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What is an Alternative to the Minimum Wage in Canada?: A Comprehensive Literature Review of Price Floors and Welfare Systems in Canada

George Agia
Volume 2, Issue 4
23 June 2022
Page No.: 3935-3948

This paper analyzes the research on price floors and welfare systems in Canada through a qualitative and quantitative framework to ensure its validity. It examines the current effects of the minimum wage and offers critical insight into a refined form of welfare known as the “Negative Income Tax” that can assist policymakers in implementing the most effective welfare policy. The author argues that the minimum wage negatively affects the economy as it produces a wide variety of externalities, one being that it can result in higher unemployment among low-skilled workers and young people (Campolieti et al., 2006). The minimum wage is a price floor, meaning the government can impose a price above the current market equilibrium wherein demand and supply intersect. Thus, the author suggests that Canada should adopt a Negative Income Tax (NIT) policy that would not result in the same externalities as the minimum wage, as this policy is not a price floor. One notable phenomenon of pursuing an NIT is that it substantially increases the productivity of single parents receiving welfare (Riddell & Riddell, 2021).

George Agia
BBA, University of Toronto, Scarborough

[1] Amadeo, K. (2022, June 7). Universal basic income. The Balance. Retrieved June 15, 2022, from https://www.thebalance.com/universal-basic-income-4160668

[2] Angyridis , C., & Thompson, B. S. (2016, August). Negative income taxes, inequality and poverty. JSTOR. Retrieved May 15, 2022, from https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/caje.12223

[3] Brochu, P., & Green, D. A. (2013). The impact of minimum wages on labour market transitions. The Economic Journal, 123(573), 1203–1235. https://doi.org/10.1111/ecoj.12032         

[4] Brock, T., & Reeves, M. (2022, May 5). Who was Milton Friedman? Investopedia. Retrieved May 15, 2022, from https://www.investopedia.com/terms/m/milton-friedman.asp            

[5] Campolieti , M., Gunderson, M., & Riddell, C. (2006). Minimum wage impacts from a prespecified research design: Canada 1981-1997. Industrial Relations, 45(2), 195–216. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-232x.2006.00424.x

[6] Cooper, R., & John, A. (2011). Microeconomics: Theory Through Applications. The effects of a minimum wage. Retrieved June 15, 2022, from https://saylordotorg.github.io/text_microeconomics-theory-through-applications/s14-02-the-effects-of-a-minimum-wage.html

[7] Kagan, J. (2021, May 19). Permanent income hypothesis. Investopedia. Retrieved May 15, 2022, from https://www.investopedia.com/terms/p/permanent-income-hypothesis.asp

[8] Jarow, O. (2020, May 19). A Negative Income Tax for the 21st Century. RSS. Retrieved June 15, 2022, from https://www.musingmind.org/essays/negative-income-tax-proposal

[9] Lopez-Daneri, M. (2016). NIT picking: The macroeconomic effects of a negative income tax. Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, 68, 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jedc.2016.04.008

[10] Riddell, C., & Riddell, W. C. (2021). Welfare versus work under a negative income tax: Evidence from the Gary, Seattle, Denver and Manitoba Income Maintenance Experiments. SSRN Electronic Journal, 1–45. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3896797

[11] Rothstein, J. (2010). Is the EITC as good as an NIT? conditional cash transfers and tax incidence. American Economic Journal: Economic Policy, 2(1), 177–208. https://doi.org/10.1257/pol.2.1.177

[12] Wolfson, M. (2021, April 6). How a guaranteed income could work. Policy Options. Retrieved May 15, 2022, from https://policyoptions.irpp.org/magazines/july-2018/how-a-guaranteed-income-could-work/

Agia G. (2022). What is an Alternative to the Minimum Wage in Canada?: A Comprehensive Literature Review of Price Floors and Welfare Systems in Canada. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law, 2(4), 3935-3948.


Assessing Multilateralism and MiniLateralism in Light of the Comprehensive Convention on International Terrorism Deadlock

Abhiraj Goswami
Volume 2, Issue 4
5 August 2022
Page No.: 3949-3958

The need for an all-encompassing, legally binding instrument that criminalises terrorism was realised in 1996 after the AFB Dhahran bombing. A combined effort spearheaded by India (motivated by the erstwhile surge in Kashmiri insurgency) at the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) Legal (Sixth) Committee led to the establishment of an Ad-Hoc Committee tasked with drawing up and negotiating the said instrument: the Comprehensive Convention on International Terrorism (CCIT). In spite of the Ad-Hoc Committee having successfully developed three separate treaties on combating terrorism from 1997 to 2005, negotiations centred around the main CCIT text itself in the UNGA Legal Committee had stalled in 2013 leading to one of the most consequential challenges to the steadily emerging idea of UN-led multilateralism vis-a-vis the coordinated global battle against terrorism. A three-way deadlock had arisen out of the disagreement over the definition of terrorism (The West v. Latin America v. the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation), which continues to this day, thrusting all efforts into limbo. This article takes a look at this legal deadlock with the aim of investigating whether mini-lateral efforts, as opposed to multilateral efforts, have worked far better in formulating legal infrastructure that helps combat terrorism. The ‘sectoral approach’ as a bypass mechanism is also explored with the hope of chalking a fruitful exit from this deadlock. While plenty of legal exploration has been conducted on the CCIT itself, its consequences on geopolitics is a realm that remains vastly unexplored and this paper, sourcing not only legal but also policy-oriented literature, aims to bridge this gap

Abhiraj Goswami
MSc. International Relations and Diplomacy, Leiden University – The Hague Campus, Netherlands

[1] Alexander, D. C., & Alexander, Y. (2002). Terrorism and Business: The Impact of September 11, 2001. New York: Transnational Publishers.

[2] Anuar, A., & Hussain, N. (2021). MINILATERALISM FOR MULTILATERALISM IN THE POST-COVID AGE. Singapore: S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies.

[3] Bantekas, I. (2020). The international law on terrorist financing. In B. Saul, Research Handbook on International Law and Terrorism (p. 99). Northampton: Edward Elgar Publishing.

[4] Blumenau, B., & Müller, J.-A. (2021). International Organisations and Terrorism. Multilateral Antiterrorism Efforts, 1960–1990. Terrorism and Political Violence, 6-11.

[5] Diaz-Paniagua, C. F. (2008). Terrorism as a subject-matter for negotiation. In C. F. Diaz-Paniagua, NEGOTIATING TERRORISM: THE NEGOTIATION DYNAMICS OF FOUR UN COUNTER-TERRORISM TREATIES, 1997-2005 (p. 61). New York: The City University of New York.

[6] Ewi, M., & Plessis, A. D. (2020). Counter-terrorism and pan-Africanism: from non-action to non-indifference. In B. Saul, Research Handbook on International Law and Terrorism (p. 663). Northampton: Edward Elgar Publishing.

[7] Ganor, B. (2002). DEFINING TERRORISM: IS ONE MAN’S TERRORIST ANOTHER MAN’S FREEDOM FIGHTER? Police Practice and Research, 3(4), 300-302.

[8] Guillaume, G. (2004). Terrorism and International Law. The International and Comparative Law Quarterly, 53(3), 537-548.

[9] Hameed, H. A., & Dahlan, N. H. (2017). The Hague Invasion Act And International Criminal Justice: The Attitude Of The United States Towards The International Criminal Court (ICC). Journal of Law, Policy and Globalization, 62, 91-92.

[10] Hmoud, M. (2006). Negotiating the Draft Comprehensive Convention on International Terrorism: Major Bones of Contention. Journal of International Criminal Justice, 4(5), 1032.

[11] Keohane, R. O. (1990). Multilateralism: An Agenda for Research. International Journal, 45(4), 731.

[12] Lavelle, K. C. (2020). The Past and Future of Multilateralism. In K. C. Lavelle, The Challenges of Multilateralism (pp. 251-253). Yale University Press.

[13] Lederer, E. M. (2002, January 23). Annan Hopes U.N. Will OK Terror Treaty. Retrieved from Midland Daily News: https://www.ourmidland.com/news/article/Annan-Hopes-U-N-Will-OK-Terror-Treaty-7046898.php

[14] Murphy, C. C. (2020). The legal response to terrorism of the European Union and Council of Europe. In B. Saul, Research Handbook on International Law and Terrorism (pp. 616-618). Northampton: Edward Elgar Publishing.

[15] Murphy, J. F. (1986). The Future of Multilateralism And Efforts to Combat International Terrorism. Columbian Journal of Transnational Law, 88-99.

[16] Naím, M. (2009). Minilateralism. Foreign Policy, 136.

[17] Perera, A. R. (2020). The draft United Nations Comprehensive Convention on International Terrorism . In B. Saul, Research Handbook on International Law and Terrorism (pp. 122-123). Northampton: Edward Elgar Publishing.

[18] Ruggie, J. G. (1992). Multilateralism: the Anatomy of an Institution. International Organization, 46(3), 561-598.

[19] Saul, B. (2007). Defining ‘Terrorism’ to Protect Human Rights. In D. Staines, INTERROGATING THE WAR ON TERROR: INTERDISCIPLINARY PERSPECTIVE (p. 6). Syndey: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.

[20] Schmid, A. (2004). Terrorism – The Definitional Problem. Case Western Reserve Journal of International Law, 36(2), 376.

[21] UNGA. (2004). Report of the High-level Panel on Threats, Challenges and Change. New York: United Nations.

[22] UNGA Sixth Committee. (2018). Fight against International Terrorism Impeded by Stalemate on Comprehensive Convention, Sixth Committee Hears as Seventy-Third Session Begins. New York: United Nations Press.

[23] UNGA Sixth Committee. (2000). Summary record of the 27th meeting. New York: United Nations Press.

[24] UN Secretary General’s Note. (2004). Report of the High-level Panel on Threats, Challenges and Change. New York: United Nations Press.

Goswami A. (2022). Assessing Multilateralism and MiniLateralism in Light of the Comprehensive Convention on International Terrorism Deadlock. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law, 2(4), 3949-3958.


Challenges Faced By Inter-State Migrant Workers In India: An Analysis

Devki Natu
Volume 2, Issue 4
5 August 2022
Page No.: 3959-3973

The COVID-19 pandemic brought to light the plight of the 800-million odd inter-state migrant workers in India. Inter-state migrant workers are characterized by the nature of their migration, namely permanent, semi-permanent and seasonal/circular. The challenges faced by them lie at the intersection of identity formation, financing, housing and political inclusion, as past studies point out. In view of the new labour codes introduced by the Government of India, this paper comparatively analyzes past and current labour policies (with a focus on social security and welfare measures) to point out what would change for the workers and if it would benefit them. Based on secondary sources of data like research papers, news articles and magazine articles, the paper asserts the plus points of the new policies and also highlights avenues for planned revamp of specific provisions.

Devki Natu
B.A. Sociology, S.K. Somaiya Degree College of Arts, Science and Commerce, University of Mumbai

[1] Aajeevika Bureau (Udaipur). (n.d.). Political Inclusion of Seasonal Migrant Workers in India: Perceptions, Realities and Challenges.https://www.humandignity.foundation/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/Political-Inclusion-of-Migrant-Workers-in-India.pdf

[2] Bhagat, R. B. (2011). Migrants’ (Denied) Right to the City. UNESCO- UNICEF Seminar on Migration and Human Development. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/234169322_Migrants%27_Denied_Right_to_the_City 

[3] Chakradhar, A. (2020, September 18). Labour codes: Are protections for migrant workers migrating too? Scroll.In. https://scroll.in/article/973402/labour-codes-are-protections-for-migrant-workers-migrating-too 

[4] Chidambaram, P. (2020, May 4). We will never know how many people died of starvation, because no state government will admit to starvation deaths. The Indian Express. https://indianexpress.com/article/opinion/columns/p-chidambaram-india-coronavirus-lockdown-migrants-hunger-6390882/   

[5] ET Government. (2021, November 2). Why PMAY-U Fails to Address India’s Intrinsic Housing Problems. Retrieved 2021, from https://government.economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/governance/why-pmay-u-fails-to-address-indias-intrinsic-housing-problems/87481136   

[6] Iyer, M. (2020). Migration in India and the impact of the lockdown on migrants. PRS Legislative Research.

[7] https://prsindia.org/theprsblog/migration-in-india-and-the-impact-of-the-lockdown-on-migrants 

[8] Jebaraj, P. (2019, September 8). What is ration card portability? The Hindu. https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/what-is-ration-card-portability/article29363067.ece 

[9] Jha, S. (2020). Govt’s piecemeal steps of little use, migrants need immediate help: Experts. Business Standard. https://www.business-standard.com/article/economy-policy/govt-s-piecemeal-steps-of-little-use-migrants-need-immediate-help-experts-120051401438_1.html 

[10] Karthik, P. (2020, July 13). The migrant labour crisis must push for structural reforms. ORF.

[11] https://www.orfonline.org/expert-speak/migrant-labour-crisis-must-push-structural-reforms-68874/ 

[12] Kazeem, Y. (2018, March 21). Sierra Leone elections powered by blockchain. Quartz. https://qz.com/africa/1227050/sierra-leone-elections-powered-by-blockchain/ 

[13] LexQuest Foundation. (2020, September 18). Housing Migrant Workers: The Biggest Ambiguity in Labour Policies Framework? https://www.lexquest.in/housing-migrant-workers-the-biggest-ambiguity-in-labour-policies-framework/

[14] Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs, Government of India. (n.d.). Affordable Rental Housing Complexes(ARHCs) (At a Glance). http://arhc.mohua.gov.in/At-a-Galance.html 

[15] Ministry of Labour and Employment, Government of India. (2022). THE INTER-STATE MIGRANT WORKMEN (REGULATION OF EMPLOYMENT AND CONDITIONS OF SERVICE) ACT, 1979. Chief Labour Commissioner (Central) https://clc.gov.in/clc/acts-rules/inter-state-migrant-workmen 

[16] Ministry of Law and Justice, Government of India. (1961). THE CONDUCT OF ELECTIONS RULES, 1961. https://legislative.gov.in/sites/default/files/%282%29%20THE%20CONDUCT%20OF%20ELECTION%20RULES%2C%201961.pdf 

[17] Pandey, N. (2018, February 20). Only 16% Of Rural Users Access Internet For Digital Payments: Report | Mint.

[18] https://www.livemint.com/Politics/PhY0kTxoJqq6U9GISIpSaK/Only-16-of-rural-users-access-Internet-for-digital-payments.html 

[19] Rajan, S. I., & Bhagat, R. B. (2021). Migration and Pandemics: Spaces of Solidarity and Spaces of Exception (IMISCOE Research Series). In Internal Migration and the Covid-19 Pandemic in India (1st ed. 2022 ed., pp. 227–248). Springer.

[20] Reddy, A. (2021, November 11). New Labour Codes: What Changes for Interstate Migrants? Vidhi Centre for Legal Policy. https://vidhilegalpolicy.in/blog/new-labour-codes-what-changes-for-interstate-migrants/ 

[21] Shagun. (2020). Cash, on delivery: How India has taken up DBT in the times of COVID-19. Down to Earth. https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/economy/cash-on-delivery-how-india-has-taken-up-dbt-in-the-times-of-covid-19-72247   

[22] Srivastava, R. (2020, February). Vulnerable Internal Migrants in India and Portability of Social Security and Entitlements. Institute for Human Development. http://www.ihdindia.org/Working%20Ppaers/2020/IHD-CES_WP_02_2020.pdf 

[23] Talukdar, S. (2007, January 25). Migrants’ massacre. Frontline.

[24] https://frontline.thehindu.com/other/article30190033.ece 

[25] Tejaswi, M. (2022, June 27). Centre not yet ready with labour code implementation plan: Indian Staffing Federation. The Hindu. https://www.thehindu.com/business/Industry/centre-not-yet-ready-with-labour-code-implementation-plan-indian-staffing-federation/article65572040.ece   

[26] Varma, D., & Abbas, R. (2017, March 2). Internal Labor Migration in India Raises Integration Challenges for Migrants. Migrationpolicy.Org. https://www.migrationpolicy.org/article/internal-labor-migration-india-raises-integrationchallenges-migrants 

Natu D. (2022). Challenges Faced By Inter-State Migrant Workers In India: An Analysis. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law, 2(4), 3959-3973.


Understanding the Opportunities and Threats of COP-26

Riya Chainani and Bhumika Kukreja
Volume 2, Issue 4
31 August 2022
Page No.: 3974-3992

The COP26 (The Conference of Parties) was a series of negotiations to fast-track the provisions under the Paris Accord. The paper attempts to study the progress made until now through Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) and synthesis reports. Focusing on the third goal of COP26, the paper also highlights the actions taken by countries and leaders to mobilize funds for transition and adaptation, the responsibility of both developed and developing economies, and the role of private investors in climate action. It aims to examine environmental actions undertaken through the lens of game theory, using a 2*2 matrix model to determine Nash Equilibria of cooperation. The paper examines strategic decision-making affecting climate action through the lens of game theory. It tries to depict decision-making through the perspective of two types of economies, developed and developing economies. The paper focuses on observing such results over a short run as well as a long run period and tries to analyze the differences between both through the results. The game-theoretical perspective also helps to establish a relevant observation of the implications of India’s current stance on retaining phasing down rather than phasing out coal.

Riya Chainani
B.A. Economics, Jai Hind College, University of Mumbai
Bhumika Kukreja
B.A. Economics, Jai Hind College, University of Mumbai

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[2] Carney, M., (2020). Building a Private Finance System for Net Zero. Priorities for private finance for COP26. Retrieved July 27, 2022, from


[3] Chander, P. (2018). Game theory and climate change. Columbia University Press.

[4] Climate Change Impacts and Emerging Population Trends: A Recipe for Disaster? (n.d.). PRB. Retrieved July 27, 2022, from https://www.prb.org/resources/climate-change-impacts-emerging-population-trends-disaster/

[5] Climate Finance in the negotiations | UNFCCC. (n.d.). Retrieved July 27, 2022, from https://unfccc.int/topics/climate-finance/the-big-picture/climate-finance-in-the-negotiations

[6] COP26 Outcomes: Finance for Climate Adaptation | UNFCCC. (n.d.). Retrieved July 28, 2022, from


[7] COP26 Presidency (January 2021). Priorities for Public Climate Finance in the year ahead. Retrieved July 27, 2022, from


[8] EESI. (n.d.). Timeline of Major UN Climate Negotiations. Retrieved July 27, 2022, from https://www.eesi.org/policy/international

[9] Environment and Climate Change Canada. (2022, March 31). 2030 EMISSIONS REDUCTION PLAN. Canada.ca. Retrieved August 15, 2022, from https://www.canada.ca/content/dam/eccc/documents/pdf/climate-change/erp/Canada-2030-Emissions-Reduction-Plan-eng.pdf

[10] Government of India Environment, Forest and Climate. (2018). Revised-PPT-Press-Conference-INDC-v5.pdf. (n.d.). Retrieved July 28, 2022, from https://moef.gov.in/wp-content/uploads/2018/04/revised-PPT-Press-Conference-INDC-v5.pdf

[11] Hegerl, G. C., Brönnimann, S., Schurer, A., & Cowan, T. (2018). The early 20th century warming: Anomalies, causes, and consequences. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change, 9(4), e522.

[12] Hindustan Times. (2019, September 23). Experts say India’s climate adaptation fund inadequate | Latest News India. Hindustan Times. Retrieved August 15, 2022, from https://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/experts-say-india-s-climate-adaptation-fund-inadequate/story-olaTbfFmsSOQpVBcKk3qGP.html

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[14] Kharkongor, N. W., & Kanwar, A. V. S. (2018). The Tragedy of Commons from Garret Hardin to Elinor Ostrom: A governance perspective, drawing excerpts from India. International Journal of Green Economics, 12(3–4), 182–191.

[15] Kulkarni, C. (2022, June 1). Fossil fuel subsidies in India nine times higher than renewable energy: Study. Deccan Herald. Retrieved August 15, 2022, from https://www.deccanherald.com/national/fossil-fuel-subsidies-in-india-nine-times-higher-than-renewable-energy-study-1114164.html

[16] Kumar, M. (2021, May 12). India offers $2.46B incentive to boost domestic production of batteries. TechCrunch. Retrieved August 15, 2022, from https://techcrunch.com/2021/05/12/india-approves-incentive-to-boost-domestic-production-of-batteries-advanced-energy-storage/

[17] Marquette, C. (1997). Turning but not toppling Malthus: Boserupian theory on population and the environment relationships.

[18] Mehrotra, N., & Benjamin, E. O. (2022). Evaluating the enhancement of the Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) of developing countries: An international support programme perspective. Climate Policy, 1–15.

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[20] Pauw, W.P. and Klein, R. J. T. (2020). Beyond ambition: increasing the transparency, coherence and implementability of Nationally Determined Contributions. Climate Policy. 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1080/14693062.2020.1722607

[21] Prydz, E. B., & Wadhwa, D. (2019, September 9). WDI – Classifying countries by income. World Bank Group. Retrieved August 15, 2022, from https://datatopics.worldbank.org/world-development-indicators/stories/the-classification-of-countries-by-income.html

[22] Richardson, R. B. (2018, July 30). Yes, humans are depleting Earth’s resources, but ‘footprint’ estimates don’t tell the full story. The Conversation. Retrieved February 3, 2022, from https://theconversation.com/yes-humans-are-depleting-earths-resources-but-footprint-estimates-dont-tell-the-full-story-100705

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[24] Stewart, A. J. (2015, March 11). New take on game theory offers clues on why we cooperate. The Conversation  https://theconversation.com/new-take-on-game-theory-offers-clues-on-why-we-cooperate-38130

[25] Tadelis, S. (2013). Game theory: An introduction. Princeton university press.

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Chainani R. & Kukreja B. (2022). Understanding the Opportunities and Threats of COP-26. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law, 2(4), 3974-3992.