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Working Women are the Future of India

Ayush Soni and Sonali Mishra
Volume 1, Issue 3
08 January 2021
Page No.: 1027-1053

Women are the steering wheel of the Indian economy and it could be considered that they are the creators and controllers of this universe. They are contributing to the Indian economy from even before independence but in the recent scenario, their participation rate is declining. To highlight the issue, “Female labour force participation rate is showing a downward trend”, the authors of this paper address the factors affecting FLFPR and they believe that, “Working women are the future of India” which is the hypothesis of this paper. This paper contains the problems and challenges faced by the women of our country which limits them from stepping out of their homes. An analysis of every required section has also been discussed by the authors.

Ayush Soni
Bcom Hons, Shri Ram College of Commerce, University of Delhi, India
Sonali Mishra
M.A. Financial Economics, University of Hyderabad

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[2] Bera, S. (2020, November 12). The price of pandemic is being paid by women. Mint.

[3] Choudhary, P. K. (2020, August 27). 10 Barriers In The Way Of Women’s Participation In The Labour Force. 

[4] ICT Industry’s Reaction on Union Budget 2020-21. (2020, February 4). Digital Terminal. 

[5] India CSR Network. (2020, November 10). More Women in the Workforce can help Boost Indian Economy.

[6] International Labour Organization, & Verick, S. (2014). Women’s labour force participation in India: Why is it so low? International Labour Organization.

[7] Jain, S. (2020, October 5). STEM and the digital economy for women. ORF. 

[8] Jain, S. A. S. K. V. (2020, March 8). Women’s participation in labour market reflects a declining trend. Hindustan Times. 

[9] Kool Kanya. (2019, June). Tipping the Balance: The Call for an Equal Workplace for Women.

[10] Krishnan, D. (2020, May 15). As India advances, women’s workforce participation plummets. Strategy+business. 

[11] Li, C. (2019, March 28). Falling Female Labor Force Participation in China and India. Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco.

[12] M. (2020a, August 16). Out-of-school children likely to double in India due to coronavirus. Mint. 

[13] M. (n.d.). Communications materials. United Nations Sustainable Development. Retrieved January 7, 2021.

[14] Menon, S., Tomy, D., & Kumar, A. (2019). Female work and Labour Force Participation in India. Sattva Consulting.

[15] Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of India. (2020). Data Snapshot on SDG National Indicator Framework Progress Report 2020 (version 2.1). Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation. 

[16] Ministry of Statistics & Programme Implementation. (2020, November). Payroll Reporting in India: An Employment Perspective – September, 2020.

[17] Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation. (2020, July). Household Social Consumption on Education in India (NSS Report No. 585(75/25.2/1)).

[18] Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation. (2020a, June). Periodic Labour Force Survey (PLFS) – Annual Report [July, 2018 – June, 2019].

[19] Mondal, B., Ghosh, J., Chakraborty, S., & Mitra, S. (2018, March). Women workers in India. Centre for Sustainable Employment Azim Premji University. 

[20] Niti Aayog. (2018, December). SDG India Index Baseline Report 2018. 

[21] P. (2020b, February 2). Govt increases Digital India Program fund by 23% to Rs 3,958 crore. The Economic Times. 

[22] Pande, R. (2020, February 14). The budget relegated women’s economic participation to secondary importance. The Indian Express. 

[23] Pandey, M. N. (2020, March 5). Skill her, skill India: Policy must enable every woman to achieve her potential. The Indian Express. 

[24] R, S. (2019, August 1). Indian women are leaving the w

[25] S., R. (2018, November 13). Indian girls’ aspirations brush up against reality. Mint. 

[26] S, R. (2019, June 10). India’s workforce is masculinizing rapidly. Mint. 

[27] T. (2020c, February 1). Share of women in labour force continues to drop. The Times of India. 

[28] Walia, A. (2019, July 31). Are Household Responsibilities Holding Women Back From Participating In The Workforce? Youth Ki Awaaz. 

Soni, A., & Mishra, S. (2020). Working Women are the Future of India. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law1(3), 1027–1053.

Impact of Witch-Hunting on Feminism and Legitimacy of Donald Trump’s Politics

Anjani Chadha and Lakshita Narang
Volume 1, Issue 3
06 Feburary 2021
Page No.: 1054-1074

The practice of witchcraft has existed all over the world for centuries. During the 1650s, the Puritans branded female spiritual leaders as witches who needed to be exterminated. Even today, contemporary witch hunts exist where women hold positions of power in the patriarchal society. These powerful women can be politicians, journalists, artists, or rebels etc. They are subjected to public shaming, the cultivation of guilt, isolation, and even sexual violence and molestation in many cases.
Feminism, as mentioned by Charlotte Bunch (1984) is not adding in women’s rights but instead a form of transformational politics which states that every single issue can be seen differently from a woman’s perspective. Kate Millett (1970) in Sexual Politics further states that every avenue of power in the society is entirely in male hands which tends to have a significant impact on the politics of power. This further calls for the advent of Feminism in the given social order. Feminism as a theory can be studied in different contexts but wholly assails a social transformation that strives for an end to the oppression of women.


The contemporary prevalence of rampant witch-hunting can be visualized in Trump-ruled-US. Donald Trump’s presidency since January 20th , 2017 has targeted women from various walks of life and has been constantly attacking feminism, women’s rights, identity, and women’s agency in society. Counter to which, the US has been witnessing growth in the number of women’s marches and feminist organizations, resulting in a widespread movement against the whole practice of witch-hunting as called by Donald Trump and his presidency.
As mentioned by Christina Larner (1984), given the history of witch-hunting and its subsequent transformation and proliferation into eventual ‘women hunting’, makes it an attack on feminism as in the current political spectrum in the USA. The given paper, therefore, aims to study the research gap in the field of feminism and witch-hunting via ethnographic secondary research of the growth of NGOs and Feminist organizations in the US after 2017 and carefully analysing the women marches carried out against Donald Trump’s Presidency.

Anjani Chadha
Multimedia and Mass Communication, Indraprastha College for Women, University of Delhi, India
Lakshita Narang
Multimedia and Mass Communication, Indraprastha College for Women, University of Delhi, India

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[2] Ball, M. (2018, October 18). Donald Trump Didn’t Really Win 52% of White Women in 2016. Retrieved January 14, 2021, from 


[3] Birnbaum, M. (2019, May 6). Brew. Retrieved September 10, 2019, from 


[4] Cassese, E. C., & Holman, M. R. (2018). Playing the Woman Card: Ambivalent Sexism in the 2016 U.S. Presidential Race. Political Psychology, 40(1), 55–74. 


[5] Cassese, E. (2018, October 31). A political history of the term “witch hunt.” Retrieved September 10, 2019, from 


[6] Chait, J. (2016, July 22). Donald Trump Is Bidding to Transform the GOP Into a White-Identity-Politics Party. Retrieved January 14, 2021, from    


[7] Coaston, J. (2019, May 28). Intersectionality explained: meet Kimberlé Crenshaw, who coined the term. Retrieved September 10, 2019, from -gender-discrimination 


[8] Coleman, A. L. (2019, March 28). What’s Intersectionality? Let These Scholars Explain the Theory and Its History. Retrieved September 10, 2019, from 


[9] Déclaration de sentiments et Résolutions, adoptées par la Convention sur les droits de la femme à Seneca Falls, 19 au 20 juillet 1848. (n.d.). Elizabeth Cady Stanton. Naissance Du Féminisme Américain à Seneca Falls, 105–110. doi:10.4000/books.enseditions.4370


[10] DeMello, M. (2009). Feet and Footwear: A Cultural Encyclopedia. Retrieved from    


[11] Donald J. Trump on Twitter [Twitter]. Retrieved September 10, 2019, from 


[12] Doyle, S. (2019, August 21). Monsters, men and magic: why feminists turned to witchcraft to oppose Trump. Retrieved September 10, 2019, from   


[13] Fahrenthold, D. A. (2016, October 8). Trump recorded while having extremely lewd conversation about women in 2005. Retrieved September 10, 2019, from 776-8cb 4-11e6-bf8a-3d26847eeed4_story.html%3f  


[14] Field, J. B. (2018, October 30). This Is Not a Witch Hunt. Retrieved September 10, 2019, from Godbeer, R. (2013). Witchcraft in British America (pp. 393-411). March, UK: Oxford University Press. 


[15] Goodare, J. (1998). Women and the Witch-Hunt in Scotland. Social History, 23(3), 288-308. Retrieved January 11, 2021, from 


[16] Goodare, J. (2016). The European witch-hunt. London: Routledge. How “Nasty Woman” Became A Viral Call For Solidarity. Retrieved September 10, 2019, from     


[17] Keller, R. S., Ruether, R. R., & Cantlon, M. (2006). Encyclopedia of women and religion in North America. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.


[18] Knowles, E. D., & Tropp, L. R. (2020, November 20). Donald Trump and the rise of white identity in politics. Retrieved January 14, 2021, from 


[19] Larner, C. (1984). Witchcraft and Religion: The Politics of Popular Belief. New York, USA: Blackwell.


[20] Lawler, D. (2015, September 10). Trump on Fiorina: “Look at that face. Would anyone vote for that?” Retrieved September 10, 2019, from 


[21] Lee, J., & Lim, Y. (2016, September 21). Gendered campaign tweets: The cases of Hillary Clinton and Donald Trump. Retrieved January 14, 2021, from 


[22] Lozada, C. (2015, August 5). Donald Trump on women, sex, marriage and feminism. Retrieved September 11, 2019, from   


[23] Lusher, A. (2016, October 9). Donald Trump: all the sexist things he said. Retrieved September 10, 2019, from 


[24] Mahdawi, A. (2018, February 9). This is what rape culture looks like – in the words of Donald Trump. Retrieved September 10, 2019, from 


[25] Martosko, D. (2015, April 18). Hillary Clinton “can’t satisfy her husband” tweet on Donald Trump’s Twitter. Retrieved September 10, 2019, from   


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[27] Newport, F., & Saad, L. (2019, May 24). Seven in 10 Women Have Unfavorable Opinion of Trump. Retrieved September 10, 2019, from 


[28] Perez, C. C. (2020). INVISIBLE WOMEN: Data bias in a world designed for men. New York: Harry N Abrams. Retrieved January 14, 2021.


[29] Relman, E. (2019, June 21). The 22 women who have accused Trump of sexual misconduct. Retrieved September 10, 2019, from   


[30] Reinstein, J. (2016, October 20). Women Are Reclaiming Their “Nastiness” After Trump Called Clinton “Nasty” During The Debate. Retrieved September 10, 2019, from 


[31] Romansky, S. (2020, August 26). On Memes and Men: How Gendered Memes Influenced Trump’s 2016 Election Legitimacy. Retrieved January 14, 2021, from 


[32] Rosen, Maggie (2017) “A Feminist Perspective on the History of Women as Witches,” Dissenting Voices: Vol. 6 : Iss. 1 , Article 5. Available at: 


[33] Schoen, J. W. (2018, August 1). Trump is tweeting “witch hunt” a lot more than he used to, as Mueller probe grinds on and Manafort goes on trial. Retrieved September 10, 2019, from   


[34] Sollée, K. J. (2017). Witches, Sluts, Feminists: Conjuring the Sex Positive. Berkley, CA: ThreeL Media.


[35] Stone, M. (2019, February 20). Conservative Christians Claim Ocasio-Cortez Is A Witch Leading Attack Against Trump. Retrieved September 10, 2019, from 


[36] Tumulty, K. (2016, October 14). Woman says Trump reached under her skirt and groped her in the early 1990s. Retrieved September 10, 2019, from    


[37] Twohey, M., & Barbaro, M. (2016, October 13). Two Women Say Donald Trump Touched Them Inappropriately. Retrieved September 10, 2019, from 


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[39] Weber, K.M., Dejmanee, T. & Rhode, F. (2018). The 2017 Women’s March on Washington: An Analysis of Protest-Sign Messages. International Journal of Communication. 


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Chadha, A., & Narang, L. (2020). Impact of Witch-Hunting on Feminism and Legitimacy of Donald Trump’s Politics. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law1(3), 1054–1074.

A Critique of the Agrarian Policies under Neoliberalism: Reasons for Agrarian Distress in the Current Indian Context

Nishat Anjum
Volume 1, Issue 3
07 Feburary 2021
Page No.: 1075-1088

The National Agricultural Policy of the Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India (2000), said: “Agriculture has become a relatively unrewarding profession due to a generally unfavourable price regime and low-value addition, causing abandoning of farming and increasing migration from rural areas. The situation is likely to be exacerbated further in the wake of integration of agricultural trade in the global system, unless immediate corrective measures are taken.” Throughout the course of this essay, we examine the agrarian crisis in India in the neoliberal era i.e. the impact on land holdings, credit availability, pricing policy etc. We also discuss the impact of such policies on both farmers and agricultural labourers with some focus on female agricultural workforce to capture the gender dimension.

Nishat Anjum
M.A. Economic Studies and Planning, Jawaharlal Nehru University, Delhi, India

[1] Byres, T.J. (1995). ‘Political Economy, Agrarian Question and Comparative Method’. Economic and PoliticalWeekly, 30 (10): 507–13. 


[2] Dev, S., and Rao, N. (2010). Agricultural Price Policy, Farm Profitability and Food Security. Economic and Political Weekly, 45(26/27), 174-182. 


[3] Harriss-White, B. (2008). Rural Commercial Capital. Agricultural Markets inWest Bengal. New Delhi: Oxford University Press. 


[4] Harriss-White, B. (2010). ‘Local Capitalism and the Foodgrains Economy in Northern Tamil Nadu, 1973–2010’, Paper submitted to MIDS, Chennai, for theWorking Paper series,   


[5] Kumar, S et al. (2020). “Agricultural wages in India: trends and determinants”, Agricultural Economics Research Review 2020, 33 (1), 71-79. DOI: 10.5958/0974-0279.2020.00008.7 


[6] Lerche, J (2013). “The Agrarian Question in Neoliberal India:Agrarian Transition Bypassed?”, Journal of Agrarian Change, Vol. 13 No. 3, July 2013, pp. 382–404. 


[7] Mishra, D.K. (2008). ‘Structural Inequalities and Interlinked Transactions in Agrarian Markets: Results of a Field Survey’. In Reforming Indian Agriculture. Towards Employment Generation and Poverty Reduction, ed. S.K. Bhaumik, 231–68. New Delhi: SAGE Publications. 


[8] NCEUS (National Commission for Enterprises in the Unorganised Sector). (2008). A Special Programme for Marginal and Small Farmers. New Delhi: NCEUS, Government of India, (accessed 7 July 2011). 


[9] Patnaik, U. (1972). ‘Development of Capitalism in Agriculture – II’. Social Scientist, October, 1 (3): 3–19.   


[10] Patnaik, U. (1986). ‘The Agrarian Question and Development of Capitalism in India’. Economic and PoliticalWeekly, 21(18): 781–93. 


[11] Pillai, S. R. (2007). Agrarian Crisis and the Way Out. The Marxist, 23, 1–18. 


[12] Ramachandran V.K., Rawal V. (2010) The Impact of Liberalization and Globalization on India’s Agrarian Economy. In: Bowles P., Harriss J. (eds) Globalization and Labour in China and India. International Political Economy Series. 


[13] Ramachandran, V.K. et al. (2010). Socio-Economic Surveys of Three Villages in Andhra Pradesh: A Study of Agrarian Relations. New Delhi: Tulika Books. 


[14] Rawal, V. (2008). ‘Ownership Holdings of Land in Rural India: Putting the Record Straight’, Economic and Political Weekly 43(10): 43-47. 


[15] Rawal,V and Saha,P. (2015): “Women’s Employment in India: What Do Recent NSS Surveys of Employment and Unemployment Show”, Statistics on Indian Economy and Society, 2015 


[16] Suri, K. C. (2006): “Political Economy of Agrarian Distress.” Economic and Political Weekly, vol. 41, no. 16, 2006, pp. 


[17] Varshney, A (1998): “Democracy, Development and countryside”, Cambridge studies in comparative politics, Cambridge University Press.   


[18] Yoshifumi, U (2011): “A Note on Recent Trends in Wage Rates in Rural India,” Review of Agrarian Studies, vol. 1, no. 1 


Anjum, N. (2020). A Critique of the Agrarian Policies under Neoliberalism: Reasons for Agrarian Distress in the Current Indian Context. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law1(3), 1075–1088.

The Changing Dynamics between Israel and the Arab World: An Analysis through the Realist Lens

Vrinda Sahai and Aastha Tiwari
Volume 1, Issue 3
07 Feburary 2021
Page No.: 1089-1102

The relationships of the Middle-East, within itself and with the rest of the globe, has come to now be broken into multitudinous strands, leaving the footprints of their past upon the upcoming platters for collaboration. This paper attempts to understand their various dynamics of these relations in the specific context of Israel and the Arab World, who have come to occupy the main stage in terms of conflicts and instability that persist in the region. It presents an analytical perspective upon the centuries-old areas of dissension and subsequently leads to the global and regional endeavours for cooperation. It then goes on to critically scrutinize the recent and imperative deal made between both the parties and accords the realist lens to the same to be able to provide a study in this field of international relations. The paper shall conclude with proving how the deal stands to be of benefit and bookend the catastrophic nature of these relationships that have reached a stage where there can be no returns made.

Vrinda Sahai
B.A. Hons. Political Science, Lady Shri Ram College for Women, University of Delhi
Aastha Tiwari
B.A. Hons. Political Science, Lady Shri Ram College for Women, University of Delhi

[1] Brecher, M. (2017). Dynamics of the Arab-Israel conflict: Past and present, intellectual odyssey II.

[2] Cohen, E., & Musmar, F. (2020). The Israel-UAE Peace: A Preliminary Assessment (pp. 37-38, Rep.) (Karsh E., Ed.). Begin-Sadat Center for Strategic Studies. doi:10.2307/resrep26355.11

[3] Eiran, E., Joseph, U. (2013). The Arab-Israeli Wars, 1967–1973. obo in International Relations. doi: 10.1093/obo/9780199743292-0143

[4] Ferziger, J., & Bahgat, G. (2020). Israel’s Growing Ties with the Gulf Arab States. Atlantic Council. doi:10.2307/resrep26036.4

[5] Gilboa, E. (2020). The Israel-UAE Peace: A Preliminary Assessment (pp. 20-23, Rep.) (Karsh E., Ed.). Begin-Sadat Center for Strategic Studies. doi:10.2307/resrep26355.6

[6] Gold, D. (2019). The Israeli-Palestinian Impasse and Theories of Peace in International Relations. E-International Relations ISSN 2053-8626

[7] Gordon, P. (2017). (Rep.). Institute for National Security Studies. Retrieved October 29, 2020, from 

[8] Guzansky, Y. (2020). (Rep.). Institute for National Security Studies. doi:10.2307/resrep25539

[9] Itzchakov, D. (2020). The Israel-UAE Peace: A Preliminary Assessment (pp. 39-42, Rep.) (Karsh E., Ed.). Begin-Sadat Center for Strategic Studies. doi:10.2307/resrep26355.12

[10] Rai, S. (2014). What Were the Causes and Consequences of the 1948 Arab-Israeli War? E-International Relations ISSN 2053-8626

[11] Rugh, W. (1996). The Foreign Policy of the United Arab Emirates. Middle East Journal, 50(1), 57-70. Retrieved October 29, 2020, from 

[12] Shlaim, A. (1977). The Study of the Arab-Israeli Conflict. British Journal of International Studies, 3(1), 97-118. Retrieved October 30, 2020, from 

[13] Shlaim, A. The Middle East: The Origins of Arab-Israel Wars. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996, Explaining International Relations since 1945

[14] Viotti, Paul R., and Mark V. Kauppi. International Relations Theory. 5th ed. Boston: Longman, 2012.

[15] Vatikiotis, P. J. Conflict in the Middle East. London: Allen and Unwin, 1971. Walt, Stephen M. The Origins of Alliances. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1987.

Sahai, V., & Tiwari, A. (2020). The Changing Dynamics between Israel and the Arab World: An Analysis through the Realist Lens. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law1(3), 1089–1102.

'The Breaking Point of Every Man': Escaping the Retributivist Prison Paradigm

Madhav Singh
Volume 1, Issue 3
22 February 2021
Page No.: 1103-1116

The question, “who is to be respected,” seldom invites the examination of the class of imprisoned criminals as a serious answer because more people than not have become accustomed—by reason of history, religion, psychology, and/or the law—to some form of a thesis in retributivist criminal justice that says: a criminal C deserves some punishment P owing to their incurrence of any illegal act(s) A. Through this article, I wish to challenge this retributivist thesis by critically analyzing the processes of punishing the criminal—both within the prison complex and outside of it—and providing the means necessary for reconceptualizing criminal justice along the lines of transformative recognition and redistribution. To that end, the article is broadly divided into three thematic inquiries. First, I unpack the concepts of humiliation, stigma, and exclusion in the prison paradigm to comprehensively distinguish between the visible and invisible forms of punishment. Second, I address the sociological hurdle encountered when attempting to remedy this punitive paradigm, which includes the twofold issue of domain congruence and the endemic nature of humiliation. Third and finally, I explain my proposed remedy through the mechanism of bottom-up social recognition and transformative redistribution. Ultimately, what weaves the article together is the argument that there is a timely need to escape the retributivist prison paradigm in an effort to rediscover the now obscured meaning behind the sentiment of safeguarding basic human dignity for all.

Madhav Singh
B.A. Hons. Political Science, Asoka University, India

[1] Cheliotis, Leonidas K., The Sociospatial Mechanics of Domination: Transcending the ‘Exclusion/Inclusion’ Dualism. Law and Critique: The International Journal of Critical Legal Thought, Vol. 21, No. 2 (2010).

[2] Fraser, Nancy. “From Redistribution To Recognition? Dilemmas Of Justice In a ‘Post-Socialist’ Age.” New Left Review212 (1995): 68–93. Goffman, Erving. Stigma: Notes On The Management Of Spoiled Identity.

[3] Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall (1963).

[4] Guru, Gopal. Humiliation: Claims and Context. Oxford: Oxford University Press (2009).

[5] Margalit, Avishai. The Decent Society. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press (1996).

[6] Smith, J. S. Humiliation, degradation and the criminal justice system. The Journal of Primary Prevention, 12(3) (1992).

Singh, M. (2020). ‘The Breaking Point of Every Man’: Escaping the Retributivist Prison Paradigm. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law, 01(03), 1103–1116.

Green is the New Black: A Dissection of Sustainable Fashion

Aditi Verma and Ragini Beri
Volume 1, Issue 3
03 March 2021
Page No.: 1117-1150

The paper explores the multiple facets of the fashion industry and emphasizes the importance of incorporating sustainability at each level. The fashion industry has a clear opportunity to act differently, pursuing profit and growth while also including social and ethical practices in its management priorities. The paper will look at the controversies around greenwashing, foul labour practices and provide an insight into the gloomy world of fast fashion and how it is deteriorating the environment ecologically as well as ethically. To get an idea of behavioural trends and fashion acumen of the masses, a case study has been compiled with a data set of 200 people. Further comparative analysis was drawn between fast fashion and slow fashion to spread awareness and promote conscious-driven shopping. The paper establishes an awareness drive and elucidates the need to shift to an environment-friendly path which can be achieved through thrift shopping, making informed decisions, encouraging charity, workshops by entrepreneurs, designers on how to incorporate sustainability and upcycle old clothes, and how the government can play an active role in spreading awareness about the ill effects of fast fashion and incentivise sustainable homegrown brands. As the process of producing a garment is stepwise, this paper recommends setting up a regulatory body to regulate the activities from harvesting to the point when the cloth reaches the warehouse making sure that pollution, energy loss, foul labour practices are minimised.

Aditi Verma
Lady Shri Ram College for Women, University of Delhi,

Ragini Beri
India  School of Economics, Hyderabad, India

[1] Alexander, E. (2019, April 22). Introducing circular fashion: the shopping concept that could save the planet. Harper’s BAZAAR.

[2] Beall, A. (2020). Why clothes are so hard to recycle. BBC Future.

[3] Better Cotton Initiative. (n.d.). Better Cotton Initiative. Retrieved 2020, from.

[4] Brown, C. (2019, July 29). Is Locally Made Better? Good On You.

[5] Chan, E. (2019, November 15). What actually happens to your clothes when you recycle them? Vogue India.

[6] Deka, K. (2017, August 11). National fabric: Once a swadeshi weapon, Khadi is now a growing industry in India. India Today.

[7] Donato, J. (2018, March 9). Why Fast Fashion is Killing the Planet and Your Ethics. Culture Trip.

[8] Don’t Buy This Jacket, Black Friday and the New York Times. (n.d.). Patagonia.  

[9] Duque Schumacher, A. G., Pequito, S., & Pazour, J. (2020). Industrial hemp fiber: A sustainable and economical alternative to cotton. Journal of Cleaner Production, 268, 122180.  

[10] Ellen Macarthur Foundation & Circular Fibres Initiative. (2017, May). A-New-Textiles-Economy_Full-Report.pdf. Ellen Macarthur Foundation.

[11] Express Web Desk. (2016, August 26). Forget leather, Pinatex is here to rule: Alternative made from pineapple leaves is ruling fashion world. The Indian Express. bstitute-philippines-carmen-hijosa-2997473/  

[12] Farra, E. (2020, November 17). The 2021 International Woolmark Prize Will Focus on Sustainability and Supply Chain Innovations—Meet the Six Finalists Here. Vogue.

[13] Fox, M. (2020, November 3). 10 Slow Fashion Brands Committed To Sustainability. Forbes. 

[14] George, D. K. (2020, December 9). Here are some easy green gifting ideas for an inclusive, sustainable future. YourStory.Com .  

[15] Grant, K. (2020, November 16). Primark, H&M, and Nike are under pressure to pay factory workers after “cancelling orders.” Inews.Co.Uk.  

[16] Gupta, G. (2020, February 14). Sustainable Fashion Day at Lakmé Fashion Week S/R 2020: All the highlights. Vogue India.

[17] H&M foundation. (2017). Trend Report: Future of Sustainable Fashion |Accenture. Accenture.  

[18] Conversion-Assets/DotCom/Documents/Global/PDF/Consulting/Accenture-HM-Glob al-Change-Award-Report.pdf Hill, M. (2018a, July 27). How Can You Tell When A Fashion Brand Is Greenwashing? Good On You.

[19] Hill, M. (2018b, July 27). How To Buy Less, Choose Well and Make it Last. Good On You.

[20] Hope, K. (2016, February 5). How social media is transforming the fashion industry. BBC News.  

[21] How Much Do Our Wardrobes Cost to the Environment? (2019, September 23). World Bank.  

[22] Hymann, Y. (2019, August 2). Material Guide: How Ethical Is Cotton? Good On You.  

[23] Hymann, Y. (2020, October 21). Material Guide: How Sustainable is Hemp Fabric? Good On You.  

[24] Idacavage, S. (2018, October 17). Fashion History Lesson: The Origins of Fast Fashion. Fashionista.

[25] Joy, A., & Peña, C. (2017). Sustainability and the Fashion Industry: Conceptualizing Nature and Traceability. Sustainability in Fashion, 31–54.

[26] Khanna, J. M. (2020, January 10). Why khadi is one of the most sustainablefabrics to consider right now. Vogue India.

[27] Kuriakose, S. (2020, July 1). The price of conscious fashion. India Today. 020-06-27

[28] Lieber, C. (2018, April 27). Fashion’s copycat problem: why brands like Zara get away with rip-offs. Vox.

[29] McKinsey & Company. (2020). The State of fashion 2020.

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[31] Moulds, J. (n.d.). Child labour in the fashion supply chain. The Guardian.

[32] Patriot Act. (2019, November 25). The Ugly Truth Of Fast Fashion | Patriot Act with Hasan Minhaj | Netflix [Video]. YouTube.

[33] Ponsford, M. C. (2020, September 18). Future design: What “living” clothes can do to absorb carbon emissions. CNN.

[34] Rauturier, S. (2017, June 19). The Hidden Costs of Leather. Good On You.  

[35] Rauturier, S. (2020, May 10). What Is Fast Fashion? Good On You.  

[36] Ross, G. (2019, August 27). Australia recycles paper and plastics. So why does clothing end up in landfill? The Guardian.,the%2094m%20kg%20exported%20overseas  

[37] Roy, L. D. (2018, August 28). Lakme Fashion Week 2018: Indian Fashion Is
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[39] Schiro, A. (1989, December 31). Fashion; Two New Stores That Cruise Fashion’s Fast Lane. The New York Times.  

[40] Shurvell, J. (2019, December 12). Sustainable Fashion Brands Dominate London Fashion Week. Forbes. ominate-london-fashion-week/?sh=9bc8a1710aeb  

[41] Skeldon, P. (2019, October 16). Social influencers have led to the rise in fast fashion, with 30% of shoppers using Instagram for inspiration. InternetRetailing.

[42] SOMO – Centre for Research on Multinational Corporations & ICN – India Committee of the Netherlands. (2014, October). FlawedFabrics. Indianet.

[43] Štefko, R., & Steffek, V. (2018). Key Issues in Slow Fashion: CurrentChallenges and Future Perspectives. Sustainability, 10(7), 2270.  

[44] The costly environmental impact of fast fashion. (2020, March 21). Power Over Energy.,all%20international%20flights%20AND%20shipping.&text=Water%20pollution%2C%20the%20use%20of,textile%20waste%20are%20top%20concerns

[45] Top 5 challenges for designers to create sustainable fashion. (2018). Top 5 Challenges for Designers to Create Sustainable Fashion.  

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[ 47United Nations. (2018). Fashion Industry charter for Climate Action. Fashion Industry charter for Climate Action.  

[48] Uren, A. (2018, September 17). What is polyester? Material Guide, Ethics and
Sustainability. Good On You. 

Verma A., & Beri R. (2021). Green is the New Black: A Dissection of Sustainable Fashion. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law, 1(3), 1117–1150.

The Dilemma of Being Themselves: A Psycho-Economic Insight into the Difficulties faced by the Transgender Community

Madhvi Khurana and Shreya Seth
Volume 1, Issue 3
05 March 2021
Page No.: 1151-1179

The transgender community has been a part of society since the beginning but is, to this date, systematically discriminated against and face various hurdles that lower their quality of living. This paper aims to shed some light on the economic and psychological difficulties faced by the transgender population. To do this, second-hand data was extracted from existing literature, case studies, news articles, and government documents. It was found that problems such as employment disparities and lack of equal opportunities are rampant. There is a high cost, implicit as well as explicit, that comes with transitioning. As for psychological repercussions, self-harm, anxiety, and depression are reported. Substance abuse is at par with the cisgender population but has underlying factors that contribute to it. Internalized transphobia and falling out with loved ones are major issues for the trans community but at the same time, personal growth flourishes if they are afforded support.

Madhvi Khurana
College of Vocational Studies, University of Delhi, India

Shreya Seth
Mehr Chand Mahajan DAV College for Women, Panjab University, Chandigarh, India

[1] American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 5th Edition. (DSM-V) Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association; 2013. pp. 451–60.

[2] Ansara, Y. G., & Hegarty, P. (2012). Cisgenderism in psychology: pathologising and misgendering children from 1999 to 2008. Psychology and Sexuality, 3(2), 137–160.

[3] Aron, S. A. (2020, January 27). Transgenders and employment in India: Opening doors of opportunities for Transgenders.   Https://Www.Indiatoday.In.

[4] Barriers to Health Care for Transgender Individuals. (2017). Barriers to Health Care for Transgender Individuals, 168–171.

[5] Bockting, W. O., Miner, M. H., Swinburne Romine, R. E., Dolezal, C., Robinson, B. “. B. ”. E., Rosser, B. R. S., & Coleman, E. (2020). The Transgender Identity Survey: A Measure of Internalized Transphobia. LGBT Health, 7(1), 15–27.

[6] Bouman, W. P., Claes, L., Brewin, N., Crawford, J. R., Millet, N., Fernandez-Aranda, F., & Arcelus, J. (2016). Transgender and anxiety: A comparative study between transgender people and the general population. International Journal of Transgenderism, 18(1), 16–26.

[7] Butler, C., Joiner, R., Bradley, R., Bowles, M., Bowes, A., Russell, C., & Roberts, V. (2019). Self-harm prevalence and ideation in a community sample of cis, trans and other youth. International Journal of Transgenderism, 20(4), 447–458., N., & Garland, J. (2009). Hate Crime: Impact, Causes and Responses (1st ed.). SAGE Publications Ltd. pp. 77

[8] Coleman, E., Bockting, et al. (2012). Standards of Care for the Health of Transsexual, Transgender, and Gender-Nonconforming People, Version 7. International Journal of Transgenderism, 13(4), 165–232.

[9] Coulter, R. W. S., Blosnich, J. R., Bukowski, L. A., Herrick, A. L., Siconolfi, D. E., & Stall, R. D. (2015). Differences in alcohol use and alcohol-related problems between transgender- and nontransgender-identified young adults. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 154, 251–259.

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[11] Gilbert, P. A., Pass, L. E., Keuroghlian, A. S., Greenfield, T. K., & Reisner, S. L. (2018). Alcohol research with transgender populations: A systematic review and recommendations to strengthen future studies. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 186, 138–146.

[12] Gupta, Murarka. (2009, July). Treating transsexuals in India: History, prerequisites for surgery and legal issues. Https://Www.Ncbi.Nlm.Nih.Gov.

[13] Gupta, S., Imborek, K. L., & Krasowski, M. D. (2016). Challenges in Transgender Healthcare: The Pathology Perspective. Laboratory Medicine, 47(3), 180–188.

[14] Hansell, J. H., & Damour, L. K. (2008). Abnormal Psychology (2nd ed.). John Wiley & Sons. pp. 394-402

[15] Meyer, I. H. (2003). Prejudice, social stress, and mental health in lesbian, gay, and bisexual populations: Conceptual issues and research evidence. Psychological Bulletin, 129(5), 674–697.

[16] Naik, N. N. (2019). Transgenderism in India: Insights from the current census. Http://Paa2019.Populationassociation.Org/

[17] National Center for TRANSGENDER EQUALITY, & James, Herman, Rankin, Keisling, Mottet, Anafi. (2016, December). THE REPORT OF U.S. TRANSGENDER SURVEY

[18] Navtej Singh Johar & Ors. v. Union of India. Writ Petition (Criminal) No. 76 of 2016,  Supreme Court of India. Published September 2018.

[19] Olson, K. R., Durwood, L., DeMeules, M., & McLaughlin, K. A. (2016). Mental Health of Transgender Children Who Are Supported in Their Identities. Paediatrics, 137(3), e20153223.

[20] People’s Union for Civil Liberties. (2001). A Report of PUCL-Karnataka (February 2001)

[21] Puckett, J. A., & Levitt, H. M. (2015). Internalized Stigma Within Sexual and Gender Minorities: Change Strategies and Clinical Implications. Journal of LGBT Issues in Counseling, 9(4), 329–349.

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[24] Sawant, N. S. (2017). Transgender: Status in India. Annals of Indian Psychiatry, 1(2), 59.

[25] Scandurra, C., Bochicchio, V., Amodeo, A., Esposito, C., Valerio, P., Maldonato, N., Bacchini, D., & Vitelli, R. (2018). Internalized Transphobia, Resilience, and Mental Health: Applying the Psychological Mediation Framework to Italian Transgender Individuals. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 15(3), 508.

[26] Sethi, S. S. (2018). Transgender Health and Their Rights in India. Transgender Health and Their Rights in India, 282–283.

[27] Singh, B. (2019). The Plight of Transgender in Laxmi Narayan Tripathi’s Red Lipstick. Journal of Information and Computational Science, 9(11), 1–9.

[28] Soumya, E. Z. (2014, May 18). Indian transgender healthcare challenges. Https://Www.Aljazeera.Com

[29] The Transgender Persons (Protection of Rights) Act, 2019. Published December 2019

[30] Thoma, B. C., Salk, R. H., Choukas-Bradley, S., Goldstein, T. R., Levine, M. D., & Marshal, M. P. (2019). Suicidality Disparities Between Transgender and Cisgender Adolescents. Paediatrics, 144(5), e20191183.

[31] Tripathi, L. N., & Pande, P. (2016). Red Lipstick: The Men in My Life (HB). Viking.

[32] Virupaksha, H. G., Muralidhar, D., & Ramakrishna, J. (2016). Suicide and Suicidal Behavior among Transgender Persons. Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine, 38(6), 505–509.

[33] Wikipedia contributors. (2020, December 28). Cisgender. Wikipedia.,opposite%20of%20the%20word%20transgender.

[34] Witcomb, G. L., Bouman, W. P., Claes, L., Brewin, N., Crawford, J. R., & Arcelus, J. (2018). Levels of depression in transgender people and its predictors: Results of a large matched control study with transgender people accessing clinical services. Journal of Affective Disorders, 235, 308–315.

Khurana M., & Seth S. (2021). The Dilemma of Being Themselves: A Psycho-Economic Insight into the Difficulties faced by the Transgender Community. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law, 1(3), 1151–1179.

Socio-Economic Origins of School Dropouts in Rural India

Sukanya Mahalanabis and Sreejita Acharya
Volume 1, Issue 3
05 March 2021
Page No.: 1180-1196

Education means enabling a student to gain knowledge and wisdom in order to lead a better life. Overall, 69% per cent of females and 85% of males age 6 and over have ever attended school. The rate of dropouts in rural areas is comparatively more than urban areas. Boys and girls in Indian schools leave school education incomplete giving rise to the sensitive issue of school dropouts. The present study (review study) identifies reasons forcing Indian students to drop out of school and presents different variables responsible for it. The study has emphasised connecting this paper with SDG-4 and provided some recommendations. The data has been extracted from the National Family Health and Survey (NFHS 4). While the school dropout rate remains consistently high for boys, it is noteworthy and rather comforting to know that girls depict a low dropout rate. The present study identifies the reasons for dropouts such as lack of interest in studies, the domestic contribution of children for household chores, economic reasons and migration of families. The study paints a picture of helpless school-going children and the effort to minimise school dropout rates which are in the hands of all the responsible citizens in India.

Sukanya Mahalanabis
Indian Institute of Social Welfare & Business Management, Kolkata, India

Sreejita Acharya
Indian Institute of Social Welfare & Business Management, Kolkata, India

A Study of School Dropouts in India: Sensitivity at Display. (2019). A Study of School Dropouts in India: Sensitivity at Display, 6–23.

A Study on the Dropout Problem of Primary Education in Uttar Dinajpur District, West Bengal. (2015). SSRN, 4–30.

Achieving SDG 4 in India: Moving from Quantity to Quality Education for All. (2018). RIS-DP # 232, 5–18.

Bharadwaj, P., Lakdawala, L. K., & Li, N. (2019). Perverse consequences of well intentioned regulation: Evidence from India’s child labor ban. (2019). Journal of the European Economic Association., 6–23. Director’s Report 2016-2017. (2016, Spring).

Dropout in Secondary Education: A Study of Children Living in Slums of Delhi. (2011). Nuepa, 7–30.

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Dropouts or pushouts? Overcoming barriers to the Right to Education. (2010). PTA 40Affiliation: Consortium for Educational Access, Transitions and Equity (CREATE) & NUEPA, 2–16.

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Factors Leading to School Dropouts in India: An Analysis of National Family Health Survey-3 Data. (2014). International Journal of Research & Method in Education, 75–77.

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Impact of Socio-Economic Background on School Dropout Rates in Rural India. (2015). Journal of Educational Planning and Administration, 2–10.

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It makes more sense to educate a boy”: Girls ‘against the odds’ in Kajiado, Kenya. (2012). International Journal of Educational Development, 3–7.

Journal of Applied Linguistics and Language Research. (2019). Journal of Applied Linguistics and Language Research, 4–19.

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Reducing Out of School Children in India: Lessons from a Micro Study. (2010). Delhi School of Economics, 5–10.

Mahalanabis S., & Acharya S. (2021). Socio-Economic Origins of School Dropouts in Rural India. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law, 1(3), 1180–1196.

Marital Rape: A Felony Without Substantial Legal Consequences

Ishita Goel and Deveshi Sanmotra
Volume 1, Issue 3
05 March 2021
Page No.: 1197-1208

Marital Rape is a crime that continues to persist behind the four walls of the house. The underreporting due to the social norms is a pity. But how does a woman report to the police when the law itself is shielding this heinous crime? The revelation of the enormous rise in domestic violence cases during the lockdown compelled us to conduct this research. The essay gives an overview of how a large proportion of women are denied their fundamental rights. It briefly presents a few marital rape cases, while stating the take of different countries on this matter. The remedies that the aggrieved married women have are also explained concisely. At last, the research provides its suggestions, concluding on a positive note hoping that at least the judiciary would come in and take the required actions. It is expected from the justice provider to give justice to all the women who have been grieving for way too long for their basic rights.

Ishita Goel
St.Mark’s Senior Secondary School, Meera Bagh, Delhi, India

Deveshi Sanmotra
St. Mark’s Senior Secondary School, Meera Bagh, Delhi, India

Bhandare, Namita. “The Conversation India Refuses to Have.” Hindustan Times, January 8, 2021. SALNghgELIxbgBEB5J.html.

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Geneva, 2002, World Health Organisation. “World Report on Violence and Health .” World Health Organisation, 2002.;jsessionid=0A0A584427AF4E1014A462284BF9AEEC?sequence=1.

Gupta, Dr. Bhavish, and Dr. Meenu Gupta. “Marital Rape: – Current Legal Framework in India and the Need for Change.” Galgotias University, 2013.

Legislative Department, Government of India, Ministry of Law and Justice. “THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA.” Legislative Department, 2020.

Mishra, Saurabh, and Sarvesh Singh. “Marital Rape — Myth, Reality and Need for Criminalization.” Eastern Book Company – Practical Lawyer, 2003.

Nair, Shalini. “Marital Rape a Crime in Many Countries, an Exception in Many More.” The Indian Express, August 31, 2017.

Nations, United. “Goal 5 | Department of Economic and Social Affairs.” United Nations. United Nations, 2020.

Organisation, World Health. “Sexual Violence.” World Health Organisation, 2002.

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Rajagopal, Krishnadas. “Sex with Minor Wife, despite Consent, Is Rape: Supreme Court.” The Hindu. The Hindu, October 11, 2017.

Singh, Soibam Rocky. “Criminalising Marital Rape ‘May Destabilise Institution of
Marriage’: Centre Tells Delhi HC.” Hindustan Times, August 29, 2017.

Women, UN. “Ad Campaign: A Spotlight on Legal Gaps to End Violence against Women.” UN Women, 2020.

Women, UN. “Progress of The World’s Women 2019-2020: Families in a Changing World.” UN Women, 2019.

Goel I., & Sanmotra D. (2021). Marital Rape: A Felony Without Substantial Legal Consequences. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law, 1(3), 1197–1208.

Exploring the Possibility of a Firecracker Free India

Anagha V. Nair
Volume 1, Issue 3
05 March 2021
Page No.: 1209-1226

This paper analyses the potential possibility of creating a firecracker-less India. With the looming threat and damage caused by the global Covid19 pandemic and the mere fact that 14 out of the 15 most polluted cities in the world are a part of our nation, taking swift and forceful action against air pollution is the need of the hour.

To give credit where it is due, we saw the heads of our country, more specifically the National Green Tribunal impose a complete ban on the sale and use of firecrackers in NCR from midnight of November 9, 2020, till midnight of November 30, 2020, and also order for a similar ban for all the cities where the air quality was at level “poor” or below. Moreover, there was also great emphasis laid on the use of “green crackers” to reduce the overall level of pollutants during major festivals like Diwali, Christmas, New Year etc. But are these temporary bans truly effective and are they a sustainable decision with regards to the falling air quality in India? And what would be the negative consequences and challenges of a complete ban on the sale and production of firecrackers in India?

To answer these questions, the author conducts a comparative analysis between a partial and full ban on the production and sale of firecrackers, discussing the advantages and disadvantages of both, after explaining in detail the production process, history and current scenario of firecracker production in India. To further strengthen the importance of this issue, a case study of Sivakasi, the firecracker capital of India has also been analysed.

Anagha V. Nair
B.A. Hons. Political Science, Lady Shri Ram College for Women, University of Delhi, India

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[2] Babu, B. A. (2017, October 16). With GST and pollution debate, future looks grey for Sivakasi. Theweek.In.

[3] Babu, B. A. (2017b, October 16). With GST and pollution debate, future looks grey for Sivakasi. Theweek.In.

[4] Business Insider India. (2019b, October 30). The explosive truth about the link between Chinese fireworks and India’s dim Diwali. Business Insider.

[5] Census 2011 India. (2011). Census 2011.

[6] Contributors, E. T. (2017, October 14). Why saying no to firecrackers will show that you care for your children and the animals you revere. Economic Times.

[7] Desk, W. D. H. (2020b, December 11). Coronavirus India update: State-wise total number of confirmed cases, deaths on December 11. Deccan Herald.

[8] Economic Times. (2018, November 3). Here’s a look at what goes into a firecracker. The Economic Times.

[9] How Are Fireworks Made? (2019, December 17). Wonderopolis.

[10] Jagannath, G. (2018, November 5). Sivakasi: 8 lakh firecrackers industry workers may lose jobs. DNA India.

[11] Katoria, D., Mehta, D., Sehgal, D., & Kumar, S. (2013). A Review of Risks to Workers Associated with Fireworks Industry. International Journal of Environmental Engineering and Management, 4(3), 259–264.

[12] Khandekar, O. (2020, November 10). The ‘poisonous’ pollutants of green crackers. Mintlounge.

[13] Kothari, S. (2014, May 12). Sivakasi houses world’s largest concentration of child labour in its industrial units. India Today.

[14] Mohan, R. (2017, October 14). Why saying no to firecrackers will show that you care for your children and the animals you revere. Economic Times.

[15] PTI. (2018, August 14). Firecrackers ban: Supreme Court says need to consider both economic and health aspects of people. Economic Times.

[16] PTI. (2017, October 11). Government sounds “alert” on illegal import of crackers. The Economic Times.

[17] Rathi, N. (2020, November 14). A brief and crackling history of fireworks in India. The Indian Express.


[19] Roysam, V. (2016, October 28). 7 things you didn’t know about the Indian firecracker industry.YourStory.Com.

[20] Roysam, V. (2016b, October 28). 7 things you didn’t know about the Indian firecracker industry. YourStory.Com.

[21] Simhan, R. T. E. (2019, October 20). Diwali blues: Supreme Court’s green crackers diktat makes Sivakasi see red. @businessline.

[22] Singh, K. (2019, March 5). Crop burning, fireworks may shave off 1.9% of India’s GDP. Quartz India.

[23] Sivakasi Online : Overview of fireworks industries in Sivakasi. (2018). Sivakasi Online.

[24] Stella Muthu Rajam, D. P., & Sathiabama, G. (2015). A Case Study In Environmental Constraints, Causes And Remedies Of Industrial Town Sivakasi. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Invention, 4(1), 34–39.

[25] Swamy, R. (2020, November 8). Diwali firecracker ban is latest blow to Sivakasi factories, 2020 loss seen at Rs 800 cr. ThePrint.

[26] Wikipedia contributors. (2020, December 17). List of fireworks accidents and incidents in Sivakasi. Wikipedia.

Nair A. V. (2020). Exploring the Possibility of a Firecracker Free India . International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law1(3), 1209.

Ramifications of the Dearth of Female Representation in Indian Judiciary: An Appraisal

Yoshita Sood and Seerat Showkat
Volume 1, Issue 3
05 March 2021
Page No.: 1227-1248

For a democracy as large as India, representation acts as a cornerstone for upholding its principles and maxims. This representation becomes a way of channelising the vox populi, which is then reflected in the socio-political and economic institutions. However, a paucity in the representation of 48% of the population in these institutions points towards a dismal condition of India’s democratic systems. The paper studies the factors leading to an inadequate representation of women in the Indian judiciary and the judicial and societal impacts. Possible reasons for such low numbers are discussed, with an emphasis on the extremely stringent recruitment process and the sexist atmosphere prevalent in the courtroom. Through historical cases, judgements are compared and analysed where all men-benches are found to advocate patriarchal and misogynistic ideals prevailing in the society. An attempt to maintain the status quo can be observed which highlights the immediate need for a more gender-diverse bench that can accommodate different ideas and experiences.

Yoshita Sood
B.Sc. Hons Mathematics, Miranda House, University of Delhi, India
Seerat Showkat
B.A. Hons Political Science, Sri Guru Tegh Bahadur Khalsa College, University of Delhi, India

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[2] BANUMATHI, R. (2018, October 30). State (Govt. of NCT of Delhi) Vs. Pankaj Chaudhary and Ors.

[3] CHANDRACHUD, A. B. H. I. N. A. V. (2013, May 3). Age, seniority, diversity. Frontline.

[4] Chandrashekaran, S. C., Sanyal, D. S., Triphathy, S. T., & Jain, T. J. (2020). Breaking through the Old Boys’ Club.


[6] Delay and Arrears in High Courts. (1979, May). Law Commission of India.

[7] Department of Justice. (2021, January). Statement showing Sanctioned strength, Working Strength and Vacancies of Judges in the Supreme Court of India and the High Courts.

[8] Desai, D. (2003, December 3). Redefining the Rape laws in India: a constructive and comparative approach. Www.Legalserviceindia.Com.

[9] DHONCHAK, A. N. U. P. R. I. Y. A. (2020, July 29). Courts’ Misogynistic Rules For Rape Survivors. Www.Article-14.Com.

[10] Former Supreme Court judge Kurian Joseph regrets his decision quashing National Judicial Appointments Commission. (2019, December 31). The Hindu.

[11] From Executive Appointment to the Collegium System: The Impact on Diversity in the Indian Supreme Court. (2019). LEGAL STUDIES RESEARCH PAPER SERIES, 2–3.,-Cornell%20University%20%2D%20Law&text=At%20the%20founding%20of%20the,primary%20authority%20over%20judicial%20appointments.&text=We%20find%20that%20both%20the,the%20candidates%20that%20are%20appointed

[12] Galligan, Haupfleisch, Irvine, Korolkova, Wheeler, Schultz, & Natter. (2017). Mapping the Representation of Women and Men in Legal Professions Across the EU.

a. GANESAN, P. O. O. J. A. S. R. I. (2020, December 6). Only 2 woman judges in SC and 82 of 1,079 judges in HCs — judiciary has a gender problem. Theprint.In.

b. Gupta, R. (2020, September 17). 80 Judges Out Of 1113 Across High Courts And Supreme Court In India Are Women. SheThePeople TV.


[14] Hunter, R. (2015). More than Just a Different Face? Judicial Diversity and Decision-making. Oxford Academic, 1–3.

[15] IIC lectures. (2020, January 27). Women in law in india [Video]. YouTube.

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[17] Judiciary open to have more women judges, but reservation not envisaged, says Centre. (2017, July 21). Www.Firstpost.Com.

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Sood Y. and Showkat S. (2020). Ramifications of the Dearth of Female Representation in Indian Judiciary: An Appraisal. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law1(3), 1227.

Reverse Migration: A State Potential

Muskan Aggarwal and Shreya Singh
Volume 1, Issue 3
08 March, 2021
Page No.: 1249-1276

The onset of the Covid-19 pandemic saw our national dailies extensively chronicle the miseries that came with the mass exodus of migrant workers within India; arguably the only one after the Partition. So who were these people who overnight became all too visible to us? They were, and they are, our fellow nationals, India’s huge labour force in what is called the ‘unorganized sector’. Indeed, their hardships are beyond imaginable; the authors, however, analyze for the uncontemplated/overlooked silver linings of this predicament. Through a political, economic, social, technological, environmental, legal, and ethical lens, the authors put across how this unique migration can rather prove to be beneficial for both the migrants and the states. From a rise in inclusive developmental models within the states to reduced stress on urban resources, from successfully restoring migrants’ lost dignity to alleviating their self-esteem and being near their loved ones; the advantages are sustainable and manifold. Contrary to what has been assumed, we look into Reverse Migration as an opportunity to capture.

Muskan Aggarwal
B.A. Hons. Economics, Gargi College, University of Delhi, India

Shreya Singh
B.A. Hons. Economics, Gargi College, University of Delhi, India

Dandekar, Ghai, A. R. (2020).. Migration and Reverse Migration in the Age of COVID-19, Economic and Political Weekly, 19,28–31. 

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Roy Choudhury, D. S., & Joarder, M. S. (2020). Reverse Migration Due to Long Lockdown in India- Is it Sustainable? International Journal of Engineering and Management Research, 10(4), 139–144.

Roy Choudhury, D. S., & Joarder, M. S. (2020). Reverse Migration Due to Long Lockdown in India- Is it Sustainable? International Journal of Engineering and Management Research, 10(4), 139–144.

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Agrgarwal M. & Singht S. (2021).Reverse Migration: A State Potential. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law, 1(3), 1249–1276.

Fast Fashion: A Testimony on Violation of Environmental and Human Rights

Neha Aggarwal and Chinmay More
Volume 1, Issue 3
08 March, 2021
Page No.: 1277-1304

The supply chain of fashion is diverse and complex, spanning four or more layers, including design, harvesting of raw materials, spinning, development of yarn, dyeing, weaving, cutting, stitching and rolling out the final garments. As a strong competitive force, fast fashion, which references apparel with short product life cycles, has arisen. At more regular intervals, fast fashion brands launch new models, concentrating less on robust construction, and more on low costs and up to the minute designs. A rise in consumption followed by increased waste has been one result of fast fashion. In the global media, reports from emerging economies such as China, Bangladesh and India about low wages, gender-based violence against women employees, and the relentless speed of workloads powered by deadlines set by fast-fashion retailers have proliferated. This paper will talk about the violation of the environment and the human rights of garment workers by fast fashion industries. It will take into account the increasing marketing and consumerism to reflect on SDG 12: Responsible production and consumption.

Neha Aggarwal
B.A. Hons. Social Sciences and Humanities, Ambedkar University, Delhi, India

Chinmay More
Bsc. Hons. Physics, Ramnarain Ruia Autonomous College, Mumbai, India

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Annie Radner Linden. (2016, December). An Analysis of the Fast Fashion Industry. The Division of Social Studies of Bard College. 

Antunes, Anderson. “Zara Accused of Alleged ‘Slave Labor’ in Brazil.” Forbes, 17 Aug. 2011, Accessed 10 Dec. 2019.

Bhalla, S. (2017). Toxicity of Synthetic Fibres & Health. Advance Research in Textile Engineering, 2(1), 1. 

Bick, R., Halsey, E., & Ekenga, C. C. (2018, December 27). The global environmental injustice of fast fashion. Environmental Health. 

Brewer, M. K. (n.d.). Slow Fashion in a Fast Fashion World: Promoting Sustainability and Responsibility. MDPI. Retrieved December 13, 2020, from 

Brodish, Stephanie, et al., “Fast fashion’s knock-off savvy: Proposing a new competency in a sustainability index for the fast fashion industry.” Proceedings of the Northeast Business & Economics Association, 2011, pp. 355-58. Business Source Complete. Accessed 10 Dec. 2019 Brooks, A. (2015). Clothing Poverty: The Hidden World of Fast Fashion and Second-Hand Clothes.

Claudio, L. (2007, September 1). Waste Couture: Environmental Impact of the Clothing Industry. PubMed Central (PMC). 

Crofton, Stephanie. “Zara-Inditex and the Growth of Fast Fashion”. Essays in Economic & Business History, vol. 25, 2007, pp. 41-53. Fast Fashion and Sustainability – The Case of Inditex-Zara. (2020). 

Fixing fashion: clothing consumption and sustainability – Report Summary -Environmental Audit Committee. (2019, February 19). UK Parliament. y.html 

Ghemawat, Pankaj, and José Luis Nueno. “Zara: Fast Fashion”. Harvard Business School, 2006. Harvard Business School. (2006). Zara: Fast Fashion (No. 9-703–497). 

K. Brewer, M. (2019). Slow Fashion in a Fast Fashion World: Promoting Sustainability and Responsibility. Slow Fashion in a Fast Fashion World: Promoting Sustainability and Responsibility, 6. 

Lauren, A. (2019, November 13). Why Regulations aren’t Solving the Fashion Industry’s Environmental Problem. Medium. 

Mourão, M. (2019). Socially Sustainable Supply Chain: Lessons from two Portuguese Fashion Companies. Universidade Católica Portuguesa. Mukherjee, S. (2015). Environmental and Social Impact of Fashion: Towards an Eco-friendly, Ethical Fashion. Environmental and Social Impact of Fashion: Towards an Eco-Friendly, Ethical Fashion, 22. 

O. Crofton, S., & G. Dopico, L. (2007). Zara-Inditex and the growth of fast fashion. Research Gate.  

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Schlossberg, T. (2019, September 3). How Fast Fashion Is Destroying the Planet. The New York Times. 

Shen, B. (2014). Sustainable Fashion Supply Chain: Lessons from H&M. Sustainability, 6(9), 6236–6249. 

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Wicker, A. (2017, March 16). Fast Fashion Is Creating an Environmental Crisis.Newsweek. 

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Aggarwal N. & More M. (2021). Fast Fashion: A Testimony on Violation of Environment and Human Rights. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law, 1(3), 1277–1304.

Comparative Study of the Progression of Queer Rights in India and the UK, with Special Emphasis on Intersex People

Aishwarya Sinha and Manasi Prabhakaran
Volume 1, Issue 3
08 March, 2021
Page No.: 1305-1326

The paper focuses on the progression of queer rights in the contemporary era while placing special emphasis on the lived experiences of the intersex population. It examines the status of queer rights in the United Kingdom and India. The primary objective is to trace the timeline of the queer rights movement in the aforementioned regions, and draw out a contrast between the public policy and approach towards this pressing agenda by the two nations. ‘Sex’, refers to the sex (male or female) assigned to a child at birth, most often based on the child’s external anatomy. Sexual orientation, read ‘sexuality’ refers to an inherent or immutable enduring emotional, romantic or sexual attraction to other people. Gender identity refers to one’s innermost concept of self as male, female, a blend of both or neither – how individuals perceive themselves and what they call themselves. Throughout this paper, the word ‘Queer’ is used to express a spectrum of identities and orientations that are counter to the mainstream. The methodology used is comparative analysis, and the parameters for the same, are as follows: religion, marriage and adoption, public discourse and social movements, and governmental laws and policies. The paper aims to fulfil its objectives through the analysis of the comparison drawn between the two nations.

Aishwarya Sinha
B.A. Political Science & English Literature, Kirori Mal College, University of Delhi, India
Manasi Prabhakaran
B.A. Hons. Applied Psychology, Gargi College, University Of Delhi, India

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Sinha A. and Prabhakaran M. (2020). Comparative Study of the Progression of Queer Rights in India and the UK, with Special Emphasis on Intersex People. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law1(3), 1305.

Cultural Exploitation of Rural Women Subjected to Menstrual Exile: A Review of Nepal and India

Pearl Khurana and Ankita Singh Gujjar
Volume 1, Issue 3
09 March, 2021
Page No.: 1327-1353

Menstrual exile is an exploitative custom observed in the tribal communities of developing nations across the world, where menstruating women are banished from their own homes. This paper explores the impacts of menstrual exile on the physical, psychological and reproductive health of women. This stigma around menstrual exile interferes with their liberty, bodily integrity and violates the right not to be discriminated against based on sex. The authors have performed a complete review of Chhaupadi and Gaokor in Nepal and India with the help of existing quantitative data, journal articles, international and national reports and case studies. Finally, the authors have highlighted the areas which can be worked upon, and have left room for further discussion as the scope for research is immense. This paper is the authors’ contribution to a cause with minimal representation in the mainstream development agendas. Keywords: Menstruation, menstrual exile, Chhaupadi, myths and beliefs, awareness campaigns, policy non-compliance, mental health, reproductive health, Nepal, India

Pearl Khurana
B.A. Hons. Economics, Delhi Technological University, India

Ankita Singh Gujjar
B.A. Hons. Political Science, Lady Shri Ram College for Women, University of Delhi, India

ActionAid. (2021, January 15). Chhaupadi and menstruation taboos. ActionAid UK.

Amatya, P. (2018, December 10). Practice and lived experience of menstrual exiles (Chhaupadi) among adolescent girls in far-western Nepal. National Center for Biotechnology Information.

Anand, T., & Garg, S. (2015). Menstruation related myths in India: Strategies for combating it. Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care, 4(2), 184.

Baumann, S., Lhaki, P., & Burke, J. (2019). Assessing the Role of Caste/Ethnicity in Predicting Menstrual Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices in Nepal. Global Public Health, 14(9), 1288–1301.

Budha, D. B. (2019, December 13). Campaign against Chhaupadi practice. My Republica.

Chatterjee, P. (2020, June 1). Improving menstrual hygiene among adolescent girls in India. ScienceDirect.

Desai, R. (2019, May 29). From Riches to Rags: The Evolution of Menstrual Taboos in India. The Swaddle.,cycle%20of%20repentence%20%E2%80%94%20aka%20menstruation

George, A. A. (2020, March 23). Constitution of India: List of All Articles (1-395) and Parts (1-22). ClearIAS.

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Gupta, A. (2012, November 20). Origin of Menstrual Myths and Taboos [Photograph]. Menstrupedia.

Hodal, K. (n.d.). Nepal’s bleeding shame: menstruating women banished to cattle sheds. The Guardian. Retrieved January 29, 2021, from


Jacob, J. (2018, October 19). Equality vs Faith: The Sabarimala Stand-Off Explained In 10 Points. NDTV.Com.

Jun, M., & Jang, I. (2018). The Role of Social Capital in Shaping Policy Non-compliance for Chhaupadi Practice in Nepal. Asian Women, 34(3), 47–70.

Kadariya, S., & Aro, A. R. (2015). Chhaupadi practice in Nepal – analysis of ethical aspects. Medicolegal and Bioethics, 53.

Karki, R., & Espinosa, C. (2018). Breaking Taboos: Menstruation, Female Subordination and Reproductive Health, the Case of India. Insights of Anthropology, 2(2), 4–13.

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Preiss, D. (2017, August 10). Law In Nepal Sets Penalties For Forcing A Woman Into A Menstrual Shed. NPR.

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Ranabhat, C., Kim, C.-B., Choi, E. H., Aryal, A., Park, M. B., & Doh, Y. A. (2015). Chhaupadi Culture and Reproductive Health of Women in Nepal. Asia Pacific Journal of Public Health, 27(7), 785–795.

Robbinson, H. (2015, December). Chaupadi: The affliction of menses in Nepal. ScienceDirect.

Shrestha, E. (2019, December 11). Everything you need to know about Chhaupadi, the taboo ritual of banishing women to period huts. The Kathmandu Post.

Singh, D. (2020). Factors associated with Chhaupadi Pratha and its impact on the health of the women in Khaptad Channa Rural Municipality-05, Thakuri Community, Bajhang (1st ed., Vol. 1). Grin Verlag.


The Guardian. (2020, October 15). Banished for menstruating: the Indian women isolated while they bleed.

The Logical Indian. (2017, May 2). A Reality Check Of Menstruation In Rural India.

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Upadhyay, A. (2019, May 29). Menstrual Hygiene Day Facts: Only 36 Percent Of The Women In India Use Sanitary Pads During Periods. NDTV-Dettol Banega Swasth Swachh India.

Vaughn, E. (2019, December 17). Menstrual Huts Are Illegal In Nepal. So Why Are Women Still Dying In Them? NPR.

WaterAid India. (2019). [The National Family Health Survey (NFHS) 2015-16 revealed that the number of women using either sanitary napkins or tampons during periods was 77.5% in urban areas, 48.2% in rural areas, and 57.6% overall.].

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Khurana P. & Singh Gujjar A. (2021). Cultural Exploitation of Rural Women Subjected to Menstrual Exile A Review of Nepal and India. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law, 1(3), 1327-1353.

UnPinking Discrimination: Exploring the Pink Tax and its Implications

International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law.
Volume 1, Issue 3
09 March, 2021

The prevalence of gender discrimination in modern-day societies can be found in countless socio-economic forms, from the gender pay gap to laws of inheritance and access to education. A lesser-known form of gender discrimination exists in prices of products and services, in the form of “pink tax”. The pink tax is the additional amount paid by female customers as compared to their male counterparts for nearly identical products and services. From personal care products and clothing to children’s toys and services, the pink tax is found across sectors. Through gendered marketing, corporates have conveniently managed to maximise profits without letting their customers learn about this discriminatory practice. In recent years, some corporations have consciously adopted gender-neutral pricing policies and have attempted to educate more consumers about pink tax. Eliminating the pink tax is a step forward towards gender equality, which is also the 5th Sustainable Development Goal of the UN. Through this paper, the author aims to increase awareness about pink tax and to initiate discussions about combating it.

This Article is brought to you for “free” and “open access” by the International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law.

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[3] Bourne, L. (2018, May 7). Companies That Are Saying No To The Pink Tax. Glamour.Com.

[4] CBS News goes undercover to reveal gender price discrimination. (2016, January 25). Cbsnews.Com.

[5] Collinson, P. (2020, March 6). Budget 2020: chancellor plans to finally end tampon tax. Theguardian.Com.

[6] Cook, L. (2018, November 29). Removing GST on feminine hygiene products. Aph.Gov.Au.,since%20its%20introduction%20in%202000.

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[8] Gallagher, S. (2019, November 8). Tampon Tax Scrapped In Germany As Menstrual Products Not A ‘Luxury.’ Independent.Co.Uk.

[9] Governor Cuomo Reminds New Yorkers “Pink Tax” Ban Goes into Effect Today. (2020, September 30). Governor.Ny.Gov.,goods%20or%20services%20are%20marketed

[10] H. R. 5464. (2018, April 10). Congress.Gov.

[11] Horowitz, S. (2015, May 13). Is There Really A Pink Tax. Fee.Org.

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[16] NYU Rudin Center for Transportation, Kaufman, S., Polak, C., & Campbell, G. (2018, November). The Pink Tax on Transportation: Women’s Challenges in Mobility.

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[19] Wakeman, J. (2020). Pink Tax: The Real Cost of Gender-Based Pricing. Www.Healthline.Com.

International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law. (2020). UnPinking Discrimination: Exploring the Pink Tax and its Implications. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law1(3).

Existential Repercussions of Development: Deforestation caused by Haphazard Urbanisation and Rapid Industrialisation

Mehar Pandya and Kushagra Didwania
Volume 1, Issue 3
09 March, 2021
Page No.: 1372-1397

In developing countries, deforestation is rising at an alarming rate. The dwindling forest cover of India has had various consequences; a vicious cycle of the causes and effects of deforestation can be observed. Factors like urbanisation, industrialisation, agricultural activities, commercial logging, mining and forest fires, all seem to stem from the increased demand for goods and services borne out of population growth. This paper reviews some of the most concerning incidents of deforestation in India and analyzes the relationship between deforestation and its prime causes. Through two case studies of large scale deforestation in Hasdeo Arand Forest and Uttar Kannada, it aims to bring out the complexity of various factors which play a major role in the depletion of forest cover. In the short term, deforestation is caused due to population growth (developmental activities) and agricultural expansion, aggravated over the long term by wood harvesting for fuel and export. The paper also critically reviews the existing governmental laws and policies which seek to regulate deforestation and promote the regeneration of forests. This paper concludes with some recommendations which strive to enhance the existing efforts made by authorities and other relevant entities, highlighting the primary aspects of the problem which need to be focussed upon.

Mehar Pandya
B.A Programme, Political Science and English Literature, Kirori Mal College, University of Delhi, India

Kushagra Didwania
Welham Boys School, Varanasi, India

Aijaz, R. (2021, January 19). Managing India’s urban transition in 2021. ORF.

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Chakravartty, A. (2020, November 4). Assam’s tribal communities lost land and forest to mining. Mongabay-India. 

Chaturvedi, S. (2019, April 1). Allocating forest land in Chhattisgarh for coal mini..eforestation has risen significantly in recent decades. Firstpost.

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Pandya M. & Didwania K. (2021). Existential Repercussions of Development: Deforestation caused by Haphazard Urbanisation and Rapid Industrialisation. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law, 1(3), 1372-1397

COVID-19 Impact Analysis on Sustainable Development Goals and the Way Forward

Sakshi Jain
Volume 1, Issue 3
15th March, 2021
Page No.: 1398-1429

Just when the world was about to enter the fifth year of SDGs, we were made hostages to a virus finagling into our lives and putting everything on a standstill. Multifarious literature is available on the impact of Covid-19, which has exposed the world to rising inequities and dysfunctionalities of governance. This paper seeks to explore the scope of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in the post-Covid world as a catalyst to minimize trade-offs and maximize synergies between the SDGs. Through a multidisciplinary approach, the author tries to map the impact of Covid-19 on SDGs and offers a review of initiatives taken so far by the Indian Government while navigating this challenging phase. The paper begins by reviewing the shape and contours of the unfolding crisis concerning the world economy, followed by an impact analysis, explicitly on the Indian economy. An attempt has been made to shed light on the importance of SDGs serving as a roadmap for post-Covid recovery and development in India. To pull the economy out from this amorphous state, there’s a need for enhanced global partnerships and increased private investments in the domestic economy. The vigour to build back better requires reinvigorating the SDGs, which will provide direction for a sustainable post-Covid recovery.

Sakshi Jain
B.A. Hons. Economics, Bhopal School of Social Sciences, Bhopal, India

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FORBES. (2021, January 27). Budget 2021 Countdown: Managing Covid-19’s Real Stress–unemployment. Forbes India. eal-stressunemployment/65953/1

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KAPIL. (2020). Aerosol levels at 20-year-low in north India: NASA satellite data. DOWN TO EARTH.,)%20on%20April%202 1%2C%202020.

Kharas, H. (2020, October 29). The impact of Covid-19 on global extreme poverty. Brookings. al-extreme-poverty/

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Kumar, S. V. (2020, April 20). Covid-19 inflicts a daily loss of ₹224 crore to India’s fishery sector. @businessline. 24-crore-to-indias-fishery-sector/article31388582.ece

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MARTIN CRUTSINGER AP Economics Writer. (2020, March 27). IMF head says global economy now in recession. ABC News.

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Misra, U. (2021, January 25). Covid deepened inequalities: wealth, education, gender. The Indian Express. 0341/

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Ravichandran, N. (2020, November 2). Used plastic masks and gloves are making their way into water bodies across India. Scroll.In. bodies-across-india reserach (2020).

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Tracing Decline of Female Labour Force Participation Rate to Caste Inequalities in Urban and Rural India

Akash Raj and Nandani Bhanot
Volume 1, Issue 3
15th March, 2021
Page No.: 1430-1451

As India enters its demographic dividend1 , it becomes increasingly important to empower women to smoothly enter the labour force. Developed countries in the past have used their demographic dividend to successfully integrate their working-age population into productive labour, and thus transitioned from developing economies to developed economies. This is important not only for the welfare of the general population but also because the largest age group population will become dependent on the country’s welfare in the future when they drop out of the working age. In order to successfully meet the requirements of the demographic dividend, the country should ensure no one is left behind, irrespective of gender, caste or class. However, since 2005, we are seeing a drop in the Female Labor Force Participation Rate (FLFPR) that is not mirrored in other countries, in particular South Asian countries. For this paper, we try to observe the reasons for the decline, the extent of the impact of the caste and gender intersection, analyse existing government policies to combat the decline and make future recommendations for a way forward.

Akash Raj
M.A. Economics, Delhi School of Economics, University of Delhi, India

Nandani Bhanot
M.A. Development Studies, Amity Institute of Social Sciences, Amity University, India

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Chandra, T. (2019). Literacy in India: The Gender and Age Dimension. Observer Research Foundation (ORF).

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Ferrant, G., Pesando, L. M., and Nowacka, K. (2014). Unpaid Care Work: The missing link in the analysis of gender gaps in labour outcomes. OECD Development Center. 

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Lahoti, R., & Swaminathan, H. (2013). Economic Growth and Female Labour Force Participation in India. SSRN Electronic Journal, 2–10. 

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Raj A. & Bhanot N. (2021). Tracing Decline of Female Labour Force Participation Rate to Caste Inequalities in Urban and Rural India. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law, 1(3), 1430-1451

Comparison between a Hard-Power Country (USA) and a Soft-Power Country (South Korea) with a Focus on the Environment & Climate Change

Abhilasha Sardana and Garima Dahiya
Volume 1, Issue 3
15th March, 2021
Page No.: 1452-1485

A gradual increase of power is leading to environmental issues and climate crises. This study aims to compare the extent of climate change and environmental degradation in two countries – one of which is hard power, and the other, a soft power. The basis for comparison is economic, political, and social factors and frameworks in the respective states. In this context, hard power is defined as using military strength to influence other nations and persuade them to follow your will. At present, the USA has made its military the strongest, and it is unrivalled. Specifically, this essay investigates how the USA encounters several environmental issues making it one of the substantial emitters of greenhouse gases, and what are the initiatives taken by the state to resolve the climatic problem, despite being the military giant. In this context, South Korea has been used as an example of Soft power policy, which tops the list for tourism and its cultural richness. The authors of the paper have tried to determine how its soft power strategy distorts its environment. The major findings of the essay are that respective states of power are a large part of their environmental degradation, through irresponsible tourism in Korea and extensive military use in America. However, while Korea’s damage to the environment is more internal, American hard-power has led to environmental degradation in many parts of the world

Abhilasha Sardana
Ramjas College, University of Delhi, India

Garima Dahiya
Lady Sri Ram College, University of Delhi, India

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Korean Wave (Hallyu) – The Rise of Korea’s Cultural Economy & Pop Culture 

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Shvetsova, O. A., & Lee, J. H. (2020). Minimizing the Environmental Impact of Industrial Production: Evidence from South Korean Waste Treatment Investment Projects. Applied Sciences, 10(10), 1. 

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Sardana A.  & Dahiya G.(2021). Comparison between a Hard-Power Country (USA) and a Soft-Power Country (South Korea) with a Focus in the Environment & Climate Change. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law, 1(3), 1452-1485

Campus Violence: Infringement of Fundamental Rights

Ankita Singh Gujjar and Simran
Volume 1, Issue 3
30th March, 2021
Page No.: 1486-1510

The emanation of campus violence in India should be seen as a major public health issue. Infringement of fundamental rights in violent incidents has shown that India has been doing poorly in redressing student’s grievances. This has not only affected them physically but also, psychologically. At this juncture, it becomes a prime concern to address some serious questions about students’ safety and protection of their rights. The paper attempts to highlight this emerging problem in the Indian scenario through an evaluation of various types, levels, factors, and effects of campus violence. The findings of this paper have important implications for college authorities as well as for the government authorities to find impactful solutions and devise student-friendly frameworks to prevent violence at campuses.

Ankita Singh Gujjar
Political Science, Lady Shri Ram College, University of Delhi, India
Political Science, Lady Shri Ram College, University of Delhi, India

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Singh A. & Simran. (2021). Campus Violence: Infringement of Fundamental Rights. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law, 1(3), 1486-1510

Unpaid Domestic Labour of Women and their Lost Opportunities for Financial Independence

Fahad Nahvi and Saili Saptarshi
Volume 1, Issue 3
30th March, 2021
Page No.: 1511-1530

Hardly anyone considers mothers and wives toiling in the house and doing chores as labour. Labour as an area of study has developed over the last 200 years but the focus has mostly been on the free-wage labourers because commodity production in a capitalist system is undertaken by them. However, unpaid domestic labour is an essential part of this system as well. It remains unrecognized because no direct link to surplus-value produced or profit can be seen. It does not result in direct commodity production but is, in fact, an essential precondition for it. Domestic Labour remains the domain of women. This paper seeks to highlight how women have been forced into domestic labour and take up the role of primary caregivers in the family, taking on the bulk of household work and emotional labour which has been linked to them losing economic opportunities, reduced independence, especially financial, and other additional stressors. The paper also tries to locate the real-world consequences of such prejudices on women due to their social role as mother and wives and the discrimination they face in the workforce as well, which further limits their opportunities. Female labour force participation as a result has been decreasing in the past few decades and is inversely proportional to the workplace and domestic gender disparity

Fahad Nahvi
M. A. History, Department of History, University of Delhi, India
Saili Saptarshi
M. A. History, Department of History, University of Delhi, India

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Khetarpal, Sonal. “Economic Survey 2020: 60% Women in World’s Fastest Growing Economy Do Housework.” Business Today. February 1, 2020.’s%20participation%20in%20labour%20force,2011%2D12%2C%20Economic%20Survey%20found&text=India%20has%20been%20working%20towards,per%20cent%20in%202017%2D18. 

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Nahvi F. & Saptarshi S. (2021).Unpaid DomesticLabour of Women and their Lost Opportunities for Financial Independence. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law, 1(3), 1511-1530.

Impact Of Digitalisation Of Education on Teachers in India

Rishabh Gandhi
Volume 1, Issue 3
30th March, 2021
Page No.: 1531-1542

The entire education system moved out of traditional classrooms made up of bricks and mortar with the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. Teachers needed to shift to the online mode to teach students as a result of its outbreak. The aim of the study is to explore the positive and negative impact of digitisation of education on teachers in India along with providing some recommendations in order to improve the online learning models. A qualitative research design was adopted in this study. The method of observation and case studies from previous studies were taken to reach out to the main objective. For analysing purposes, PESTELE analysis and cost-benefit analysis were used. According to the results of this study, teachers are facing a lot of issues like irritation, depression and hampering of their social relationships in this digital education phase. However, some positive things for teachers include a rise in teachers’ income and a better career in the near future as they are now familiar with technology. The cost-benefit analysis further confirms that the negative impact of online education on teachers outweighs the positive counterparts. The study also provides recommendations for making online teaching easier( like teaching only core topics and leaving the non-core topics that students can study on their own).

Rishabh Gandhi
MA Financial Economics from University of Hyderabad

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Hietajärvi, L. (2015). Is Student Motivation Related to Socio-digital Participation? A Person-oriented Approach. University of Helsinki. 

Maslekar, P. H. A. A. (2020, February 14). Who Teaches the Teachers? Developing teacher mentors for quality education. THE BASTION. 

Pujari, A. K. (2020, May 8). A pandemic pedagogy to overcome covid disruptions. Https://Www.Livemint.Com. 

Rosa, S. (2020, November 16). Teacher mentoring still adds PD value in remote learning. K-12 Dive. 

Shah, S. Q. (2020, August 26). Online classes stress out students, teachers during pandemic. DAWN.COM. 

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Wadia, L. C. (2020, July 7). Online school education in India during and beyond the pandemic. ORF.  

Wattal, A. M. (2020, April 23). Post-pandemic, a shift in mindset will be needed — to teach and learn. The Indian Express.

Gandhi R. (2021). Impact of Digitalisation of Education on Teachers in India. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law, 1(3), 1531-1542.

National Education Policy’s Stance on Early Childhood Care and Mental Health Inclusive Education System

Dalvi Sethi and Urvi Mahajan
Volume 1, Issue 3
30th March, 2021
Page No.: 1543-1566

Education is one of the most powerful weapons that can be used to change the world and open doors of success in various disciplines of life. It expands one’s outlook on the world and develops the foundation of all our capabilities. Education is an essential component that interconnects numerous elements together for the evolution and development of a nation, and in the concretization of one such element, the government of India has dispensed- National Education Policy (NEP) 2020. The purpose of this paper is to focus on the missing pieces of the recently released NEP’2020 and to delineate the importance of the National Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) and Early Childhood Mental Health (ECMH) inclusive education system for an effective schooling and healthy functioning of students, acknowledging the exigency of a new set of priorities, commitments, strategies, and resources to implement and sustain effective supports for overall development, along with encapsulation of its ascendancy on India’s socio-political ecosystem progression. A comparative analysis and a SWOT analysis have been performed to assert the cruciality of a regulatory mechanism for a constructive competitive ecosystem and to explore synergies of NEP’s prosperous implementation. The authors have recommended measures and some potential solutions ranging from time-bound commitment towards NEP’s foundational objectives, a sound regulatory system, to an indispensable budgetary expansion.

Dalvi Sethi
B.A. Hons. Sociology, University of Delhi, India
Urvi Mahajan
B.A. Hons. Economics, University of Delhi, India

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Gadgil, A. (2020, April 25). Why do the parents send their children to private playgroups and not to the Anganwadis? GaonConnection.

Indian Policy Collective. (2020, August 7). NEP 2020: Challenges, Criticisms, Way Forward. 

Majumdar, M. (2020, September 1). What Is the Point of Pre-Schooling? Certainly Not to Ready Children for a Race. The Wire.  

Munjal, D. (2020, February 4). Huge gap in India’s mental health budget. Business Line.  

Ravi, S. (2020, November 13). New Education Policy 2020: How NEP will help create jobs, entrepreneurs. Business Today. 

Unicef, India. (2019, September). The India Early Childhood Education Impact Study. Unicef.  

Vaishnav, A. (2020, August 4). National Education Policy: Recommendations and the current scenario. PRS Legislative Research.  

Sethi D. & Mahajan U. (2021). National Education Policy’s Stance on Early Childhood Care and Mental Health Inclusive Education System. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law, 1(3), 1543-1566.

The Twofold Economic Interplay of Women being the Sufferer and Saviour of Climate Change

Anvita Maindiratta and Diya Nagpal
Volume 1, Issue 3
30th March, 2021
Page No.: 1567-1580

An increasing amount of literature and research is emerging focusing on the gender disparities that exist in the vulnerability to climate change. Women bear the responsibility of their households from bearing to rearing children, as well as cooking and cleaning, and on top of that, they have added responsibilities of fetching water and often working other small jobs to contribute a menial amount to their family income as well. Moreover, their health and safety are not prioritised. As compared to men, they face more discrimination, stereotypes, violence, and trauma. Even among the poor, women are the worst affected. This predisposition to vulnerability creates harsher impacts on women’s socioeconomic status, their health, safety, and susceptibility to trafficking and abuse as a result of climate change. This paper aims to argue that while policies to combat environmental degradation are necessary and in progress, they lack an equitable basis as they do not account for differences in women and men’s role in this movement. As these policies are implemented, steps need to be taken to ensure that the disparities are looked into and formulated in accordance with such analysis. Recommendations are made to make the existing policies address the growing gender disparities and promote the economic independence of women as a means to better the climate change problems, which in turn, will lift women’s economic status.

Anvita Maindiratta
B.A. Hons. Psychology, Keshav Mahavidyalaya, University of Delhi, India
Diya Nagpal
B.A. Hons. Economics, Maitreyi College, University of Delhi, India

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Arora-Jonsson, S. (2011). Virtue and vulnerability: Discourses on women, gender and climate change. Global environmental change, 21(2), 744-751.

Benni, Niclas., & Barkataky, R. (2018). The Role of Self Employed Women’s Association (SEWA) in Providing Financial Services to Rural Women.
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Eastin, J. (2018). Climate change and gender equality in developing states. World Development, 107, 289-305.

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Maindiratta A. & Nagpal D. (2021). The Twofold Economic Interplay of Women being the Sufferer and Saviour of Climate Change. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law, 1(3), 1567-1580.

The Paradoxical Police: Perspectives from Nigeria and the United States

Snigdha Agarwal Srinivas and Ritisha Gupta
Volume I, Issue 3
30th March, 2021
Page No.: 1581-1612

“Under the rule of law, people are equals; under the rule of police, we are not.” – Markus Dubber. Occurrences of police brutality have been escalating across the globe. If one were to circumnavigate the world today, it would be hard to find a country bereft of violence at the hands of the police. In particular, the United States of America and Nigeria have the highest count of extrajudicial killings in their respective regions. This is in spite of stark differences in the modus operandi of their regimes. This paper, therefore, seeks to draw a comparison between the nature of police brutality prevalent in both countries. It uses the following parameters to analyse prevailing patterns of violence: economy, legislation, press freedom, community relations and minority prejudice. The research found that the recurrence of police brutality can be attributed to the underlying organizational culture of the police. According to this theory, the culture within which the police function, shapes their perception of the outside world, ultimately influencing their actions. Potential solutions have also been identified to tackle the issue of police brutality. This includes engaging with the education and training of officers, reforming legislative systems and most importantly, increasing inclusivity by integrating the community with the policing mechanism.

Snigdha Agarwal Srinivas
Political Science, Lady Shri Ram College For Women, University of Delhi, India
Ritisha Gupta
Political Science, Lady Shri Ram College For Women, University of Delhi, India

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Srinivas S. A. and Gupta R. (2020). The Paradoxical Police: Perspectives from Nigeria and the United States . International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law1(3), 1581.

The Gender Inclusivity of Academic Curriculum and its Effects on Students

Nitesh Chouhan and Ananya Gupta
Volume 1, Issue 3
30th March, 2021
Page No.: 1613-1636

Gender disparity has always been a permanent part of society. There has been a plethora of efforts to bring gender equality and the erasing the existing gender norms, the role played by the textbooks used in schools and the course structure that students are subjected to cannot be debated when it comes to the reinforcement of gender-exclusivity. Our textbooks, stories, illustrations, examples, every single aspect of our curriculum adds to the formation of gender stereotypes in students. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to analyse the magnitude of gender-inclusivity in the educational realm, and the existing effects it has on a student’s mental and overall well-being. A comparative analysis of New Zealand and Indian educational structures has been performed to find the missing gaps in our system that alludes to how the country still needs to put an abundance of efforts in achieving Sustainable Development Goals 4 and 5, through an overview of the National education policy 2020. The authors have recommended some measures and potential solutions that aim at revolutionising the educational landscape of India and bring forth equity and inclusivity in the academic domain.

Jaanvi Jairath
B. Sc. Hons. Economics, Symbiosis School of Economics, Symbiosis International University, India
Rhea Daima
B.A. Hons. Philosophy, Miranda House, University of Delhi, India

Aikman, S., Rao, N. (2010). Quality education for gender equality. Background paper for the Quality Education Stream, E4 Conference, Dakar, Senegal, 17–20 May. Available at: 

Aithal, S., Aithal, S. (2020). Analysis of the Indian National Education Policy 2020 towards Achieving its Objectives. 

Alva, N. (2017, June 28). Study finds gender stereotypes aplenty in NCERT textbooks. The Times of India.  

Analysis of the Textbooks of Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Odisha, Maharashtra, Manipur and Rajasthan: An Overall Report. (2016). 

Babbar, K. (2020, August 10). Absence of Menstrual Hygiene Management in NEP 2020. Feminism In India. 

BBC. (2021, February 18). Period Poverty: New Zealand Schools to offer free sanitary products. 

Bhatt, N. (2020, September 02). Examining India’s New Education Policy Through a Gender Lens. Devex. 

Blumberg, R. L. (2008). The invisible obstacle to educational equality: gender bias in textbooks. PROSPECTS, 38(3), 345–361.  

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Chowdhury, J. (2020, May 21). Why Are We Missing Out on Addressing Period Poverty? Feminism In India. 

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EFFECTS OF PICTURES IN TEXTBOOKS ON STUDENTS’ CREATIVITY. (2015). Multi Disciplinary Edu Global Quest, 5(2), 83.’_CREATIVITY  

Feminism in India. (2020, September 03). Sexual and Reproductive Health: The Missing Link in NEP 2020.  

Gender Stereotypes in the Pictorial Depictions of Primary School Text Books. (2015). IOSR Journal Of Humanities And Social Science, 20(6), 16–26. 

Good, J. J., Woodzicka, J. A., & Wingfield, L. C. (2010). The Effects of Gender Stereotypic and Counter-Stereotypic Textbook Images on Science Performance. The Journal of Social Psychology, 150(2), 132–147. 

Good, J. J., Woodzicka, J. A., & Wingfield, L. C. (2010b). The Effects of Gender Stereotypic and Counter-Stereotypic Textbook Images on Science Performance. The Journal of Social Psychology, 150(2), 132–147. 

Graham-McLay, C. (2020, September 09). New Zealand schools urged to use students’ preferred names, genders and pronouns. The Guardian. 

Gyanesh, A. (2017, July 28). 42 per cent of kids bullied at schools, says survey. The Times of India. 

Inclusive TKI. (2020). Plan Sexuality and Gender Education years 1-8. Ministry of Education. 

Ismail, S., Shajahan, A., Sathyanarayana Rao, T. S., & Wylie, K. (2015). Adolescent sex education in India: Current perspectives. Indian journal of psychiatry.  

Jain, S. (2020, September 11). Pride Month 2020: Evaluating the Transgender Persons Act, 2019. ORF. 

Jain, S. (2021, March 6). STEM and the digital economy for women. ORF. 

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Lassig, S., & Pohl, K. H. (2009). History Textbooks and Historical Scholarship in Germany. History Workshop Journal, 67(1), 125–139. 

Mathur, P., Sharma, S. (2020, October 09). Engendering the National Education Policy (NEP) 2020. Mainstream Weekly. 

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Peguero, A. A., & Williams, L. M. (2011). Racial and Ethnic Stereotypes and Bullying Victimization. Youth & Society, 45(4), 545–564.×11424757 

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Raphael, D. (2015). The Effect of Sexual Education on Sexual Assault Prevention. 

Rath, A. (2020, December 01). Remember How Class 8th Textbooks Would Teach Reproduction? Youth Ki Awaaz. 

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Chouhan N. & Gupta A. (2021). The Gender Inclusivity of Academic Curriculum and its Effects on Students. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law, 1(3), 1613-1636.

Role of Pop Culture in Popularizing Gender-Bending Fashion and Ideals of Beauty and Makeup

Jaanvi Jairath and Rhea Daima
Volume 1, Issue 3
30th March, 2021
Page No.: 1637-1649

The concepts of ‘makeup’, fashion and outward beauty has, for generations, been linked to femininity, with an implication of vanity. With the start of the 21st century, there was an increased reach of newspapers and magazines and a wider reach of popular music, shows and movies, owing to the spread of the Internet and similar technology. These media outlets were the direct link between celebrities and inspirational icons who comprised pop culture, and their enthusiastic audiences. This led to a greater following of popular celebrity culture, thereby leading to fashion and makeup permeating the mainstream lives of the common persons. However, since these concepts [of makeup and fashion] were restrictively associated with women, men and those belonging to other genders were prejudiced against for their involvement in the ideals of makeup and fashion. Through this paper, the authors explore the impact that pop culture including social media has had in introducing the themes of beauty, makeup and fashion in the mainstream, understanding the same as explorations of gender and self-identity.

Jaanvi Jairath
B.A.Hons. Economics, Maitreyi College, University of Delhi, India
Rhea Daima
B.A.Hons. Economics, Maitreyi College, University of Delhi, India

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Jacobs, B. (2019, February 8). Is men’s make-up going mainstream? BBC. 

Kodžoman, D. (2019). THE PSYCHOLOGY OF CLOTHING: Meaning of Colors, Body Image and Gender Expression in Fashion. HRCAK, NA.  

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Yunsuk, L. (2019, July 31). Putting the Best Face Forward: How South Korean men are shaping the beauty industry. CNA.  


Jairath J. & Daima R. (2021). Role of Pop Culture in Popularizing Gender-Bending Fashion and Ideals of Beauty and Makeup. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law, 1(3), 1637-1649.

Redefining the Role of Local Complaints Committees

Swaraj Choudhary
Volume 1, Issue 3
30th March, 2021
Page No.: 1650-1672

India has an overwhelming number of women in its informal sector. They represent the most marginalized and vulnerable section of the population. An often overlooked area has been the rampant presence of sexual harassment in the informal sector, which is the everyday reality for a lot of women but it often goes unreported. This often leads to the normalization of sexual harassment and unsafe working conditions for women. The institutions which have been set in place by the government to protect women from sexual harassment have very clearly failed them. Therefore there is an urgent need for an overhauling of the entire legal mechanisms. This paper tries to capture the strengths and the problems related to the functioning of the Local Complaints Committees. The paper argues that the problems emerge in the clauses of the POSH act and the working of the LCC and hence the problems are structurally generated. In the end, it tries to give some policy recommendations which can be incorporated by the Central and State governments and the LCC. The reforms suggested if effectively implemented, hold the potential to change the face of the workplaces for women in the informal sector.

Swaraj Choudhary
B.A Political Science, Atma Ram Sanatan Dharma College, University of Delhi, India

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Karan, K. (2018, October 17). Five charts show sexual harassment in workplaces is being recognised – but much more must be done. Scroll. In. 

Kothawade, S. (2019, August 31). Sexual Harassment at the Workplace: What Kind of Change Do Internal Committees Need? Economic and Political Weekly. 

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Sarpotdar, A. (2020). Examining local committees under the sexual harassment of women at workplace act. Economic and Political Weekly, 55(20). 

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Choudhary S. (2021). Redefining the Role of Local Complaints Committees. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law, 1(3), 1650-1672.

The Politics of Implementation: With Special Emphasis on Farm Laws

Aastha Tiwari and Shriya Tandon
Volume 1, Issue 3
30th March, 2021
Page No.: 1673-1692

Farmers are seen as the backbone of the rural economy. Since Independence, various policies have been rolled out concerning the farmers and the status of our agrarian economy. The very recent Farm Bills of 2020 have evoked passionate resistance which makes us wonder why the farmers are protesting against bills that ‘supposedly’ promise them better life circumstances. The farmers’ capacity to understand the reforms has been increasingly brought into question while fingers have been raised at the government for breaching the trust of the farmers. This paper attempts to answer crucial questions around this theme because farmers’ protest is not new to the sphere of politics. For the same, the paper shall use the paradigm of the politics of implementation which has, largely, characterized the development and passing of farm bills over the course of Indian history in the post-Independence era.

Aastha Tiwari
B.A. Hons. Political Science, Lady Shri Ram College for Women, University of Delhi, India
Shriya Tandon
B.A. Hons. Political Science, Lady Shri Ram College for Women, University of Delhi, India

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Madhav, R. (2021). Govt’s agricultural reforms allow for greater access to investment, job creation in rural sector, Indian Express. 

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Tiwari A. & Tandon S. (2021). The Politics of Implementation: With Special Emphasis on Farm Laws. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law, 1(3), 1673-1692.