. E., & Lashley, F. R. (2001). Measuring stigma in people with HIV: Psychometric assessment of the HIV stigma scale¶. Research in nursing & health24(6), 518-529. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/Nur.10011

[5] Butler, J. (1997). Merely cultural. Social text, (52/53), 265-277. https://www.jstor.org/stable/466744

[6] Butler, J. (2016). Frames of war: When is life grievable?. Verso Books. https://www.raco.cat/index.php/Lectora/article/download/247835/331872/0

[7] Chakrapani, V. (2010). Hijras/transgender women in India: HIV, human rights and social exclusion. http://archive.nyu.edu/handle/2451/33612

[8] Chauhan, C. (2020, October 20). Transgender activist Sangeetha found dead at her Coimbatore home. India Today. https://www.indiatoday.in/cities/chennai/story/transgender-activist-sangeetha-dead-coimbatore-home-1733953-2020-10-22

[9] Choudhary, P. (2021, May 16). Less than 4% vaccinated – Transgender Indians have been ‘othered’ by vaccines and forms. The Print. https://theprint.in/opinion/less-than-4-vaccinated-transgender-indians-have-been-othered-by-vaccines-and-forms/659091/

[10] Foucault, M. (1990). The history of sexuality: An introduction. Vintage. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/David-Halperin-2/publication/249982646_Forgetting_Foucault_Acts_Identities_and_the_History_of_Sexuality/links/5652972108aefe619b18d7c2/Forgetting-Foucault-Acts-Identities-and-the-History-of-Sexuality.pdf

[11] Gupta, A., Mehta, S., Godbole, S. V., Sahay, S., Walshe, L., Reynolds, S. J., … & Bollinger, R. C. (2006). Same-sex behavior and high rates of HIV among men attending sexually transmitted infection clinics in Pune, India (1993-2002). JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes43(4), 483-490.  https://journals.lww.com/jaids/Fulltext/2006/12010/Sex_behaviour_of_men_who_have_sex_with_men_and.00016.aspx

[12] Jackson, C. (1999). Social exclusion and gender: Does one size fit all?. The European Journal of Development Research11(1), 125-146. https://www.academia.edu/download/35278240/Social_exclusion_correct.pdf

[13] Jose, J.P., Davidson, K.A., Santhosh, K.J., Sabu, K.U., Sebastian, J. & Cherian, A. (2009). Unwed tribal motherhood in India: Interplay of stigma, discrimination and subjective well being, Report Seriers002, Centre for Social Work Research & Practice-India. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/2158244019850041

[14] Jose, J.P., Vinod, C. V., and Sabu, K. U. (2011b). Tribal Unwed Motherhood in South India: The Causes, Process and Consequences in Perspective. Dr. Verlag Muller Publishers: Germany https://www.researchgate.net/publication/215553804_THE_TRIBAL_UNWED_MOTHERHOOD_IN_SOUTHE_INDIA_The_caused_process_and_consequence_in_Perspective

[15] Jose, J.P., & Sultana, S. A. (2012a). Towards a psychosocial model of social exclusion of transgender women in India. Paper presented in an international conference on counselling and psychotherapy with marginalised individuals, Department of Psychology, Christ University, Bangalore on 41h to 61h January 2012. https://transreads.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/07/2021-07-16_60f1811f9c4fc_0974354520140106.pdf

[16] Kessler, R. C., Mickelson, K. D., & Williams, D. R. (1999). The prevalence, distribution, and mental health correlates of perceived discrimination in the United States. Journal of health and social behavior, 208-230. https://www.jstor.org/stable/2676349

[17] Konduru, D., & Hangsing, C. (2018). Socio–cultural exclusion and inclusion of trans-genders in India. International Journal of Social sciences and management5(1), 10-17. https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/IJSSM/article/view/18147

[18] Laqueur, T. (1992). Making sex: Body and gender from the Greeks to Freud. Harvard University Press. https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=XR2BcRwiG-sC&oi=fnd&pg=PP17&dq=%E2%80%A2%09Laqueur,+T.+(1990).+Making+Sex:+Body+and+Gender+from+the+Greeks+to+Freud.+Cambridge,+MA:+Harvard+University+Press.&ots=wYDxsNaKb0&sig=b9aUB81ObyvWQKyH9FOmSrpTHn8

[19] Mankatali, D. (2021, December 7). ‘Don’t Have Just One Identity’: Transgender People Urge Govt to Rethink Quota Under OBC Category’. The Wire. https://thewire.in/rights/dont-have-just-one-identity-transgender-people-urge-govt-to-rethink-quota-under-obc-category

[20] Nanda, S. (1986). The Hijras of India: Cultural and individual dimensions of an institutionalized third gender role. Journal of homosexuality11(3-4), 35-54. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1300/J082v11n03_03

[21] Reddy, G. (2005). Geographies of contagion: Hijras, Kothis, and the politics of sexual marginality in Hyderabad. Anthropology & Medicine12(3), 255-270. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/13648470500291410

[22] Richardson, D. (2000). Rethinking sexuality. Rethinking Sexuality, 1-192. https://www.torrossa.com/gs/resourceProxy?an=5017596&publisher=FZ7200

[23] Scambler, G. (1998). Stigma and disease: changing paradigms. The Lancet352(9133), 1054-1055. https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(98)08068-4/fulltext  

[24] Shaikh, D. P. (2018, October 6). Disha Pinky Shaikh at the PUCL Public Meeting: 377 and beyond. PUCL Maharashtra. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SP1Ko6S_bdM&t=759s

[25] Sharma, D. (2018). The State and the Construction of Non-Normative Citizen. J. Indian L. & Soc’y9, 18. https://heinonline.org/hol-cgi-bin/get_pdf.cgi?handle=hein.journals/jindlas9&section=5

[26] Sheikh, D. (2014, April 14). Not just his and hers. The Indian Express. https://indianexpress.com/article/opinion/columns/not-just-his-and-hers/

[27] Singharoy, D. K. (2001). Social development and the empowerment of marginalised groups: Perspectives and strategies. SAGE Publications Pvt. Limited. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/315728596_Social_Development_and_the_Empowerment_of_the_Marginalized_Groups

[28] Soumya, E. (2014, June 18). Indian Transgender Healthcare Challenges.  https://www.aljazeera.com/features/2014/6/18/indian-transgender-healthcare-challenges

[29] Stauffer, J. (2015). Ethical loneliness: The injustice of not being heard. Columbia University Press. https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=iwRaCgAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PT8&dq=%E2%80%A2%09Stauffer,+J.+(2015).+Ethical+loneliness:+The+injustice+of+not+being+heard.+Columbia+University+Press.&ots=zPHqbRPreo&sig=h3LygkfJmFS6bH3g5AMw4tSCzdc

[30] Udayavani (2021, July 21) Kerala: Trans activist Ananya Kumari Alex found dead. Udayavani. https://www.udayavani.com/english-news/kerala-trans-activist-ananya-kumari-alex-found-dead

[31] Ung Loh, J. (2018). Transgender identity, sexual versus gender ‘rights’ and the tools of the Indian state. feminist review119(1), 39-55. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1057/s41305-018-0124-9

[32] Verma, V. (2011). Conceptualising Social Exclusion: New Rhetoric or Transformative Politics?. Economic and Political Weekly, 89-97. https://www.jstor.org/stable/41319488

[33] Vinod, C. V. (2011). Socio-Economic and Cultural Conditions of Dalit Christians: A case study of Trichy and Chengalpattu in Tamilnadu (Doctoral dissertation, Doctoral thesis submitted to Jamia Millia Islamia University: New Delhi). https://www.academia.edu/9635601/A_Study_on_Socio_Economic_status_of_Dalit_Christians_in_Tirunelveli_District_of_Tamil_Nadu

[34] ZAhArIJevIć, A., & Milutinović Bojanić, S. (2017). The Trajectories of the Concept of Life in Judith Butler’s Tthought. Isegoria. Revista de filosofia moral y politica, (56), 169-185. http://rifdt.instifdt.bg.ac.rs/handle/123456789/1414

Kushwah R. A. (2023). Social Exclusion of Trans Persons in India: Law, Citizenship and Healthcare . International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law, 3(2), 4036-4047. 


Creating Gender Inclusive Education: An Exploratory Study to Eradicate Homophobia and Stigma Through the Introduction of Non-Binary Genders in Mainstream Curriculum

Ankita Sharma
Volume 3, Issue 2
28 February 2023
Page No.: 4048-4081

Gender constructivism has been an issue in South Asia for a long time which could be understood by its rich history of visibility. Though gender expressions have been socially recognized on the subcontinent since the Vedic era, their prevalence in social structures has been limited. The evidence of restricted transgender practices could be witnessed in India during the British administration when they were not allowed to move freely and were punished severely on account of free expression. It delimited the position of transgenders in society and led to the implementation of The Criminal Tribes Act which classifies transgender people as a “criminal tribe”. Apart from this, transgender people were mocked and subjected to cruel treatment under the British administration which impacted their position and inclusion in mainstream society. 

The present research thereby focuses on gender non-binary inclusion in school textbooks and curricula to create gender-inclusive education. It will help in developing and promoting a safe and secure environment for all genders irrespective of their trans, non-binary, and Queer identities. It includes using these school curricula as a powerful medium to teach children different concepts, traditions, and cultural heritage. The research includes a critical approach and a mixed-method approach combining both qualitative and quantitative data. In order to do this, this study also adopted an interview protocol which was developed by the researcher to investigate the need of creating a gender-inclusive curriculum by introducing non-binary characters in the school curriculum

Ankita Sharma
M.A. English Literature, M.Ed, Delhi Board of School Education, New Delhi

[1] Asongu, S., Nnanna, J., & Acha-Anyi, P. (2020). Inclusive education for inclusive economic participation: the financial access channel. Gender in Management: An International Journal, 35(5), 481-503. 

[2] Bakker, M. (2018). Getting into the Schwing of Things: Hunter x Hunter’s Progressive Gender Depictions and Exploration of Non-Binary Possibilities (Doctoral dissertation, Open Access Te Herenga Waka-Victoria University of Wellington).

[3] Brill, S., & Kenney, L. (2016). The transgender teen. Cleis Press.

[4] Broomfield, Alyssa. “An Introduction to Creating Gender Inclusive Classrooms.” 

[5] Clarke, Sarah. “Creating Gender-Inclusive Classrooms for Students of All Genders.” (2016). 4. Crawley, Stephen Adam. “Be who you are: Exploring representations of transgender children in picturebooks.” Journal of Children’s Literature 43.2 (2017): 28-41. 

[6] Cutler, B., Adams, M., & Jenkins, L. (2022). Working towards LGBTIQ-inclusive education: perceptions of pre-service teachers’ comfort and emotional experience. Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education, 50(3), 295-310. 

[7] De Shutter, O., Lemmens, P., Kukova, S., Sturma, P., Olsen, B. K., Bielefeldt, H., … & Harris, D. (2009). Homophobia and discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation in the EU Member States. Part I-Legal analysis. Publications Office of the European Union. 

[8] Drescher, J., Byne, W. (2012). Gender dysphoric/gender variant (GD/GV) children and adolescents: Summarizing what we know and what we have yet to learn. Journal of Homosexuality. 59(3), 501-510 

[9] Ellis, S. J., Peel, E., & Riggs, D. W. (2019). Lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans, intersex, and queer psychology: An introduction. Cambridge University Press. 

[10] Erickson-Schroth L. (Ed.) Trans bodies, trans selves: A resource for the transgender community (2014). New York: Oxford University Press. 

[11] Grant, R., Nash, M., & Hansen, E. (2020). What does inclusive sexual and reproductive healthcare look like for bisexual, pansexual and queer women? Findings from an exploratory study from Tasmania, Australia. Culture, Health & Sexuality, 22(3), 247-260. 

[12] Gray, R., Walker, T., Hamer, J., Broady, T., Kean, J., Ling, J., & Bear, B. (2020). Developing LGBTQ programs for perpetrators and victims/survivors of domestic and family violence. Australia’s National Research Organisation for Women’s Safety.

[13] Grossman, Arnold H., and Anthony R. D’Augelli. “Transgender youth and life-threatening behaviors.” Suicide and life-threatening behavior 37.5 (2007): 527-537. 

[14] Harbin, Brielle. “Teaching beyond the gender binary in the university classroom.” Vanderbilt University Center for Teaching (2016). 

[15] Johnson, R. Burke, and Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie. “Mixed methods research: A research paradigm whose time has come.” Educational researcher 33.7 (2004): 14-26. 

[16] Knopp-Schwyn, Collin, and Michael Fracentese. “Challenges and possibilities for bisexual picturebooks.” Journal of Bisexuality 19.3 (2019): 414-439. 

[17] Lao, K. A. C., Lao, H. A., Siason, V. A., Cabangcala, R. B., Cadapan, E. D., & Alieto, E. O. (2022). Attitude towards Inclusive Education (IE) among Prospective Teachers: Is there Gender Polarization?. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SPECIAL EDUCATION, 37(3). 

[18] Lau, H. (2018). Gender recognition as a human right. The Cambridge Handbook on New Human Rights: Recognition, Novelty, Rhetoric (edited by Andreas von Arnauld, Kerstin von der Decken & Mart Susi), Forthcoming., UNC Legal Studies Research Paper. 

[19] Macbeth, A. J. (2022). Non-binary individuals’ experiences of gender dysphoria: A phenomenological exploration (Doctoral dissertation, Iowa State University). 

[20] Miroiu, Mihaela. “Guidelines for Promoting Gender-Inclusive Curriculum in Higher Education.” UNESCO-CEPES (2011): 229. 

[21] Mouchritsa, M., Romero, A., Garay, U., & Kazanopoulos, S. (2022). Teachers’ Attitudes towards Inclusive Education at Greek Secondary Education Schools. Education Sciences, 12(6), 404. 20. 

[22] Ong, F., Vorobjovas-Pinta, O., & Lewis, C. (2022). LGBTIQ+ identities in tourism and leisure research: A systematic qualitative literature review. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 30(7), 1476-1499.

[23] Russell, S. T., et al. “Gender nonconformity and school safety: Documenting the problem and steps schools can take.” California Safe Schools Coalition Research Brief 12 (2010). 

[24] Sherer, I., M.D., Baum, J., M.S., Ehrensaft, D., P.H.D., & Rosenthal, S. M., M.D. (2015). Affirming gender: Caring for gender atypical children and adolescents. Contemporary Pediatrics, 32(1), 16-19. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1655129753?accountid=1477 

[25] Slee, R. (2018). Inclusive education: from policy to school implementation. In Towards inclusive schools? (pp. 30-41). Routledge. 

[26] Smith, J. J., Jas, Y., Tolu, L., Tolu, M., McCarthy, K., Janib, A., … & Simms, D. (2020). Non-Binary lives: an anthology of intersecting identities. Jessica Kingsley Publishers.

[27] Teich, N. M. (2012). Transgender 101: A simple guide to a complex issue. New York: Columbia University Press. 

Sharma A. (2023). Creating Gender Inclusive Education: An Exploratory Study to Eradicate Homophobia and Stigma Through the Introduction of Non-Binary Genders in Mainstream Curriculum. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law, 3(2), 4048-4081.