VOLUME 2 - ISSUE 2

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Analysing the Impact of Social Media Marketing on SMEs in India

Anannya Padhi and Antra Sharma
Volume 2, Issue 2
16 January 2022
Page No.: 3332-3361

More than half of the Indian population resides in rural and semi-urban parts of the nation. Therefore, a major contribution to the GDP of the economy comes from the businesses which constitute Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) run by the residents in these parts. Initially, the marketing mix of these SMEs revolved around the traditional practices, however, with the introduction of Digital India and the wave of COVID-19 pandemic, a shift towards adopting social media marketing (SMM) strategies is evident. Therefore, this paper attempts to study the impact of SMM strategies on SMEs. An elaborative study has been done on the marketing models carried out by SMEs with the help of SMM. A SWOT analysis followed by a case study on a medium enterprise helps in identifying the depth of influence SMM has over SMEs in India. Through the case study, the impact of SMM by SMEs has been studied to analyse the changes observed by workers and consumers during the pandemic. The paper also tries to understand the link between SMM, SMEs, and sustainability. The conclusion follows that although there are both advantages and disadvantages for SMEs concerning the adaptation of SMM in their marketing mix, the weightage towards advantages is observed to be more fruitful. SMEs should try to extract the benefits that SMM has to offer for their growth and optimal outreach of businesses.

Anannya Padhi
B.A. Hons. Economics, Daulat Ram College, University of Delhi
Antra Sharma
B.A. Hons. Economics, Maitreyi College, University of Delhi

Padhi A. & Sharma A. (2022). Analysing the Impact of Social Media Marketing on SMEs in India. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law2(2), 3332-3361.

https://ijpsl.in/wp-content/uploads/2022/01/Analysing-the-Impact-of-Social-Media-Marketing-on-SMEs-in-India-merged.pdf

Women and Consumer Behaviour in the Cosmetics Industry: Analysing the Impact of Intersectionality

Anindita Audhkhasi and Pavni Arora
Volume 2, Issue 2
16 January 2022
Page No.: 3362-3396

Increasing awareness of beauty products, rising personal grooming premium, changing consumption patterns, and improved purchasing power of women are forecasted to boost the Indian cosmetic industry by 25% to $20n billion by 2025 (Economics Times,2019). Through this paper, the authors attempt to analyse and understand how psychological, social, and economic factors have influenced the consumer behaviour of women, in terms of cosmetic products, and contributed to this boost. Approaching the topic from an intersectional perspective, the study analyzes the role heteronormative beauty norms have played in establishing a culture that rewards ‘femininity’, and its consequent impact on the psychology and cosmetic buying behaviour of women. Our research serves the purpose of interpreting how the intersection of colour, caste, race, religion, and other social characteristics creates variability in the cosmetic purchase behaviour of women while simultaneously analysing the inclusivity of the cosmetic industry. The paper provides evidence of how the cosmetic industry capitalises on women’s insecurities and contributes to gender socialisation and inequality. The direct correlation between the profitability of the cosmetic industry and the manipulation of women is substantiated by the gender-based pricing of products. The paper delves into how beauty standards and patriarchal norms have willed women into paying a higher price than men for the same cosmetic product, thereby aiding their own economic subjugation. Therefore, through this research, the authors aim to understand the cosmetic consumer behaviour patterns exhibited by women, the role intersectionality plays in these consumption patterns, and the additional premium paid by women to be deemed attractive

Anindita Audhkhasi
B.A. Hons. Psychology, Keshav Mahavidyalaya, University of Delhi
Pavni Arora
B.A. Hons. Business Economics, Sri Guru Gobind Singh College of Commerce, University of Delhi

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Audhkhasi A. & Arora P. (2022). Women and Consumer Behaviour in the Cosmetics Industry: Analysing the Impact of Intersectionality. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law2(2), 3362-3396.

https://ijpsl.in/wp-content/uploads/2022/01/Women-and-Consumer-Behaviour-in-the-Cosmetics-Industry-Analysing-the-Impact-of-Intersectionality-merged.pdf

Comparative Analysis of HDI of India and Singapore

Anisha Jain and Devanshi Sharma
Volume 2, Issue 2
16 January 2022
Page No.: 3397-3424

We often associate the development of a country with its economic growth. However, it is interesting to see that a country like Singapore that has less economic growth than India, which is the third fastest-growing economy in the world, tends to score better in terms of human development, leaving us with the question of what worked for Singapore that India is not taking into account. The paper is an attempt to analyze these gaps in the context of India and also find out the shortcomings within the high HDI score of Singapore using both qualitative and quantitative secondary data. Among the three-dimension index of HDI scoreGross National Index (GNI), Life Expectancy Index and Education Index- it is seen that GNI of India is better than Singapore but problems like overpopulation, high unemployment rate along poverty do not let the economic growth assimilate in the economy. India has the potential to become a net exporter in the global market and the country is trying its way to becoming an attractive destination for companies abroad. Whereas, Singapore has well-structured and detailed healthcare facilities and a specialised education system these facilities are expensive to access, raising the cost of living for people. India has great scope in medical tourism (3rd in the world) as it offers cheap and accessible medical facilities (Tour my India, 2020) while Singapore is a knowledge-based economy and aspires to be a “global schoolhouse” by imparting qualitative and skill-based education to international students (Sidhu, R., Ho, K. C., & Yeoh, B., 2011).

Anisha Jain
B.A. Hons. Business Economics, Gargi College, University of Delhi
Devanshi Sharma
B.A. Hons. Economics, Shri Ram College of Commerce, University of Delhi

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Jain A. & Sharma D. (2022). Comparative Analysis of HDI of India and Singapore. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law2(2), 3397-3424.

http://ijpsl.in/wp-content/uploads/2022/01/Comparative-Analysis-of-HDI-of-India-and-Singapore_Anisha-Jain-Devanshi-Sharma.pdf

Living in an Informal Economy: A Study on the Economic Impacts of COVID-19 on the Internal Migrant Workers of India

Barnak Das and Poornima Bhagwani
Volume 2, Issue 2
28 January 2022
Page No.: 3425-3452

The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted India’s enduring internal migrant crisis. The absence of comprehensive data on domestic migrant workers makes it difficult to efficiently communicate or reach out to them for financial support, food security or healthcare services. Despite this, migrant workers are the backbone of India’s economy. Based on secondary literature, this paper analyses the specific ways in which the internal migrant workers of India have been affected by the pandemic and examines the government’s response and its impact in addressing the crisis. By doing so, this paper aims to provide insights for more inclusive, comprehensive and effective migrant policies and operations involving multiple stakeholders at all levels. The paper sheds light on the vulnerability of India’s internal migrants in terms of their lack of financial aid, healthcare, mobility and education. In addition, it critically analyses and compares the policies implemented for helping migrant workers in the post-pandemic period by other developing nations. Finally, it highlights the scope for improvements in the future by proposing inclusive policy reforms keeping in mind multiple SDGs of the United Nations.

Barnak Das
B.A. Hons. History, Presidency University, Kolkata
Poornima Bhagwani
B.A. Hons. Economics, Maitreyi College, University of Delhi

[1] Aggarwal, V., Solano, G., Singh, P., & Singh, S. (2020). The Integration of Interstate Migrants in India: A 7 State Policy Evaluation. International Migration, 58(5), 144–163. https://doi.org/10.1111/imig.12701 

[2] Choudhari, R. (2020). COVID-19 Pandemic: Mental Health Challenges of Internal Migrant Workers of India. SSRN Electronic Journal. Published. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3630298 

[3] Clare, A. (2020, 7th September). COVID-19 in South and Southeast Asia: a quick guide. Parliament of Australia. https://www.aph.gov.au/About_Parliament/Parliamentary_Departments/Parliamentary_Library/pubs/rp/rp2021/ Quick_Guides/COVIDSouthAsia 

[4] COVID-19 Analytical Snapshot #49: Impacts on migrants in informal economies | International Organization for Migration. (2020, 24th June). Https://Www.Iom.Int/.  https://www.iom.int/resources/covid-19-analytical-snapshot-49-impacts-migrants-informal-economies 

[5] COVID-19: Lockdown Impact on the Informal Sector in India. (2020). University Practice Connect.

https://practiceconnect.azimpremjiuniversity.edu.in/covid-19-lockdown-impact-on-inf ormal-sector-in-india/

[6] Dabla, Rhee, E. N. C. (2020, April 30). A “New Deal” for Informal Workers in Asia. IMF Blog. https://blogs.imf.org/2020/04/30/a-new-deal-for-informal-workers-in-asia/ 

[7] Das, A. K. (2021, 1st July). World Bank Approves $500 Million Loan To Support India’s Informal Sector Workers. Swarajyamag. 

https://swarajyamag.com/news-brief/world-bank-approves-500-million-loan-to-support-indias-informal-sector-workers 

[8] Dutta, P. K. (2021, 1st July). Decoded | One Nation One Ration Card, why Supreme Court pushed the govt scheme. India Today.

[9] https://www.indiatoday.in/india/story/decoded-one-nation-one-ration-card-supreme-court-pushed-govt-scheme-1821101-2021-06-30   

[10] The Fundamental Freedom to Migrate within India. (2021, 12th June). Economic and Political Weekly. https://www.epw.in/journal/2021/23/commentary/fundamental-freedom-migrate-within-india.html   

[11] Ghosh, J. (2020). A critique of the Indian government’s response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Industrial and Business Economics, 47(3), 519–530. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40812-020-00170-x 

[12] Gupta, J., & Misra, P. (2021). Mixed method research on lifelong learning: capturing its dynamics in a multi-generational workforce in the wake of COVID 19. International Journal of Management in Education, 15(4), 293.

[13] https://doi.org/10.1504/ijmie.2021.116524 

[14] Internal Migration in India Initiative. (2011). Unicef.

[15] Irudaya Rajan, S., Sivakumar, P., & Srinivasan, A. (2020). The COVID-19 Pandemic and Internal Labour Migration in India: A ‘Crisis of Mobility.’ The Indian Journal of Labour Economics, 63(4), 1021–1039. https://doi.org/10.1007/s41027-020-00293-8

[16] Insights Editor. (2020, 26th May). Insights into Editorial: MGNREGA work demand at a five-year high shows stress in the informal sector. INSIGHTSIAS.

https://www.insightsonindia.com/2020/05/26/insights-into-editorial-mgnrega-work-demand-at-five-year-high-shows-stress-in-informal-sector/   

[17] Iype,Sarah & Rajamohan, Sanjana. (2020, 22nd July). Ensuring education for migrant children. The New Indian Express. https://www.newindianexpress.com/opinions/2020/jul/22/ensuring-education-for-migrant-children-2173081.html   

[18] Keshri, K., & Bhagat, R. B. (2013). SOCIO-ECONOMIC DETERMINANTS OF TEMPORARY LABOUR MIGRATION IN INDIA. Asian Population Studies, 9(2), 175–195. https://doi.org/10.1080/17441730.2013.797294 

[19] Kochhar, R. (2021, 18th March). In the pandemic, India’s middle-class shrinks and poverty spreads while China sees smaller changes. Pew Research Center. https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2021/03/18/in-the-pandemic-indias-middle-class-shrinks-and-poverty-spreads-while-china-sees-smaller-changes/   

[20] Kumar, S., & Choudhury, S. (2021). Migrant workers and human rights: A critical study on India’s COVID-19 lockdown policy. Social Sciences & Humanities Open, 3(1), 100130. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssaho.2021.100130 

[21] Menon, A. K. (2021, January 4). Covid-19 fallout: How the pandemic displaced millions of migrants. India Today. https://www.indiatoday.in/magazine/news-makers/story/20210111-displaced-distresse d-1755084-2021-01-03

[22] Migrant workers and human rights | India Water Portal. (n.d.). India Water Portal. Retrieved 17th September, 2021, from https://www.indiawaterportal.org/article/migrant-workers-and-human-rights

[23] Migrant workers in India: The pandemic pressure. (2020, 22nd June). Social Policy. https://blogs.lse.ac.uk/socialpolicy/2020/06/18/migrant-workers-in-india-the-pandemic-pressure/ 

[24] Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation (MOSPI). (2014). National Sample Survey Office. Government of India (GOI). 

[25] Mitra, R., Rawat, C., & Menon, N. (2021, February 4). Budget Acknowledges Migrant Distress But Falls Short In Key Areas. Indiaspend. https://www.indiaspend.com/budget/budget-acknowledges-migrant-distress-but-falls-short-in-key-areas-722383   

[26] Paliath, S. (2021, 28th August). A Year After Exodus, No Reliable Data Or Policy On Migrant Workers. Indiaspend. https://www.indiaspend.com/governance/migrant-workers-no-reliable-data-or-policy737499   

[27] Pandey, P. (2021, 19th April). Always on the move: The troubling landscape of the right to education for migrant children in India. Times of India Blog. https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/blogs/voices/always-on-the-move-the-troubling-landscape-of-the-right-to-education-for-migrant-children-in-india/   

[28] The Philippines Provides Support to Workers in the Informal Economy. (2021, 1st February). Yale School of Management. https://som.yale.edu/blog/the-philippines-provides-support-to-workers-in-the-informal -economy

[29] Policy Brief: The World of Work and COVID-19. (2020). UN Sustainable Development Group. https://unsdg.un.org/resources/policy-brief-world-work-and-covid-19 

[30] Pre Employment Card as a Tool to Develop Indonesian Human Resources during Covid 19 Outbreak | Bahar. (n.d.). Bahar. Co.Id. Retrieved 17th September, 2021, from https://bahar.co.id/index.php/whats-new/whats-new/pre-employment-card-tool-develop-indonesian-human-resources-during-covid-19   

[31] Rahaman, M., Roy, A., Chouhan, P., Das, K. C., & Rana, M. J. (2021). Risk of COVID-19 Transmission and Livelihood Challenges of Stranded Migrant Labourers during Lockdown in India. The Indian Journal of Labour Economics, 64(3), 787–802. https://doi.org/10.1007/s41027-021-00327-9 

[32] Rajan, S. I., & M., S. (2019). Handbook of Internal Migration in India. SAGE Publications. Sengupta, S., & Jha, M. K. (2020). Social Policy, COVID-19 and Impoverished Migrants: Challenges and Prospects in Locked Down India. The International Journal of Community and Social Development, 2(2), 152–172.

https://doi.org/10.1177/2516602620933715 

[33] Shastri, P. (2020, April 6). Migrant worker has nervous breakdown in Ahmedabad. The Times of India. https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/ahmedabad/migrant-worker-has-nervous-breakdown/articleshow/75000134.cms   

[34] Singh, Gurpreet (2020). Covid19 Pandemic: Charting the Way Forward for Migrant Workers. Policy Brief, Centre For Budget and Governance Accountability, New Delhi.

[35] Sircar, J.(2020, 29th March). A Long Look at Exactly Why and How India Failed Its Migrant Workers. The Wire. https://thewire.in/labour/lockdown-migrant-workers-policy-analysis 

[36] Srivastava, Ravi & Keshri, Kunal & Gaur, Kirti & Padhi, Balakrushna & Jha, Ajit. (2020). Internal Migration in India and the Impact of Uneven Regional Development and Demographic Transition across States: A Study for Evidence-based Policy Recommendations (E-Book).

[37] The Diplomat. (2021, 19th January). A Crisis Waiting to Happen: Unemployment and Informality in Southeast Asia During COVID.

https://thediplomat.com/2021/01/a-crisis-waiting-to-happen-unemployment-and-informality-in-southeast-asia-during-covid/ 

Das B. & Bhagwani P. (2022). Living in an Informal Economy: A Study on the Economic Impacts of COVID-19 on the Internal Migrant Workers of India. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law2(2), 3425-3452.

https://ijpsl.in/wp-content/uploads/2022/01/Living-in-an-Informal-Economy-A-Study-on-the-Economic-Impacts-of-COVID-19-on-the-Internal-Migrant-Workers-of-India_Barnak-Das-Poornima-Bhagwani.pdf

Understanding the Gender Gap in Enrolment in Undergraduate Courses in India

Bula Kalra and Sampada Singhal
Volume 2, Issue 2
28 January 2022
Page No.: 3453-3469

Equitable access to quality education is essential for the development of a country. Quality education must be accessible to everyone irrespective of the socio-economic group they belong to. In India, there exists a difference between the number of men and women enrolled in the undergraduate courses of colleges, where the number of men enrolled is more than women. Furthermore, the enrollment of people belonging to the LGBTQIA+ community is even lower. Although this gender gap exists right from primary education, the gap widens when it comes to higher education. The roots of this issue lie in the deep-rooted gender stereotypes prevalent in the country as well as other challenges. This paper articulates the background of the gender gap and demonstrates it using an analysis of the data of undergraduate course enrollments in 2019 provided by 5 colleges in India to the National Assessment and Accreditation Council as part of their Self Study Report. The challenges faced by women and people belonging to the LGBTQIA+ community in the attainment of education have also been analyzed and discussed. The paper further evaluates two policies formulated by the government of India which attempted to address the gender inequalities in the education sector and promote women’s education. An important issue highlighted in the paper is the lack of inclusion and acknowledgement of genders other than “men” and “women” by the government and educational institutions owing to their flawed understanding of the term ‘gender’ as binary instead of a wide spectrum. Finally, the paper gives certain recommendations which can help close the gender gap in enrollments in undergraduate courses in India.

Bula Kalra
B.A. Hons. Political Science, Kirori Mal College, University of Delhi
Sampada Singhal
B.A. Hons. Psychology, Mata Sundri College for Women, University of Delhi

[1] ARYA COLLEGE, LUDHIANA. (2019). SELF STUDY REPORT FOR 1st CYCLE OF ACCREDITATION. NATIONAL ASSESSMENT AND ACCREDITATION COUNCIL. https://aryacollegeludhiana.in/naac/naac-ssr.pdf 

[2] Babbar, K., & Sharma, S. (2020, August 16). If NEP 2020 Wants Gender Inclusion, Why Is It Ghosting LGBTQIA+? TheQuint. https://www.thequint.com/news/education/if-nep-2020-wants-gender-inclusion-why-is-it-ghosting-lgbtqia#read-more    

[3] BALAJI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY AND SCIENCE. (2020, January). SELF STUDY REPORT FOR 1st CYCLE OF ACCREDITATION. NATIONAL ASSESSMENT AND ACCREDITATION COUNCIL. https://www.bitswgl.ac.in/pdf/NAAC%20SSR.pdf

[4] Bandhopadhyay, M., & Subrahmanian, R. (2008, April). Gender Equity in Education: A Review of Trends and Factors. Consortium for Research on Educational Access, Transitions and Equity. http://www.create-rpc.org/pdf_documents/PTA18.pdf 

[5] Bhatt, N. (2020, September 2). Examining India’s new education policy through a gender lens. Devex. https://www.devex.com/news/examining-india-s-new-education-policy-through-a-gender-len s-98007 

[6] Blackhurst, A. E., & Auger, R. W. (2008). Precursors to the Gender Gap in College Enrollment: Children’s Aspirations and Expectations for Their Futures. Professional School Counseling, 11(3), 2156759X0801100. doi:10.1177/2156759×0801100301    

[7] Elementary Education | Government of India, Ministry of Education. (n.d.). https://www.education.gov.in/en/mahila-samakhya-programme.

[8] Enrolment of girls up, gender gap in higher education down. (2021, June 11). The New Indian Express. https://www.newindianexpress.com/nation/2021/jun/11/enrolment-of-girls-up-gender-gap-in-higher-education-down-2314544.html   

[9] Gender equality. (n.d.). UNICEF. https://www.unicef.org/india/what-we-do/gender-equality

[10] JAMIA MILLIA ISLAMIA. (2020, February). SELF STUDY REPORT FOR 2nd CYCLE OF ACCREDITATION. NATIONAL ASSESSMENT AND ACCREDITATION COUNCIL. https://www.jmi.ac.in/NAAC/self_study_report.pdf.

[11] King, E. M., & Winthrop, R. (2015, June). TODAY’S CHALLENGES FOR GIRLS’ EDUCATION. Global Economy and Development at Brookings. https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/todays-challenges-girls-educationv6.pdf 

[12] MAHARAJAH’S COLLEGE(AUTONOMOUS). (2019, December). SELF STUDY REPORT FOR 3rd CYCLE OF ACCREDITATION. NATIONAL ASSESSMENT AND ACCREDITATION COUNCIL. http://www.mracollegevzm.com/downloads/NAAC%20-%20SSR%202019.pdf

[13] Ministry of Education, Government of India. (2020). All India Survey on Higher Education 2019–20. Ministry of Human Resource Development. https://www.education.gov.in/sites/upload_files/mhrd/files/statistics-new/aishe_eng.pdf 

[14] Ministry of Human Resource Development. (1986). NATIONAL POLICY ON EDUCATION 1986. https://www.education.gov.in/sites/upload_files/mhrd/files/upload_document/npe.pdf 

[15] Ministry of Human Resource Development. (2020). National Education Policy 2020. https://www.education.gov.in/sites/upload_files/mhrd/files/NEP_Final_English_0.pdf 

[16] Mitra, R. (2015, July). GENDER GAP IN HIGHER EDUCATION AND THE CHALLENGES AHEAD: AN ANALYTICAL STUDY OF INDIAN STATES. International Journal of Advanced Research in Management and Social Sciences. https://garph.co.uk/IJARMSS/July2015/6.pdf   

[17] Rodriguez, L. (2019, September 24). 7 Obstacles to Girls’ Education and How to Overcome Them. Global Citizen. https://www.globalcitizen.org/en/content/barriers-to-girls-education-around-the-world/ 

[18] Singh, N. (2008). Higher Education for Women in India—Choices and Challenges. The Forum on Public Policy. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1099426.pdf 

[19] Singh, N. (2020, October 12). 6 Fault Lines Of The New Education Policy 2020. Feminism In India. https://feminisminindia.com/2020/10/13/fault-lines-new-education-policy-2020/

[20] VASAVI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING. (2020, February). SELF STUDY REPORT FOR 1st CYCLE OF ACCREDITATION. NATIONAL ASSESSMENT AND ACCREDITATION COUNCIL. https://vce.ac.in/Downloads/NAAC/NAAC_SSR.pdf.

 

Kalra B. & Singhal S. (2022). Understanding the Gender Gap in Enrolment in Undergraduate Courses in India. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law2(2), 3453-3469.

https://ijpsl.in/wp-content/uploads/2022/01/Understanding-the-Gender-Gap-in-Enrollment-in-Undergraduate-Courses-in-India_Bula-Kalra-Sampada-Singhal.pdf

Impact of Climate Change on Poverty

Meghaa and Abhishek Tayal
Volume 2, Issue 2
28 January 2022
Page No.: 3470-3505

Poverty has been a long battle that’s half won and Climate change is merely an unknown phenomenon today. Both form an integral part of the sustainable development literature of policymaking. However, their linkages have been long overlooked by nations when addressing growth and sustainability. In this literature, we explore the possible linkages of poverty and climate change by introducing the two concepts thoroughly, defining the global poverty scenario and shedding light on some real-life examples. The examples delve into underdeveloped or less developed countries that are most exposed to climate variability to understand vulnerabilities present to the world, especially the poor world, and examine the impact of rising earth temperature on poverty, poverty alleviation programs and economic growth. At the same time, we look at different policy actions that countries over the world have undertaken for the same. Finally, policy insights are provided with conclusions that may assist future studies and current policies.

Meghaa
B.A. Hons. Economics, Sri Guru Tegh Bahadur Khalsa College, University of Delhi
Abhishek Tayal
B.A. Hons. Economics, Delhi Technological University

[1] Alkire, S., Chatterjee, M., Conconi, A., Seth, S., & Vaz, A. (2014). Poverty in Rural and U ban Areas. Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative. Published.

https://www.ophi.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/Poverty-in-Rural-and-Urban-Areas-Direct-Comparisons-using-the-Global-MPI-2014.pdf     

[2] Angelsen, A., & Dokken, T. (2018). Climate exposure, vulnerability and environmental reliance: A cross-section analysis of structural and stochastic poverty. Environment and Development Economics, 23(3), 257-278. doi:10.1017/S1355770X18000013ng   

[3] Azzarri, C., & Signorelli, S. (2020). Climate and poverty in Africa South of the Sahara. World Development, 125. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2019.104691 Beegle, K., Christiaensen, L., Dabalen, A., & Gaddis, I. (2016). Poverty in a rising Africa. https://doi.org/10.1596/978-1-4648-0723-7 

[4] Bhattacharya, A. (2018, September 12). After China, India pulled most people out of poverty since 1990. Quartz. https://qz.com/india/1385642/after-china-india-pulled-most-people-out-of-poverty-since-1990/ 

[5] Bond, T. C., Bhardwaj, E., Dong, R., Jogani, R., Jung, S., Roden, C., Streets,

[6] D. G., & Trautmann, N. M. (2007). Historical emissions of black and organic carbon aerosol from energy-related combustion, 1850–2000. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 21(2), n/a. https://doi.org/10.1029/2006gb002840 

[7] Burke, M., Hsiang, S., & Miguel, E. (2014). Climate and Conflict. National Bureau Of Economic Research. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-economics-080614-115430. Carter, M. R., & Barrett,

[8] C. B. (2006). The economics of poverty traps and persistent poverty: An asset-based approach. Journal of Development Studies, 42(2), 178–199. https://doi.org/10.1080/00220380500405261 

[9] Dercon, S. (2004). Growth and shocks: evidence from rural Ethiopia. Journal of Development Economics, 74(2), 309–329. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jdeveco.2004.01.001 

[10] Hallegatte, S., Bangalore, M., Bonzanigo, L., & Fay, M. (2014). Climate Change and Poverty: An Analytical Framework. World Bank. https://poseidon01.ssrn.com/delivery.php?ID=841115116081093113018016091121094 119072072028038038067092052023099104034102038126012096088090022030097084062095016092082089104105101113006116067071010006091112027080065080098082029069027120&EXT=pdf&INDEX=TRUE   

[11] IPCC. (2007). Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. https://www.ipcc.ch/site/assets/uploads/2018/03/ar4_wg2_full_report.pdf IPCC. (2014). AR5 Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. https://www.ipcc.ch/report/ar5/wg2/ 

[12] Leichenko, R., & Silva, J. A. (2014). Climate change and poverty: vulnerability, impacts, and alleviation strategies. WIREs Climate Change, 5(4), 539–556. https://doi.org/10.1002/wcc.287 

[13] Lloyd, S. J., Kovats, R. S., & Chalabi, Z. (2011). Climate Change, Crop Yields, and Undernutrition: Development of a Model to Quantify the Impact of Climate Scenarios on Child Undernutrition. Environmental Health Perspectives, 119(12), 1817–1823. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1003311 

[14] OECD. (2002). Poverty and Climate Change. https://www.oecd.org/env/cc/2502872.pdf 

[15] Olsson, L. (2014). Livelihoods and Poverty. In M. Opondo & P. Tschakert

[16] (Eds.), n: Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Part A: Global and Sectoral Aspects. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental

[17] Panel on Climate Change (p. 793-832). Cambridge University Press. https://www.ipcc.ch/site/assets/uploads/2018/02/WGIIAR5-Chap13_FINAL.pdf Pooran Chandra Pandey. (2021, August 7). India’s Challenges: Lack of Promised External Financial Resources and Greater Internal Investment in Climate Technologies – Climate Scorecard. Climate Scorecard. https://www.climatescorecard.org/2021/08/indias-challenges-lack-of-promised-external-financial-resources-and-greater-internal-investment-in-climate-technologies/ Ranson, M. (2014). Crime, weather, and climate change. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 67(3), 274–302. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jeem.2013.11.008

[18] Ribot, J., 2010: Vulnerability does not fall from the sky: toward multiscale, pro-poor climate policy. In: Social Dimensions of Climate Change: Equity and Vulnerability in a Warming World [Mearns, R. and A. Norton (eds.)]. The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank, pp. 47-74

[19] The Oxford Companion to the Economics of Africa. (2011). Google Books. https://books.google.co.in/books?id=Fb-pRi2k0d8C&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage &q&f =false 

[20] Tol, R. S. J. (2018). The Economic Impacts of Climate Change. Review of Environmental Economics and Policy, 12(1), 4–25. https://doi.org/10.1093/reep/rex027 

[21] UNFCCC. (2020). The Paris Agreement | UNFCCC. Unfccc.int. https://unfccc.int/process-and-meetings/the-paris-agreement/the-paris-agreement United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). (2007). Human Development Report 2007/2008. http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/reports/268/hdr_20072008_en_complete.pdf  Human Development Index (HDI) | Human Development Reports. (2020). UNDP.

[22] http://hdr.undp.org/en/content/human-development-index-hdi

[23] United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) & World Meteorological Organization (WMO). (2011). Integrated Assessment of Black Carbon and

[24] Tropospheric Ozone. http://www.ccacoalition.org/en/resources/integrated-assessment-black-carbonand-tropospheric-ozone   

[25] World Bank. (2014). Clean and Improved Cooking In Sub-Saharan Africa. https://documents1.worldbank.org/curated/en/164241468178757464/pdf/98664-REVISEDWP-P146621-PUBLIC-Box393185B.pdf      

[26] World Bank. (2021). Overview. https://www.worldbank.org/en/topic/climatechange/overview

Meghaa & Tayal A. (2022). Impact of Climate Change on Poverty. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law2(2), 3470-3505.

https://ijpsl.in/wp-content/uploads/2022/01/Impact-of-Climate-Change-on-Poverty_Meghaa-Abhishek-Tayal.pdf

Evolution of Women-Led MSMEs and Challenges Faced by Them

Chinmayee Panda and Riya Mariam Varghese
Volume 2, Issue 2
7 February 2022
Page No.: 3506-3545

Poverty has been a long battle that’s half won and Climate change is merely an unknown phenomenon today. Both form an integral part of the sustainable development literature of policymaking. However, their linkages have been long overlooked by nations when addressing growth and sustainability. In this literature, we explore the possible linkages of poverty and climate change by introducing the two concepts thoroughly, defining the global poverty scenario and shedding light on some real-life examples. The examples delve into underdeveloped or less developed countries that are most exposed to climate variability to understand vulnerabilities present to the world, especially the poor world, and examine the impact of rising earth temperature on poverty, poverty alleviation programs and economic growth. At the same time, we look at different policy actions that countries over the world have undertaken for the same. Finally, policy insights are provided with conclusions that may assist future studies and current policies.

Chinmayee Panda
B.Com Hons, Atma Ram Sanatan Dharma College, University of Delhi
Riya Mariam Varghese
B.A. Hons. Economics, Daulat Ram College, University of Delhi

[1] Advances in Management, Social Sciences and Technology, Banerjee, R., & Desai, A. (2020). FACTORS IMPACTING THE PERFORMANCE OF WOMEN ENTREPRENEURS IN MSMEs. Empyreal Publishing House. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/348651695_Advances_in_Management_Social_Sciences_and_Technology_By_Dr_Tazyn_Rahman_2

[2] Agarwal, R. (2018). Role of Entrepreneurship in Promoting Women   Empowerment in Northeastern Region of India. Amity Journal of Entrepreneurship, 3(2), 1–17. https://amity.edu/UserFiles/admaa/83203Paper%203.pdf 

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The Sustainability of Online Education in the Indian Context: A SWOT Analysis

Srishti Snehal and Riya Sharma
Volume 2, Issue 2
7 February 2022
Page No.: 3546-3575

The aim of this paper is to analyse the feasibility of online learning in the current Indian education system through SWOT analysis. As a measure of safety to the COVID-19 pandemic, all education centres such as schools, universities were shut down nationwide and the conventional mode of teaching, as well as learning, came to cease. Owing to the need of the hour, online education came into force and became widespread with increasing audio visual technologies. While online learning engulfed and intrigued the nation, a high percentage of students also faced a varied range of physical and mental pressures as a result of it. The authors also incorporate the rise of ed-tech startups and the enhancement of video conferencing platforms which have aided in the development of online education. Further, the paper explores the lack of facilities such as network, internet connection and laptops across the country. Through the lens of gender, caste and class, the authors explore the digital divide that has emerged as a result of online education. Although many students were able to adjust, yet in contrast, a significant section of the population found it increasingly difficult to keep up with the complexities of this model. Hence, this paper aims towards documenting the qualitative aspects of the impact of online learning in the education system.

Srishti Snehal
B.A. Hons. History, Kamala Nehru College, University of Delhi
Riya Sharma
B.A. Hons. Economics, Maitreyi College, University of Delhi

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[49] Singh, R., & Awasthi, S. (2020). Updated Comparative Analysis on Video Conferencing Platforms- Zoom, Google Meet, Microsoft Teams, WebEx Teams and GoToMeetings. EasyChair. Published.

[50] Swabhiman. (2020). Digital Education in India: Will students with disabilities miss the bus? https://thedispatchondisability.files.wordpress.com/2020/10/report-on-digital-education-and-cwds.pdf 

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Snehal S. & Sharma R. (2022). The Sustainability of Online Education in the Indian Context: A SWOT Analysis. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law, 2(2), 3546-3575.

https://ijpsl.in/wp-content/uploads/2022/02/The-Sustainability-of-Online-Education-in-the-Indian-Context-A-SWOT-Analysis_Srishti-Snehal-Riya-Sharma.pdf

Comparative Analysis of the Status of Women in Afghanistan: Pre-Taliban and Post-Taliban Government

Dopal Gupta and Sophia Sara Mathew
Volume 2, Issue 2
7 February 2022
Page No.: 3576-3610

Gender inequality, apart from being one of the five global concerns, is also an issue very close to our hearts. Being students of International Relations (IR), we wanted to locate our research in that ever-growing domain of IR. Afghanistan as a region has seen massive regime change; thus, we tried to locate our research question at the intersection of the two. This paper, based on secondary research, is majorly divided into four parts. Firstly, understanding the position women have been accorded in different Asian societies. Secondly, zeroing down on our analysis of Afghanistan particularly and tracing the status of women there from ancient to modern times. Thirdly, digging deeper into the reasons that have caused women’s oppression, other than religious reasons. Lastly, why women are not united in their stand against the Taliban. We have tried our best to give a sound analysis of the topic, backed by data and existing theories

Dopal Gupta
M.A. Politics with a specialization in International Relations, Jawaharlal Nehru University
Sophia Sara Mathew
Majoring in Political Science and History from St. Stephen’s College, University of Delhi

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Gupta D. & Mathew Sara S. (2022). Comparative Analysis of the Status of Women in Afghanistan: Pre-Taliban and Post-Taliban Government. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law, 2(2), 3576-3610.

https://ijpsl.in/wp-content/uploads/2022/02/Comparative-Analysis-of-the-Status-of-Women-in-Afghanistan-Pre-and-Post-Taliban-Government-and-the-Asian-Societies_Dopal-Gupta-Sophia-Sara-Mathew.pdf

Impact of Technology on Women

Aahil Sheikh and Yashasvini Awasthy
Volume 2, Issue 2
15 February 2022
Page No.: 3611-3661

The belief that technology as the great equalizer will eradicate all problems and revolutionize the world has only partly been realized. Technology has borne inequitable growth for women across the world, as many still lag behind men in terms of growth opportunities on the internet and fully utilizing Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs). This unequal growth is attributed to pre-existing social and cultural factors that control women and their access to education and, consequently, employment. This affects their essential freedoms, such as that of expression and dissent. Because these differences are realized in the digital realm as well, it creates an alternate space for the suppression of women. The authors use a PESTEL analysis to examine the positive and negative aspects of the different spheres in which technology affects women (political, economic, social, etc.). By casting a wide net, the authors broaden the scope for understanding the all-pervasive nature of technology and rights and their confluence. While significant growth has taken place for women’s digital literacy, representation, and internet use, it falls behind in comparison to men and differs from region to region. Moreover, it is outpaced by the growth of technology itself, which further risks women falling behind, being what is the future of the world. TRIGGER WARNING: This research paper will tackle themes of sexual assault, harassment, social control, and terrorism

Aahil Sheikh
B.A. Hons. Political Science, Kirori Mal College, University of Delhi
Yashasvini Awasthy
B.A. Hons. Economics, Lady Shri Ram College for Women, University of Delhi

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The Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Migrant Workers in Europe

Medhashree Manik and Anya Sarah Itse
Volume 2, Issue 2
15 February 2022
Page No.: 3662-3709

The novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic is undoubtedly one of the biggest challenges the world has faced and still grapples with currently. The study’s objective was to answer questions related to the effects of the pandemic on global migration and the development of the migrants. It looks into health, legal, social, and educational restrictions imposed on migrants. Additionally, it probes into the different forms of discrimination faced by the migrants. The social relevance of the chosen topic is that migrant workers are an essential part of the community; thus, their economic, healthcare, educational, and legal needs must be adhered to by the concerned authorities. In other words, they contribute to any society’s economic, social, and cultural development and should not be side-lined. This research paper investigates the plight of the migrant population in Europe as a result of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic; the author analyzed the political, economic, social, technological, legal, and environmental impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on the migrant workers. Analysis of the condition of the migrant population demonstrated that there is a gap in communication between the government officials and the migrants, which should be rectified to assist them in all aspects. The migrant population endured grave hardships even before the coronavirus outbreak. Yet, they have to face heightened discrimination since they are seen as the spreaders of the virus.

Medhashree Manik
B.A. Hons. Political Science, Maharaja Agrasen College, University of Delhi
Anya Sarah Itse
B.A. English Language, University of Jos, Nigeria

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The Repercussions of COVID-19 Pandemic on Healthcare Workers in India

Vrinda Mehta and Shruti Gandhi
Volume 2, Issue 2
15 February 2022
Page No.: 3710-3745

Healthcare Workers (HCWs) are the backbone of India and have shown indomitable valour as the entire world battled the catastrophic novel Coronavirus. They have not just tended to endless streams of patients but have also saved humankind as it stared at an existential crisis. This paper seeks to explore the various repercussions of the COVID-19 pandemic on the healthcare workers in India through a detailed PESTELE (Political, Economic, Social, Technological, Environmental, Legal and Ethical) analysis. The authors have highlighted the problems and challenges faced by HCWs as they heroically performed their duties whilst grappling with social ostracism, violence, lack of infrastructure and inadequate resources. The paper critically reviews the various policies and acts concerning the HCWs that have been established in the country since before the pandemic. Further, the study examines and establishes the psychological and physical ramifications of the healthcare crisis on the Corona warriors using quantitative data. Conclusively, the paper presents a list of recommendations to combat the same.

Vrinda Mehta
B.A. Hons. Economics, Ramanujan College, University of Delhi
Shruti Gandhi
B.A. Psychology, KC College, HSNC University, Maharashtra

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Mehta V. & Gandhi S. (2022). The Repercussions of COVID-19 Pandemic on Healthcare Workers in India. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law, 2(2), 3710-3745.

https://ijpsl.in/wp-content/uploads/2022/02/The-Repercussions-of-COVID-19-Pandemic-on-Healthcare-Workers-in-India_Vrinda-Mehta-Shruti-Gandhi.pdf

India: A Developing Economy with a Developing Rate of Domestic Violence

Vaishnavi and Ashmeet
Volume 2, Issue 2
24 February 2022
Page No.: 3746-3781

India is a country of paradoxes and the biggest paradox is the way it treats its women, from being worshiped as a goddess on one hand to being persecuted on the other, it is indeed a small road for Indian women. From ‘womb to tomb’ the daughters of mother India are subjected to inhuman cruelties. Violence against women is an issue that cuts beyond socio-economic, cultural, ethnic and class divides. The problem is not only widespread but is ingrained in human behavior due to patriarchal history. Gender role socialization, poverty, unemployment and lack of education are various other root causes of the inhuman treatment that women are subjected to. Rapes, dowry, sexual exploitations, physical abuse and mental assault cover the headlines on a daily basis which has serious mental, physical and economical implications, hampering the growth of the victim, the society as well as the country by reducing its Gross National Product (GNP); the economic and social costs of domestic violence are enormous. During Covid-19 these barbaric acts have reached new heights due to various reasons, economic instability being the most common one. Despite having many laws, violence against women still occurs at a staggering rate which clearly indicates the need of amends in the structure and most importantly proper implementation of legislation. A change in social mindset is mandatory to change the prevailing perception of women as mere child-bearers and domestic service providers. It’s high time that we as humans start practicing humanity and regard our females with the respect and dignity that they deserve.

The objective of this paper is to analyze the reasons behind the increasing rate of domestic violence, the role of government in formulating various laws for protection against such practices and how these laws are facing implementation gaps. The study also takes into account the economic and social costs of violence against women.

Vaishnavi
B.A. Hons. Economics, Daulat Ram College, University of Delhi
Ashmeet
B.A. Hons. Economics, Daulat Ram College, University of Delhi

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V. & A. (2022). India: A Developing Economy with a Developing Rate of Domestic Violence. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law, 2(2), 3746-3781.

https://ijpsl.in/wp-content/uploads/2022/02/India-A-Developing-Economy-with-an-Increasing-Rate-of-Domestic-Violence_Vaishnavi-Ashmeet.pdf

Status of Women in North Korea: Tracing its History and Status Quo

Dristi Das and Deeya Harpalani
Volume 2, Issue 2
24 February 2022
Page No.: 3782-3813

According to famous philosopher John Locke, all people are equal in the sense that they are born with certain “inalienable” inherent rights. Women in North Korea, on the other hand, do not have access to the rights and privileges they are entitled to as human beings. Oh Yoon Hee, a North Korean defector, once said, “Sometimes, out of nowhere, you cry at night and don’t know why.” (Human Rights Watch, 2018). This paper is a study of the struggles faced by many other women like Oh Yoon Hee. Throughout history, they have been victims of patriarchal society’s prejudice and injustices. The origins of the patriarchal aspect of the society may be traced back to Confucianism’s ideas, which affected the Korean peninsula’s political and social structures. This study attempts to explore the origins and foundations of North Korean women’s suffering, as well as how the status quo affects them. Further, the study delves into the difficulties they face while migrating to a different country in the hope of a better future for themselves and aid available for them in the country they migrate to. This has been achieved through an analysis of interviews and articles by the North Koreans themselves. The paper concludes by putting forth recommendations in order to create a fair and just society with zero or minimal human rights violations, regardless of gender.

Dristi Das
B.A. Hons. Philosophy, Hansraj College, University of Delhi
Deeya Harpalani
B.A. Hons. Economics, Shri Ram College of Commerce, University of Delhi

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Das D. & Harpalani D. (2022). Status of Women in North Korea: Tracing its History and Status Quo. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law, 2(2), 3782-3813.

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Demographic Transition and Economic Development: Causal Relationships and a Review of India’s State of Affairs

Aashish Sukhija and Rythm Setia
Volume 2, Issue 2
28 February 2022
Page No.: 3814-3854

Demographic composition of a country has far-reaching implications on its economic and social growth, spanning decades. To achieve the developmental targets of a country, it is imperative to understand these causal relationships, both at the macro and micro level and their effects on the policymaking process. The paper attempts to highlight the direct and indirect relationships between economic development and population growth and structure and identify the direction(s) of this correlation. Further, it also attempts to present a review and analysis of India’s position and its preparedness in terms of the stages provided in the Theory of Demographic Transition proposed, the measures and safeguards in place that can help the country utilize the demographic dividend, and further suggest possible actions that the governments can take to get hold of the overpopulation problem.

Aashish Sukhija
BA Programme, Economics and Philosophy, Ramjas College, University of Delhi
Rythm Setia
B.A. Hons Economics, Miranda House, University of Delhi

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Sukhija A. & Setia R. (2022). Demographic Transition and Economic Development: Causal Relationships and a Review of India’s State of Affairs. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law, 2(2), 3814-3854.

http://ijpsl.in/wp-content/uploads/2022/02/Demographic-Transition-and-Economic-Development-Causal-Relationships-and-a-Review-of-Indias-State-of-Affairs_Aashish-Sukhija-Rythm-Setia-1-merged.pdf

Understanding the Impacts of COVID19 on Educational Trends

Samreen Samar and Tanuj Khosla
Volume 2, Issue 2
28 February 2022
Page No.: 3855-3886

The influence of COVID-19 on school education has been extraordinary. Training is more revolutionary today than it was centuries ago when it was first introduced. If anything, the global outbreak has taught the world that – change is inevitable. The decision to shift from traditional classrooms to digital platforms is growing learning inequalities among children and, as a result of the digital divide, a substantial number of youngsters are dropping out of school. COVID-19 has acted as a catalyst for educational institutions to grow and use platforms with previously unexplored technology. This paper highlights the impact of the global pandemic on students and the emerging platforms for e-learning with a broader objective to gain an insight into greater complexities and parameters through a PESTLE analysis and uncovering response of the Indian government. In an attempt to press the importance of digital learning the paper also puts forward suggestive measures and fruitful recommendations.

Samreen Samar
B.Com Prog. Maitreyi College, University of Delhi
Tanuj Khosla
B.Com Hons. Delhi College of Arts and Commerce, University of Delhi

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[2] Hanushek, E., & Woessmann, L. (2020, September). The economic impacts of learning losses | en | OECD. Https://Www.Oecd.Org. https://www.oecd.org/education/the-economic-impacts-of-learning-losses-21908d74-en.htm

[3] a Href=/Team/Joao-Pedro-Azevedo Hreflang=En>João Pedro AzevedoHow could COVID-19 hinder progress with Learning Poverty? Some initial simulations. World Bank Blogs. https://blogs.worldbank.org/education/how-could-covid-19-hinder-progress-learning-poverty-some-initial-simulations

[4] Bajpai, H. (2020, August 14). Surveillance on students raise privacy concerns on Online Education Platforms. TheLeaflet. https://www.theleaflet.in/surveillance-on-students-raise-privacy-concerns-on-online-education-platforms/

[5] Burgess, S., & henrik Sievertsen, H. (2020, April 1). The impact of COVID-19 on education. VOX, CEPR Policy Portal https://voxeu.org/article/impact-covid-19-education

[6] Choudhary, P. K. (2021, August 30). Challenges with youth skill development programmes during the pandemic | IDR. India Development Review. https://idronline.org/challenges-with-skill-development-programmes-during-the-pandemic/

[7] Class, D. (2021, June 10). Traditional method of teaching. Best Blogs & Insights From Digital Class E-Learning Marketplace. https://www.digitalclassworld.com/blog/traditional-method-of-teaching/

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[9] Deshpande, P. (2021, May 9). Lesser fees for online classes? Schools don’t think so. Times Now. https://www.timesnownews.com/education/article/lesser-fees-for-online-classes-schools-don-t-think-so/754770

[10] Dorn, E., Hancock, B., Sarakatsannis, J., & Viruleg, E. (2021, November 11). COVID-19 and education: The lingering effects of unfinished learning. McKinsey & Company. https://www.mckinsey.com/industries/education/our-insights/covid-19-and-education-the-lingering-effects-of-unfinished-learning

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Samar S. & Khosla T. (2022). Understanding the Impacts of COVID19 on Educational Trends. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law, 2(2), 3855-3886.

http://ijpsl.in/wp-content/uploads/2022/03/Understanding-the-Impacts-of-COVID-19-on-Educational-Trends_Samreen-Samar-Tanuj-Khosla-1-merged.pdf