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The Ramifications of Covid-19 on the Mental Health of the Indian Elderly

Vatsla Srivastava and Bhavneesh Kaur
Volume 1, Issue 4
20th May 2021
Page No.: 1839-1870

At a time when an average of about 17.13 million older adults in India is suffering from mental health problems. The lack of awareness clubbed with the stigma around mental health has made it a taboo topic of discussion in the complex Indian society. The ongoing pandemic has revealed its crippling after-effects on the emotional well being of the already vulnerable population of senior citizens of India. This paper, ‘The Ramifications of the Covid-19 pandemic on the Mental Health of the Indian Elderly’, aims to study the existing literature on the effect of Coronavirus Disease (Covid-19) on the mental health of India’s ageing population through different research methodologies such as a Political, Economic, Social, Technological, Environmental and Legal (PESTLE) Analysis and a Critique. Efforts have been made by the researchers to bridge the existing literature gap on this issue as there is a substantial lack of India specific empirical data and assessment on the same. Critique of the immediate policy actions undertaken by the government during the lockdown has also been done, revealing the need for a large-scale critical overhaul in the existing mental healthcare infrastructure of India. The paper also provides some future policy recommendations that may be adopted as best practices by the state.

Vatsla Srivastava 
B.A. Hons. History, Maitreyi College, University of Delhi, India

Bhavneesh Kaur
B.Com Programme, Sri Guru Tegh Bahadur Khalsa, University of Delhi, India


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Antony, T. (2020, May 12). Stress, stigma and sleep loss: COVID-19 takes a heavy toll on mental health. The New Indian Express.

Balaji, M., & Patel, V. (2020, July 29). Mental health and COVID-19 in India. India Development Review.

Balan, R. V., Sasidharan, D. K., & Lalu, J. S. (2020, July 1). An insight into the elderly mind during COVID-19 pandemic: World Mental Health Day 2020 Balan RV, Sasidharan DK, Lalu JS – J Mar Med Soc. Journal of Marine Medical Society.

Banerjee, D. (2020). The impact of Covid‐19 pandemic on elderly mental health. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 35(12), 1466–1467.

Central Statistics Office & Ministry Of Statistics & Programme Implementation Government Of India. (2011, June). Situation Analysis Of The Elderly in India.

Dalal, P. K., Roy, D. R., Choudhary, P., Kar, S. K., & Tripathi, A. (2020, September 1). Emerging mental health issues during the COVID-19 pandemic: An Indian perspective Dalal PK, Roy D, Choudhary P, Kar SK, Tripathi A – Indian J Psychiatry. Indian Journal of Psychiatry.

DownToEarth. (2021, January 8). Less than a third BPL senior citizens benefit from old-age pension scheme: Health ministry survey. Downtoearth.Org.

Express News Service. (2020, April 27). Kudumbashree launches a special drive to help the elderly during the lockdown. The New Indian Express.

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Giridhar, G., Subaiya, L., & Verma, S. (2015). Older Women In India: Economic, Social and Health Concerns.

Gopikumar, V., & Radhakrishnan, J. (2020, September 24). Addressing the mental health needs of homeless persons. The Hindu.

John, C. E., Gunasekaran, I., & Maria N., R. (2020, March 27). COVID-19: Taking Heed From Kerala’s Mental Health Interventions. The Wire Science.

Joshi, A. (2021, January 6). COVID-19 pandemic in India: through a psycho-social lens. Journal of Social and Economic Development.

Khanorkar, P. (2020, November 20). Living with risk, fear, and anxiety. India Development Review.

Krishnan, M. (2021, March 4). India’s elderly people face neglect during COVID. DW.COM.

Lee, T.-H. J., Saran, I., & Rao, K. D. (2017). Ageing in India: Financial hardship from health expenditures. The International Journal of Health Planning and Management, 1–12.

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Ministry Of Health and family welfare & National Institute of mental health and neurosciences. (2016). National Mental Health Survey Of India. NIMHANS.

Mitra, E. (2020, September 7). India didn’t prioritize mental health before Covid-19. Now it’s paying the price. CNN.

Nath, D. (2021, February 7). Ministry’s mental health helpline sees most calls from men. The Hindu.

Pandit, A. (2020, June 15). Abuse has increased during the lockdown, say 71% of the elderly. The Times of India.

Press Information Bureau, Government of India. (2020, July 10). Covid 19 impacts mental health Centre urges states to strengthen mechanisms to address the issue [Press release].

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Rana, U. (2020, May 3). Elderly suicides in India: an emerging concern during COVID-19 pandemic | International Psychogeriatrics. Cambridge Core, Cambridge University Press.

Roy, A., Singh, A. K., Mishra, S., Chinnadurai, A., Mitra, A., & Bakshi, O. (2020). Mental health implications of COVID-19 pandemic and its response in India. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 002076402095076.

Saigal, K. (2020, April 30). How to care for your mental well-being during COVID-19. Invest in India.


Sarwar, N., & Tarannum, S. (2019, January). Psycho-Social Problems Encountered by Aging Population in India. International Journal of Research and Analytical Reviews (IJRAR).

Satav, R. (2017, December 20). The gaps in the Mental Healthcare Act. Mint.

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Singh, O. P. (2019). Insurance for mental illness: Government schemes must show
the way. Indian Journal Of Psychiatry, 61(2), 113–114.

Sood, S. (2020, August 6). Mental Healthcare Act: A Legislation For The People. Food, Drugs, Healthcare, Life Sciences – India.

Tandon, T. (2021, February 16). What is the status of Mental Health in India? Details on its importance and Government schemes. Jagranjosh.Com.

The Economic Times. (2021, January 3). A look at how India’s senior citizens have been impacted by the pandemic. Economictimes.Indiatimes.Com.

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Uniyal, R. (2020, May 11). What the elderly fear most in times of Covid-19. The Times of India.

Verma, A., & Fernandes, T. (2020, December 10). Public Mental Health in India Is an Issue of Rights and Accessibility. The Wire Science.

Verma, A. (2020, July 22). All you need to know about the Mental Healthcare Act, 2017. IPleaders.

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Yesudhas, R. (2020, October 1). COVID-19 has put the spotlight on mental health, but India needs more. Citizen Matters.

Srivastava V. & Kaur B. (2021). The Ramifications of Covid-19 on the Mental Health of the Indian Elderly. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law, 1(4), 1839-1870.

Lack of Sex Education in India and its Growing Importance in the Digital Era

Palak Chakraborty and Avantika Mishra
Volume 1, Issue 4
20th May 2021
Page No.: 1871-1888

Sex education plays a critical role in developing an individual’s personality and shapes them to become the person they are. It helps them make better decisions adopting a rational frame of mind instead of relying on their impulse. Lack of sex education and healthy discussion around sexual activities is one of India’s main concerns that we are still failing to take adequate actions for. An advanced sex education program would bring about various positive changes and directly result in a decrease in the number of sexual assault cases. This paper analyses how various factors in India have shaped its almost non-existent sex education program. It also focuses on how the digital era brings an increasing need to make the youth aware of their activities online. The paper uses PESTLE analysis to comprehend the political, social, technological, and legal aspects affecting the various subjects related to the study. It discusses India’s socio-cultural beliefs and how it has shaped the sex education curriculum within the country. Many political factors and players also come into the scenario when implementing policies related to sex education. A vast majority of political leaders are still not entirely convinced by the idea of providing such information through the formal education system. On the other hand, digital media is constantly on the rise, and we cannot neglect its popularity amongst the youth of this generation. Hence, we must focus on making it safe and comfortable for all its users. The paper also discusses the legal repercussions a person might face upon indulging in unethical and non-consensual sexual activity, primarily focusing on the digital space.

Palak Chakraborty
B.A. Hons. Economics, Maitreyi College, University of Delhi, India

Avantika Mishra
BMM, Thakur College of Science and Commerce, Mumbai, India

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Sharma, R. S. (2020, February 11). Vital Need for Sex Education in Indian Youth and Adolescents. Springer Link.

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Krishna, S. (2019, December 31). Sexting: The Technological Evolution of the Sexual Revolution. Psychiatric Times.

O’Flaherty, A. (2021, February 8). Surge in teens seeking online help over sexting, cyberbullying during COVID lockdown. ABC News.

Apte, K. (2019, June 27). Sexual health largely neglected, reproductive health not a priority in policy discourse. YourStory.Com.

Moreira, L. R., Ewerling, F., Barros, A. J. D., & Silveira, M. F. (2019, October 11). Reasons for nonuse of contraceptive methods by women with demand for contraception not satisfied: An assessment of low and middle-income countries using demographic and health surveys. Reproductive Health.

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Chakraborty P. & Mishra A. (2021). Lack of Sex Education in India and its Growing Importance in the Digital Era. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law, 1(4), 1871-1888.


Climate Change and the Need for Forest Conservation: Deforestation and Forest Fires as Leading Threats in India

Akanksha Kujur and Mehak Dhoundiyal
Volume 1, Issue 4
20th May 2021
Page No.: 1889-1911

India is one of the countries that is hugely affected by climate change. It has one of the highest economic activity densities in the world, as well as a large number of poor people who depend on the natural resource base for survival, with a heavy dependence on rainfall. Climate change could drive more than 100 million people into severe poverty by 2030, according to the World Bank, by disrupting agriculture and fueling the spread of malaria and other diseases. India has challenged the UN’s haste to declare climate change an international security issue, potentially granting the Security Council the authority to act on it, and has highlighted the approach’s flaws. According to India, a “simple Council decision” to take over climate change compliance would jeopardise the Paris Agreement and multilateral attempts to find solutions. Climate change is a global security problem in the twenty-first century. In view of climate change affecting the biosphere, this paper will address two natural phenomena: deforestation, which is one of the oldest and most important contributors to climate change, and forest fires, which occur regularly each year as a result of climate instability. Further, this paper outlines the involvement of India along with other countries, analysing the features and the changes brought about by the environment and climate laws, policies, and agreements and lastly acknowledging the need for a prompt framework to initiate a stern action towards climate change and create an impact

Akanksha Kujur
Bachelor of Arts in Media and Communication, Symbiosis Centre for Media and Communication, Pune, India
Mehak Dhoundiyal
Bachelor of Commerce, Jai Hind College, Mumbai, India

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[3] Chauhan, J. S., Gautam, A. S., & Negi, R. S. (2018). Natural and Anthropogenic Impacts on Forest Structure: A Case Study of Uttarakhand State. The Open Ecology Journal, 11(1), 38–46. https://doi.org/10.2174/1874213001811010038

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Kujur A. and Dhoundiyal M. (2020). Climate Change and the Need for Forest Conservation: Deforestation and Forest Fires as Leading Threats in India . International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law1(3), 1889.


Asianization of the World

Chitra Anand and Nitika Bansal
Volume 1, Issue 4
20th May 2021
Page No.: 1912-1934

The legacy of 19th century Europeanization and 20th century Americanization is that the world has been shaped according to the west. In the 21st century, Asianization is emerging as Asian consciousness and identity have come to life. Western nations are getting impressed with Asian nations’ economic and political gravity. This paper explores the rise of Asian countries concerning cultural, economic, technological, social and psychological regards through the descriptive methodology and qualitative and quantitative data. Further, an attempt to study the comparison between the four different Asian countries namely, China, India, Japan, South Korea; in different aspects of their influence on the world has been made. The paper analyses the potential of these countries in reforming the world and how the world perceived this change. Although the world acknowledges and celebrates this rise of Asian nations, racism and stereotypes about Asians are still prevalent in this world. But getting Asianized doesn’t mean losing global identity, it is like adding more colour to an already beautiful painting.

Chitra Anand
B.A. Hons. Psychology, Zakir Husain College, University of Delhi, India

Nitika Bansal
B.A.Hons. Economics, Sri Guru Tegh Bahadur Khalsa College, University of Delhi, India

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Anand C. & Bansal N. (2021). Asianization of the World. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law 1(4), 1912-1934. 

Comparative Study on the Adverse Environmental and Social Impacts of Mining Activities in India and Nigeria

Chinedu Francis Anochie and Ridhima Kathuria
Volume 1, Issue 4
13 September 2020
Page No.: 1935-1956

Mining has been an important primary industry for all developing economies. Despite its numerous advantages, mining activities have many harmful social and environmental implications. These effects are experienced more in developing economies due to a lack of coordinated political, educational, and legal machinery. This forms the basis for this research as the problems of mining operations in India and Nigeria were studied and compared. For Nigeria, it was found that the social and environmental considerations as regards sustainable mining operations are far from being realized. This can be attributed to poor exploration, processing, and management of mining wastes by the illegal and smallscale artisanal miners that dominate the country’s mining industry. In India, issues of sustainability were not as pronounced as those in Nigeria. While the local communities of mineral-rich areas in Nigeria are engaged in illegal mining activities, some of the locals in India are aware of the dangers of irresponsible mining reflected in their protests. The government of India is also more committed to sustainable mining compared to that of Nigeria. Generally, this research exposed the dangers of unsustainable mining activities in India and Nigeria, however, India looked better at the two from economic, environmental, and societal points of view. This paper reviews the state of mining implications by comparing the industries in both countries including ways to make the industries sustainable

Chinedu Francis Anochie
Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria
Ridhima Kathuria
B.A. (Programme) Psychology and Sociology, Lady Shri Ram College, University of Delhi, India

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[2] Agarwal, M., & Ghosh, S. (2020, December 14). People living near mining activities at increased risk of diseases: study. Mongabay-India. https://india.mongabay.com/2020/12/people-living-near-mining-activities-at-increased-risk-of-diseases-says-study/#:%7E:text=A%20latest%20government%20study%20has,acute%20respiratory%20diseases%20and%20tuberculosis.

[3] Dukiya, J. (2013). Environmental Implication of Illegal Mining Activities in Nigeria: A Case Study of Pandogari and Barking Ladi/Buruku Surface Mines in Niger/Plateau States. ResearchGate, 8. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/282717060

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[6] Eiguedo-Okoeguale, H. E. (2017). The Nature and Patterns of Nigeria–India Economic Relations: A Historical Analysis. Insight on Africa, 9(2), 159–172. https://doi.org/10.1177/0975087817707439

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[8] Global Legal Group. (2021). Mining Law 2021 | Laws and Regulations | Nigeria | ICLG. International Comparative Legal Guides International Business Reports. https://iclg.com/practice-areas/mining-laws-and-regulations/nigeria

[9] Merem, E. C., Twumasi, Y., Wesley, J., Isokpebi, P., Shenge, M., Fageir, S., Crisler, M., Romorno, C., Hines, A., Hise, G., Ochai, S., Leggett, S., & Nwagboso, E. (2017). Accessing the Ecological Effects of Mining in West Africa: The Case of Nigeria. International Journal of Mining Engineering and Mineral Processing, 5. https://doi.org/10.5923/j.mining.20170601.01

[10] Monteiro, N. B. R., Bezerra, A. K. L., Moita Neto, J. M., & Silva, E. A. (2021). Mining Law: In Search of Sustainable Mining. Sustainability, 13(2), 867. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13020867

[11] Nikitina, N. (2014). Mineral Resource Dilemma: How to Balance the Interests of Government, Local Communities and Abiotic Nature. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 11(9), 8632–8644. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph110908632

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Green City: A Case-Study of Chennai

Harshitha Satish and Ksheeraja Satish
Volume 1, Issue 4
20th May 2021
Page No.: 1957-1974

The most compelling issue of the 21st century, in light of the climate crisis and the Sustainable Development Goals of 2030 is the challenge of optimal growth in urban areas that strikes a balance between environmental degradation and economic development. Rapid urbanisation calls for engineers, architects and planners to look for sustainable urban living. Chennai, belonging to the state of Tamil Nadu is a city in the south-eastern region of India, which has undergone rapid expansion and economic growth since the economic liberalisation of the 1990s. As a consequence, the city has witnessed the loss of essential green infrastructure leading to loss of biodiversity and ecology. Nevertheless, to address the growing loss of environment in the city, Governments at the Centre, State and local levels resorted to schemes, policies and programmes to restore and preserve the environment. Against this backdrop, this paper seeks to analyse the transition and progression of Chennai to a greener city by looking at sustainable projects adopted by both private and public entities. The paper seeks to throw light on the responsiveness of the city with respect to the initiation and implementation of sustainable programmes. To achieve the objectives of the research, a qualitative study of the green spaces in Chennai was undertaken in the following aspects – Green and Blue oxygen-producing belts, urban forests, green buildings, vertical and roof gardens, street network, public transport and other eco-friendly practices. The paper successfully brings out the various perspectives that make Chennai a ‘Green City’.

Harshitha Satish
Economics, Stella Maris College (Autonomous), Chennai, India


Ksheeraja Satish
Economics, Stella Maris College (Autonomous), Chennai, India

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Satish H. & Satish K. (2021). Green City: A Case-Study of Chennai. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law 1(4), 1957-1974. 

Deploying Artificial Intelligence for Circular Economy and its Link with Sustainable Development Goals

Abhiraj Singh Rathore and Paarul Malawalia
Volume 1, Issue 4
20th May 2021
Page No.: 1975-2003

This paper explores three alternative concepts- Circular economy (CE), Sustainable development, and Artificial intelligence (AI) and outlines some of the key features that each one poses. In addition to that, the focus will be on the link between the three concepts and how each one of them facilitates the other. Transforming linear business models to circular economies globally is more important than ever. This is to sustain the rate of production and consumption to meet the ever-increasing consumer demand that is overloading the environment and society (here comes the concept of sustainable development). Adopting CE practices is an initial step towards achieving a sizable number of SDG targets. There is a clear correlation between the targets of SDG 6 (Clean Water and Sanitation), SDG 7 (Affordable and Clean Energy), SDG 8 (Decent Work and Economic Growth), SDG 12 (Responsible Consumption and Production), and SDG 15 (Life on Land). In this context, Digital technologies are seen as the driving force for attaining the goal. Further, the paper explores the potentials of Artificial intelligence in the transition to a circular economy. It includes machine learning, deep learning which further have algorithms like classification algorithms (SVMs, neural networks), clustering, computer vision, object detection, NLP, etc. This paper offers an insight into the economic, social, technological, and environmental factors through an in-depth pestle analysis.

Abhiraj Singh Rathore
B.Tech, Computer Science, Delhi Technological University, India 


Paarul Malawalia
B.A Hons, Political Science, Kamala Nehru College, University of Delhi, India

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“Lockdown and Intimate Terrorism”: The Role of COVID-19 as a Facilitator of an Increase in Domestic Violence in India

Annie Anand
Volume 1, Issue 4
20th May 2021
Page No.: 2004-2048

This research focuses on looking at the factors responsible for an increase in domestic violence during a pandemic emergency with close reference to the COVID-19 lockdown situation in India. The value of this research lies in understanding the key reasons that are accountable for domestic abuse on women during a lockdown and subsequently suggest policy solutions for dealing with this social problem. The research approach adopted is a combined qualitative methodology of Qualitative Content Analysis and Narrative Analysis on a myriad of secondary data collected from online sources. The key findings from the research provide evidence that socioeconomic factors such as job loss & increase in stress, cultural patriarchal set-up and associated toxic masculinity of men in Indian households and victim-blaming are responsible for increasing the problem of domestic abuse. The dissertation concludes that the measures being adopted currently by India are rather inefficient and require a multi-disciplinary framework of stakeholders to solve the domestic violence situation in the country. Finally, the dissertation recommends changes in key policies around domestic abuse combined with community awareness and better resource allocation for a brighter future for the women of India

Annie Anand
MSc. in Social Policy and Social Research from University College London, United Kingdom

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Inflationary Trends in India (1969-2019)

Sanya Saxena
Volume 1, Issue 4
20th May 2021
Page No.: 2049-2072

Exploring inflationary fluctuations in India across the past five decades and determining what factors contributed to extremely high and low rates. Indian scenario has experienced vast differences with significant twists given the pre-reform period (also, post-independence period) and the post-reform period. The paper analyzes the measures taken by the government; developing fiscal and monetary tools in the face of such fluctuations within this time frame i.e. 1969-2019. Additionally, the paper observes the impact of inflation across different sectors of people. And finally, the paper aims to provide solutions to remedy these volatile inflationary fluctuations; for a developing country like India.

Sanya Saxena
B.A. Hons. Economics, Kirori Mal College, University of Delhi, India

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Saxena S. (2021). Inflationary Trends in India. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law 1(4), 2049-2072. 

Impact of Exchange Rate, Interest Rate and Inflation on Indian Stock Market

Mahima Jejani and Tushar Jejani
Volume 1, Issue 4
20th May 2021
Page No.: 2073-2089

This paper will analyse the impacts of macroeconomic variables such as foreign exchange rates (Dollar, Euro, Pound), Inflation rate and the Interest rate on India stock Indices such as Sensex and Nifty 50. Here we have considered data of the last 29 years from 1991-2019 from various sources. The focus will be on finding the relationship between macroeconomic variables such as foreign exchange rates, inflation rates, and interest rates on India Stock Indices through coefficient, regression and ANOVA analysis.

Mahima Jejani
B.A. Hons. Economics, Kirori Mal College, University of Delhi, India

Tushar Jejani

BMS, Shaheed Sukhdev College of Business Studies, University of Delhi, India

AP. (2018). How inflation impacts Sensex, Nifty. Financial Express, 1.

Chuesheva, S. C. (2018). Linear regression analysis in Excel. Https://Www.Ablebits.Com/Office-Addins-Blog/Category/Excel-Tips/, 1.

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Jejani M. & Jejani T. (2021). Impact of Exchange Rate, Interest Rate and Inflation on Indian Stock Market. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law 1(4), 2073-2089. 

An Analysis of Negative Interest Rates in India

Vernica Jain and Kanishka Dua
Volume 1, Issue 4
20th May 2021
Page No.: 2090-2100

The Covid-19 pandemic has plunged the global economy into economic disarray. We observe unprecedented phenomena both socially and economically as we see the laws and rules governing economies falling flat. Theoretical economic ideas such as negative interest rates have become a reality for almost a third of the world’s financial institutions. More countries like the US and New Zealand are considering it.

India finds itself in the middle of this ferment facing difficult policy choices. There is no similar precedent in the history of modern economies where such a situation has been addressed. The monetary and fiscal decisions of the RBI and the government can pave the path to prosperity or reverse the hard-earned progress of the past 70 years of progress. This paper aims to identify critical factors that can quantitatively determine whether India should follow one such recent policy of negative interest rates (nominal). This is based on comparative case studies of the few countries that have implemented them based on the limited understanding developed about them. The paper also explores qualitative arguments both in favour of and against this policy and comments on its predictable outcomes and any possible alternatives.

Vernica Jain
B.A. Hons. Economics, Kirori Mal College, University of Delhi, India
Kanishka Dua
B.A. Programme Economics and Mathematics, Mata Sundri College, University of Delhi, India

[1] Ahmad, M. U., & Premaratne, H. A. G. (2018). Effect of Low and Negative Interest Rates: Evidence from Indian and Sri Lankan Economies. Business Perspectives and Research, 6(2), 90–99. https://doi.org/10.1177/2278533718764503

[2] Choudhary, S. (2016). RBI Document. Reserve Bank of India. https://m.rbi.org.in/Scripts/bs_viewcontent.aspx?Id=3482#ST1

[3] Impact of Negative Interest Rate Policy on Emerging Asian markets: An Empirical Investigation. (2020). https://www.nipfp.org.in/media/medialibrary/2020/06/WP_307_2020.pdf

[4] ROGOFF, K. S. (2017). The Curse of Cash. Negative Interest Rates KS Rogoff, 119–196. https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctvc77m90

[5] Sanyal, S. (2020, June 6). Self-reliance is about resilience and decentralisation, not isolationism. The Indian Express. https://indianexpress.com/article/opinion/columns/atmanirbhar-bharat-narendra-modi-covid-19-sanjeev-sanyal-6444642/

[6] Shettigar, J., & Mishra, P. (2020, October 20). Opinion | Are negative interest rates on the horizon? Mint. https://www.livemint.com/opinion/columns/opinion-are-negative-interest-rates-on-the-horizon-11603177337607.html

[7] The Implications of Ultra-Low and Negative Interest Rates for Asia. (2018). https://www.adb.org/sites/default/files/publication/403236/adbi-implications-ultra-low-and-negative-interest-rates-asia.pdf

Jain J. and Dua K. (2020). An Analysis of Negative Interest Rates in India . International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law1(3),  2090-2100.



Reflections on the Commons

Ateen Das
Volume 1, Issue 4
20th May 2021
Page No.: 2101-2107

There exists a lot of bias against the very idea of Common Property Resource (CPR) in the policy world. It is looked at as an unviable, utopian, and fantastical notion incapable of ever working out in the ‘real’ world. However, there are several empirical instances of this form of resource management doing very well in several places around the world. This paper attempts to reflect on the very essence of what it means for a resource to be ‘common property’, as well as discusses the criticism made against, and myths concocted around it.

Ateen Das
B.A. Hons. Economics, Kirori Mal College, University of Delhi, India

Bromley, D. W. (1992). The commons, common property, and environmental policy. Environmental and Resource Economics, 1–17.

McKean, M. M. (1992). Success on the Commons: A Comparative Examination of Institutions for Common Property Resource Management. Journal of Theoretical Politics, 247–281.

The Struggle to Govern the Commons. (2004). International Environmental Governance, 53–57.

Das A. (2021). Reflections on the Commons. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law 1(4), 2101-2107. 

Outlook of Demand in India

Sanya Saxena
Volume 1, Issue 4
20th May 2021
Page No.: 2108-2113

Indian economy faced its gloomy days; depleting growth, crushed consumption demand, and low investment levels in 2019. Mostly as a result of the implementation of new policies (like demonetization), the unemployment rates grew and the major sectors like pharmaceuticals, automobile, etc. were badly hit. The framers faced troubles due to hikes in their costs of production which further pushed the prices up and increased the burden on the ultimate consumers. This slowdown was encouraged further by the outbreak of the coronavirus in December of 2019. Thus, following 2020, it contributed to the squashing of the economy with human miseries (illnesses and deaths), business uncertainties, employee layoffs, lower dividends, migrant crisis, and cash crunch in the entire nation. The government’s approach to managing this condition via introducing economic packages and announcing national lockdown is studied. And finally, we inquire; what the big picture is?

Sanya Saxena
B.A. Hons. Economics, Kirori Mal College, University of Delhi, India

Saxena S. (2021). Outlook of Demand in India. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law 1(4), 2108-2113. 

Adolescent Friendly Health Clinics in India— Are They Friendly Enough?

Neha Kapoor
Volume 1, Issue 4
20th May 2021
Page No.: 2114-2134

Almost 60% of premature deaths among adults are traced back to an individual’s lifestyle during their adolescence. A rapid phase of development coupled with sexual maturity, adolescence requires special attention by healthcare providers and communities. Access to Sexual and Reproductive Health (SRH) services by adolescents is met with barriers of awareness, acceptability and distance in India and globally. Recognising this challenge, the Government of India, in 2014, launched the Rashtriya Kishor Swasthaya Karyakram (RKSK) program to ensure the holistic development of adolescents. Adolescent Friendly Health Clinics (AFHCs) were launched as a part of the RKSK program to provide counselling and curative services to adolescents on SRH issues among others and bridge the problem of accessing SRH services. This paper aims to evaluate if and to what extent AFHCs’ claim to be ‘friendly’ is accurate. Based on the review of the existing literature, a list of indicators is prepared to further evaluate and analyse these AFHCs. The paper finds that healthcare providers are not purpose-trained to adequately deal with adolescent SRH needs. Further, privacy is a major concern for adolescents as their consultations are not conducted in fully private areas. It is also seen that adolescents do not have enough knowledge about their own SRH needs, leading to not having enough or any conversations about the same. The paper argues that adequate training for healthcare providers, including soft skills and reiterating the importance of privacy would make AFHCs more accessible to adolescents. Thus, increasing the utilisation of the same along with destigmatisation of conversations surrounding SRH needs. 

Neha Kapoor
B.A. Hons. Sociology, Lady Shri Ram College for Women, University of Delhi

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Dixit, G. T., Jain, S., Mansuri, F., & Jakasania, A. (2017). Adolescent friendly health services: where are we actually standing? International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health, 4(3), 820.

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Gender and health. (2019, June 19). Gender and Health.

Guttmacher Institute. (2017). The Sexual and Reproductive Health Needs of Very Young Adolescents In Developing Countries.

Health and Physical Education Class 9. (2019). NCERT. Hoopes, A. J., Agarwal, P., Bull, S., & Chandra-Mouli, V. (2016). Measuring adolescent friendly health services in India: A scoping review of evaluations. Reproductive Health, 13(1), 1.

Human Rights Law Network. (2018). RKSK’S DISHA Clinics for Adolescents in Delhi.

Kumar, T., Pal, P., & Kaur, P. (2017). Health seeking behaviour and health awareness among rural and urban adolescents in Dehradun District, Uttarakhand, India. International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health, 29(2), 1.

Lule. (2006). Adolescent Health Programs? In D. T. Jamison (Ed.), disease Control Priorities in developing countries (2nd ed., p. 1109). World Bank Publications.

Mahalakshmy, T., Premarajan, K. C., Soundappan, K., Rajarethinam, K., Krishnamoorthy, Y., Rajalatchumi, A., Mathavaswami, V., Chandar, D., Chinnakali, P., & Dongre, A. R. (2018). A Mixed Methods Evaluation of Adolescent Friendly Health Clinic Under National Adolescent Health Program, Puducherry, India. The Indian Journal of Pediatrics, 86(2), 132–139.

Ministry of Family and Health Welfare. (2014). RKSK Strategy Handbook.

Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. (2014). RKSK Operational Framework.

Nair, M. K. C., Leena, M. L., George, B., Thankachi, Y., & Russell, P. S. S. (2013). ARSH 5: Reproductive Health Needs Assessment of Adolescents and Young People (15–24 y): A Qualitative Study on ‘Perceptions of Community Stakeholders.’ The Indian Journal of Pediatrics, 80(S2), 214–221.

Nath, A., & Garg, S. (2008). Adolescent friendly health services in India: A need of the hour. Indian Journal of Medical Sciences, 62(11), 465.

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Kapoor N. (2021). Adolescent Friendly Health Clinics in India- Are They Friendly Enough?. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law 1(4), 2114-2134. 

Conservatism: Analyzing the Relevance and Why Conservative Ideology is Gaining Power across the World

Pooja Kumar
Volume 1, Issue 4
20th May 2021
Page No.: 2135-2157

The researcher has tried to analyze the relevance and reasons behind the rise of conservatives in power either in the form of a proper democratically elected government in a majority of its base voters or loyal electorates across the world. This paper mainly focuses on the rise of the ideology of conservatism. Conservatism is a political ideology that is widely based on upholding and promoting traditional values and being suspicious of and resisting any change in the conventional society or resisting progressive ideas. This paper explores the historical roots of conservative ideology and its meaning and interpretations and the views of Edmund Burke- widely known as the ‘Father of modern conservatism’. The paper cites examples of major countries in the world, where conservatives are or were very recently in power. It also tries to cover the voter’s mindset by citing some psychological reasons behind the voting pattern which usually sees a trend of older people leaning towards ‘Right-wing’ political parties (Conservatives). Linkages have been established between being older and inclination towards Conservatism.

Pooja Kumar
B.A. Hons. Political Science, Lady Shri Ram College for Women, University of Delhi, India

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Kumar P. (2020). Conservatism: Analyzing the Relevance and Why Conservative Ideology is Gaining Power across the World. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law1(3), 2135.



Analysis of Heritage Management in India and its Impact on Stakeholders

Aruushi Gupta and Prathama RK
Volume 1, Issue 4
20th May 2021
Page No.: 2158-2185

The heart of a nation is its culture and heritage. The magnificence of India’s rich heritage and culture brings a mammoth responsibility to preserve and protect it for posterity. The ratification of the Hague Convention of 1954 was the first step taken by India, an oath to protect India’s heritage which also stands as a part of the ‘World Heritage’. With the formation of the Archeological Survey of India (ASI) in 1861 and the role played by it since then, their key responsibilities are maintaining the heritage sites of India. But the challenges remain for the stakeholders (Government, NGOs, businesses, and citizens) to capitalize on the potential of heritage in terms of tourism promotion, employment generation, lack of synergy in the operational phase, lack of sufficient funds, defacement, and damages, improper waste management, lack of sanitation facilities, exploitation of tourists and harassment. The heritage is a mirror of National identity which is not taken care of properly due to political conflicts and unreciprocated decision-making on the part of local, state, and national governments. Such a political scenario dampens the economic growth prospects of the region, which results in people losing upon economic development, corporations on their profits, and governments upon their addition to the state treasuries. The governments, corporates should focus on building and working in collaborations with the local people, along with the NGOs working as the awareness spreader and channel for communication and redressal of complaints of the common people.

Aruushi Gupta
B.A. Hons. Economics, Satyawati College, University of Delhi, India
Prathama RK
B.A. Hons. History, Mehr Chand Mahajan DAV College for Women, Panjab University

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[50] WWF. (2016, April). Informing decisions on trophy hunting. https://wwfint.awsassets.panda.org/downloads/iucn_informingdecisionsontrophyhuntingv1_1.pdf

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Gupta A. and RK P. (2020). Analysis of Heritage Management in India and its Impact on Stakeholders . International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law1(3), 2158


Analysing the Utilisation of Nudge Theory in India's Fight against the COVID-19 Pandemic

Laavanya Dhawan , Shree Bhattacharyya and Hansa Mukherjee
Volume 1, Issue 4
20th May 2021
Page No.: 2186-2199

This paper aims to explore and analyse the utilisation of the Nudge theory, popularised by Nobel laureate Richard Thaler and scholar Cass Sunstein, in the fight against COVID-19 in India. With the University of Cambridge study “India nudges to contain COVID-19 pandemic: A reactive public policy analysis using machine-learning based topic modelling” as the foundation, we examined the magnitude of nudge theory’s utilization in the areas of social distancing, hoarding and handwashing by employing data visualization techniques and analyzing the raw data to find a correlation between the nudge policy and measure the extent of its influence. Throughout the paper, we also highlight reasons as to why the Nudge Theory has been a success, and conclude with an array of suggestions that can be applied going ahead.

Laavanya Dhawan
B.Tech, Information Technology (Network Security), Netaji Subhas University of Technology, Delhi, India
Shree Bhattacharyya
B.A. Hons., Ashoka University, Haryana, India
Hansa Mukherjee
B.A. Hons. Economics, Lady Shri Ram College for Women, University of Delhi, India

[1] Abhijit Banerjee, Marcella Alsan, Emily Breza, Arun G. Chandrasekhar, Abhijit Chowdhury, Esther Duflo, Paul Goldsmith-Pinkham, and Benjamin A. Olken. 2020. “Messages on COVID-19 Prevention in India Increased Symptoms Reporting and Adherence to Preventive Behaviors Among 25 Million Recipients with Similar Effects on Non-recipient Members of Their Communities” NBER Working Papers 27496, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc. https://ideas.repec.org/p/nbr/nberwo/27496.html

[2] Anirudh Tagat, and Hansika Kapoor. 2020. “Go Corona Go! Cultural beliefs and social norms in India during COVID-19” Journal of Behavioral Economics for Policy, 4, issue S: 9-15. BMJ. 2020. “Covid-19: India imposes lockdown for 21 days and cases rise.”    https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m1251

[3] C. Simon and Stefano Amarilli. 2018. “Feeding the behavioral revolution: Contributions of behavior analysis to nudging and vice versa.” Journal of Behavioral Economics for Policy, 2, no. 1: 91-97. http://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Feeding-the-behavioral-revolution-%253A-Contrib

[4] Dan Ariely. 2010. Predictably Irrational, Revised and Expanded Edition: The Hidden Forces That Shape Our Decisions. Harper Collins

[5] Daniel Kahneman and Amos Tversky. 1979. “Prospect Theory: An Analysis of Decision under Risk” Econometrica, 47, no. 2. (March) 263-293 https://doi.org/10.2307/1914185

[6] Dutta, Anisha. 2020. “198 migrant workers killed in road accidents during lockdown: Report.”

[7] Hindustan Times, June 2, 2020.

[8] http://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/198-migrant-workers-killed-in-road-acciden

[9] G James Rubin and Petra Dickmann. 2010. “How to reduce the impact of ‘low-risk patients’ following a bioterrorist incident: lessons from SARS, anthrax, and pneumonic plague.” Biosecurity and Bioterrorism: Biodefense Strategy, Practice, and Science, 8, no. 1 https://doi.org/10.1089/bsp.2009.0059

[10] Katherine Chan, Resil Das, Megumi Inoue, and Abhishek Malhotra. 2020. “Survey: Indian consumer sentiment during the coronavirus crisis.” McKinsey and Company, December 10, 2020

[11] Manasee Mishra and Piyush Majumdar. 2020. “Social Distancing During COVID-19: Will it Change the Indian Society?” Journal of Health Management.

[12] https://doi.org/10.1177/0972063420935547

[13] Mascarenhas, Anuradha. 2020. “Pan-India-survey: ‘Only 4% COVID patients who needed ICU beds were able to get it through a routine process’.” The Indian Express, September, 2020

[14] Press Information Bureau. 2020. “Prime Minister Narendra Modi says social distancing is the most effective way of fighting against COVID-19; urges countrymen to protect themselves and their families.” Prime Minister Releases https://pib.gov.in/PressReleseDetail.aspx?PRID=1609009

[15] Press Information Bureau. 2020. “MSMEs Engaged In Production of Medical Items Related to COVID-19 Should be Facilitated on Priority- Shri Nitin Gadkari.” Ministry of Micro, Small & Medium Enterprises https://pib.gov.in/newsite/PrintRelease.aspx?relid=201138

[16] Ramit Debnath and Ronita Bardhan. 2020. “India nudges to contain COVID-19 pandemic: A reactive public policy analysis using machine-learning based topic modelling.” PLOS One https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.023897

[17] Richard H. Thaler, and Cass R. Sunstein. 2009. Nudge Improving Decisions About Health, Wealth, and Happiness. Penguin Books

[18] S. Irudaya Rajan, P. Sivakumar and Aditya Srinivasan. 2020. “The COVID-19 Pandemic and Internal Labour Migration in India: A ‘Crisis of Mobility’.” The Indian Journal of Labour Economics. https://doi.org/10.1007/s41027-020-00293-8

[19] Siva Athreya and Abhiti Mishra. 2020. “Doubling Times for Infection Growth.” COVID-19 India-Timeline an understanding across States and Union Territories. http://www.isibang.ac.in/~athreya/incovid19/doublingnote.pdf

[20] Sohini Sengupta and Manish K. Jha. 2020. “Social Policy, COVID-19 and Impoverished Migrants: Challenges and Prospects in Locked Down India.” The International Journal of Community and Social Development.

[21] https://doi.org/10.1177/2516602620933715

[22] Swati B Patel and Prakash Pate. 2020. “Doubling Time and its Interpretation for COVID 19 Cases” National Journal of Community Medicine. http://www.njcmindia.org/home/view/1503/

[23] 2009. “A little healthy parental competition can lead to healthier kids” Nudge

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[25] 2020. “Coronavirus in India: CDDEP-John Hopkins report estimates between 12.5 and 24 crore Indians to fall sick.” National Herald, 27 March, 2020 http://www.nationalheraldindia.com/india/coronavirus-in-india-cddep-john-hopkins-rep

[26] 2020.“From Zero, India Now Manufactures 4.5 Lakh PPE Suits A Day To Fight Coronavirus.” NDTV News, May 19, 2020 http://www.ndtv.com/india-news/from-zero-india-now-manufactures-4-5-lakh-ppe-suits-

[27] 2020. “WHO Director-General’s statement on IHR Emergency Committee on Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV)” http://www.who.int/director-general/speeches/detail/who-director-general-s-statement-o

[28] Worldometers.info. 2021. https://www.worldometers.info/coronavirus/

[29] Worldometers.info. 2021.https://www.worldometers.info/coronavirus/country/india/

[30] Worldometers.info. 2020. http://www.worldometers.info/coronavirus/india/

Dhawan L., Bhattacharyya S. and Mukherjee H. (2020). Analysing the Utilisation of Nudge Theory in India’s Fight against the COVID-19 Pandemic . International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law1(3), 2186.


Temporal and Spatial Fluctuation of Rapes in India

Kshitiz and Chehak Sanon
Volume 1, Issue 4
20th May 2021
Page No.: 2200-2220

Gender-based harassments are universal be it rape, sexual assault, murder, etc. In every society now, women’s demands for rights are getting into light under the umbrella of democracy. This paper aims to analyze the trends of women rape in India from 2008-2017 concerning roles of basic socio-economic factors e.g., literacy rate, poverty. The last decade has seen increased numbers of NGOs in the country, how the NGOs can play a key role in society has also been covered with relation to sexual assault on women. It does give a glimpse of the increasing trend of men’s rape around the world. The findings show that in India there are no specific laws for incest rape, marital rape, men rape, and right after the Nirbhaya gang-rape case there was a hike in the registered rape cases around the country due to the enhanced women encouragement and hope, still, due to lack of awareness about the rights among women, girls and society, most of the cases disappear without reporting.

B.A. Hons. Geography, Dyal Singh College, University of Delhi, India
Chehak Sanon
B.A. Hons. Economics, Ramjas College, University of Delhi, India

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[2] Bhattacharya, P. T. K. (2018, April 24). 99% cases of sexual assaults go unreported, govt data shows. Mint. https://www.livemint.com/Politics/AV3sIKoEBAGZozALMX8THK/99-cases-of-sexual-assaults-go-unreported-govt-data-shows.html

[3] Didier, A. M. (n.d.). Incest Laws and Criminal Charges. Criminaldefenselawyer. https://www.criminaldefenselawyer.com/resources/criminal-defense/white-collar-crime/incest-laws-criminal-charges.htm

[4] Facts and figures: Ending violence against women | What we do. (2021). UN Women. https://www.unwomen.org/en/what-we-do/ending-violence-against-women/facts-and-figures

[5] India, T. C. (2017, November 21). 47k and counting; Red Brigade is teaching women to fight off sexual predators. YourStory.Com. https://yourstory.com/2017/11/red-brigade-martial-arts

[6] Kamdar, B. (2020, August 17). In India, a Man Can Still Legally Rape His Wife. The Diplomat. https://thediplomat.com/2020/08/in-india-a-man-can-still-legally-rape-his-wife/

[7] Khanam, D., & Meem, J. J. (2019). Role of NGOS in Combating Violence against Women: A Comparative Study on NGOs Intervention and Non-Intervention Areas of Barguna District, Bangladesh. Role of NGOS in Combating Violence against Women: A Comparative Study on NGOs Intervention and Non-Intervention Areas of Barguna District, Bangladesh, 18(5), 7. https://socialscienceresearch.org/index.php/GJHSS/article/view/2751/2640

[8] Maitreya, A. (2020b, May 11). Locker Room Secrets: Class, Caste and the myth of the ‘lumpen element’ as the sexual predator. Counter Currents. https://countercurrents.org/2020/05/locker-room-secrets-class-caste-and-the-myth-of-the-lumpen-element-as-the-sexual-predator/

[9] Mishra, N. (2020, October 12). Gender Neutral Rape Laws in India: A Necessity. Latest Laws. https://www.latestlaws.com/articles/gender-neutral-rape-laws-in-india-a-necessity

[10] Menon, P. M. (2013, February 16). Lacking support, male rape victims stay silent. The Times of India. https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/chennai/lacking-support-male-rape-victims-stay-silent/articleshow/18524668.cms

[11] National Crime Records Bureau. (n.d.). Search | National Crime Records Bureau. Ncrb. https://ncrb.gov.in/en/search/node/rape

[12] National Research Council. 1996. Understanding Violence Against Women. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/5127.

[13] Plummer, L. (2017, July 7). In a Country Struggling With Sexual Harassment,

[14] These 5 Initiatives Are Fighting Rape Culture. The Better India. https://www.thebetterindia.com/107782/rape-culture-initiative-india-misogyny-women-rights-safety/

[15] PUBLIC. (2018, April 24). Rape- A social crime demands social solution. The Shillong Times. https://theshillongtimes.com/2018/04/24/rape-a-social-crime-demands-social-solution/

[16] Rai, D. (2019, November 5). Incest In India: Know everything about it. Blog.Ipleaders. https://blog.ipleaders.in/incest-in-india/

[17] Rai, D. (2020, October 3). India’s 10 most dangerous states for women. India Today. https://www.indiatoday.in/diu/story/india-s-10-most-dangerous-states-for-women-uttar-pradesh-rajasthan-hathras-1727981-2020-10-03

[18] Rape of males. (n.d.). Google Arts & Culture. https://artsandculture.google.com/entity/rape-of-males/m010f4jtc?hl=en

[19] Rape Statistics by Country 2021. (2021). Worldpopulationreview. https://worldpopulationreview.com/country-rankings/rape-statistics-by-country

[20] Rawat, Ramu. (2015). EXPLOSION OF RAPE CASES IN INDIA: A STUDY OF LAST ONE DECADE. International Journal of Current Research. 7. 17976-17984. 


[22] TIMESOFINDIA.COM. (2020, October 7). India sees 88 rape cases a day; conviction rate below 30%. The Times of India. https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/india-sees-88-rape-cases-a-day-but-conviction-rate-below-30/articleshow/78526440.cms#:%7E:text=According%20to%20the%20latest%20NCRB,of%20all%20crimes%20against%20women

[23] Tiwary, A. (2020, July 21). The Need to Criminalize Juvenile Incest in India. Criminallawstudiesnluj. https://criminallawstudiesnluj.wordpress.com/2020/07/21/the-need-to-criminalize-juvenile-incest-in-india/

[24] TRACY, N. A. T. A. S. H. A. (2019). Types of Rape: The Different Forms of Rape. Healthyplace. https://www.healthyplace.com/abuse/rape/types-of-rape-the-different-forms-of-rape

[25] Victims of Sexual Violence: Statistics | RAINN. (n.d.). Rainn. https://www.rainn.org/statistics/victims-sexual-violence

[26] What is rape and sexual assault? (n.d.). MET.POLICE.UK. https://www.met.police.uk/advice/advice-and-information/rsa/rape-and-sexual-assault/what-is-rape-and-sexual-assault/

[27] What is sexual assault? (n.d.). Wlsnsw. https://www.wlsnsw.org.au/resources/sexual-assault/what-is-sexual-assault/

[28] Wikipedia contributors. (2003, September 17). Rape of males. Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rape_of_males

[29] Wikipedia contributors. (2021, April 29). Types of rape. Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Types_of_rape

[30] World Health Organization. (2021, March 9). Violence against women. WHO.INT. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/violence-against-women

Kshitiz and Sanon C. (2020). Temporal and Spatial Fluctuation of Rapes in India . International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law1(3), 2200.


Tracing the Root Sources behind the Negative Narratives on Refugees with a Case Study on the Rohingya Crisis

Shravi Gupta and Vanshita Suryavanshi
Volume 1, Issue 4
16th June 2021
Page No.: 2221-2249

The barriers and boundaries are intensifying all across the world. Presently, a major agenda in front of humanity demanding substantial efforts on the global stage is the refugee crisis. More and more people are being forcefully displaced from their homes; they are fleeing persecution, war, violence, and human rights abuses- crossing international borders to seek safety somewhere else. Moreover, there are powerful voices all across the globe that are adamant to disparage refugees. They have been denigrated as a ‘threat to security, ‘illegal’, and faced resentment and received antipathy. This paper aims to trace the root sources backing the adverse disposition of refugees with a thorough analysis of a case study on the Rohingya refugees. Furthermore, the study explores the social and psychological impacts of negative narratives on refugees and host citizens. Host citizens are unable to empathize with refugees and countries are reluctant to provide them with aid which is leading to poor living conditions for the refugee population. The study moves forward to scrutinize how adverse narratives lead to problems in fundraising and lobbying. With this research, recommendations are provided to counter unfavourable dispositions on refugees and potentially resolve the refugee crisis itself.

Shravi Gupta
B.A. Political Science, Kalindi College, University of Delhi, India


Vanshita Suryavanshi
B.A. Political Science, Kamala Nehru College, University of Delhi, India


Alam. M. (2018, February 12). How the Rohingya crisis is affecting Bangladesh- and why it matters.

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Amnesty International. (2018, June 27). Myanmar: “We will destroy everything”: Military responsibility for crimes against humanity in Rakhine state,
Myanmar [Burmese].

Audette. N., Horowitz. J., & Michelitch. K. (2020, July 20). Personal Narratives Reduce Negative Attitudes towards Refugees and Immigrant Outgroups:
Evidence from Kenya.

Barman. B.C. (2020, June 18). Impact of Refugees on Host Developing Countries.

Bjp. (2014). Election Manifesto 2014.

Chaudhury. D.R. (2018, July 12). Rohingya terrorists linked to pro-Pak terror groups in Jammu & Kashmir. The Economic Times.

Council of Europe. (2016, June 17). News on migration and refugees.

Council of Europe. (n.d.). Media and Refugees.

Curtis. W.M. (n.d.). Hate speech. Britannica.

Dempster. H., & Hargrave. K. (2017, June). Understanding public attitudes towards refugees and migrants.

Dzimbiri. L.B. (1993, October). Political and Economic Impacts of Refugees: Some Observations on Mozambican Refugees in Malawi.

Edroos. F. (2017, September 13). ARSA: Who are the Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army?. Al Jazeera.

Ellis-Petersen. H., & Hassan. A. ( 2021, March 08). India detains Rohingya refugees and threatens to deport them to Myanmar.

Faustini. P. (2017, November 08). Migration, hate speech and media ethics.

George. B.G. & Verghese. B.G. (2003). Breaking the Big Story: Great Moments in Indian Journalism.

Gilbert. L. (2013, January 17). The Discursive Production of a Mexican Refugee Crisis in Canadian Media and Policy.

Goel. V. & Rahman. S.A. (2019, June 14). When Rohingya Refugees Fled to India, Hate on Facebook Followed.

Greussing. E., & Boomgaarden. H.G. (2017, February 01). Shifting the refugee narrative? An automated frame analysis of Europe’s 2015 refugee crisis.

Hainmueller. J. & Hopkins. D.j. (2014, May 21). Public Attitudes Towards Immigration.

Heisbourg. F. (2015, November 23). The Strategic Implications of the Syrian Refugee Crisis.

Home Office. (2017). Country Policy and Information Note Burma: Rohingya. RefWorld.

Hossain. S., & Hosain. S. (2019, May). Rohingya Identity Crisis: A Case Study.

IOM. (2015). How The World Views Migration.

Islam. K. (2018). How Newspapers in China, India and Bangladesh Framed the Crisis of 2017.

Jacobs. J. (2018, September 24). Does online hate drive anti-migrant violence?. Financial Times.

Kapoor. C. (2020, August 24). Hate campaign haunts Rohingya refugees in India.

Kinseth. A.K. (2019, January 29). India’s Rohingya shame.


Meixler. E. (2018, January 23). James Mattis Says Myanmar’s Rohingya Crisis is Even Worse Than it Looks in the Media. Time.

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Møller. M. (2015, September 23). The negative narrative on refugees is changing – but not swiftly enough.

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Parsons. R. (2016, March 07). Refugees: Economic Burden or Opportunity?.

Quiroz Villarreal, R., Jozef, G., & M. Ecclesiastre, W. (2021, February 17). Our Voices, Our Policy: Recommendations of Immigrant Parents. Next100.

Rahman. S.A. (2021, March 12). Rohingya Refugees Seeking Protection from UNHCR Detained.

Reid. K. (2020, June 12). Rohingya refugee crisis: Facts, FAQs, and how to

Robinson. P. (2002, July 11). The CNN effect.

Sahoo. N. (2017, October 31). India’s Rohingya Realpolitik.

Shishir. Q. (2019, September 18). In Bangladesh, Rohingya refugees face risk from a xenophobic media onslaught.

Skinner. G., & Gottfried. G. (2017, September 14). Global Views on Immigration and the Refugee Crisis. Ipsos.

Southwick. K. (2015, May 05). Preventing Mass Atrocities Against the Stateless Rohingya in Myanmar: A Call for Solutions.

Stashefsky-Margalit, R., Ngaruiya, C., Vinson, L., & Gehring, K. (2015). Bridge to care for refugee health: Lessons from an interprofessional collaboration in the Midwest. Research Gate.

TENT. (2016). Public Perception of the Refugee Crisis.

TENT. (n.d.). Global Report.

The London Story. (n.d). Rohingyas in India.

TOI. (2019, November 11). Rohingyas ‘threat’ to national and regional security: Bangladesh PM Hasina.

Telhami. S. (n.d.). American attitudes on refugees from the Middle East.

UNHCR. (2020, December 08). Welcome to UNHCR’s Refugee Population Statistics Database.

UNHCR. (n.d.). Countering Toxic Narratives about Refugees and Migrants. MUN Refugee Challenge.

UNHCR. (n.d.). Who is a Refugee?.

UNHCR. (2021, March 31). Refugee Response in Bangladesh.

Uzelac. A. (2018, September 04). How Anti-Refugee Narratives Waste Aid and Human Lives.

Van Blarcum. C.D. (2005, January 03). Internet Hate Speech: The European Framework and the Emerging American Haven.

Wadud. M. (2020, August). How Narratives of Rohingya Refugees Shifted in Bangladesh Media.

Wike. R., Stokes. B. & Simmons. K. (2016, July 11). European Fear Wave of Refugees will mean more Terrorism, Fewer Jobs.

Yhome. K. (2018, July). Examining India’s Stance on the Rohingya Crisis.

Gupta S. & Suryavanshi V. (2021). Tracing the Root Sources behind the Negative Narratives on Refugees with a case Study on the Rohingya Crisis. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law 1(4), 2221-2247.

Corruption and Economic Growth: A Correlation Study for India

Nirikta Mukherjee and Rajsi Sah
Volume 1, Issue 4
17th June 2021
Page No.: 2250-2265

Economic growth is an essential phenomenon for a nation as the economic growth level determines the standard of living of the people of that country and is considered a fair proxy for the human development indicators. One of the ideologies known to affect the degree of economic growth in a nation is corruption. The paper analyses the link between corruption and economic growth and reviews academic literature focusing on different effects of corruption on economic performance. Following this, we have taken India’s example as a case study. To support the arguments regarding the negative impact of corruption on economic growth, we have conducted empirical research by implementing a correlation study. We have employed the statistics of the Corruption Perception Index (CPI), Gross Domestic Product (GDP), GDP Growth Rate and Foreign Direct Investments (FDI) for the investigation. Hence, the paper is an attempt to examine the empirical relation between corruption and economic growth.

Nirikta Mukherjee
B.A. Hons. Economics, Shri Ram College of Commerce, University of Delhi, India

Rajsi Sah
B.A. Hons. Economics, Shri Ram College of Commerce, University of Delhi, India

Blackburn, Keith, Niloy Bose, and M. Emranul Haque. 2006. “The incidence and persistence of corruption in economic development.” Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control 30, no. 12 (December): 2447-2467.

Drury, A. Cooper, Jonathan Krieckhaus, and Michael Lusztig. “Corruption, Democracy, and Economic Growth.” International Political Science Review / Revue Internationale De Science Politique 27, no. 2 (2006): 121-36. Accessed January 21, 2021.

Mauro, Paolo. 1997. “Why Worry About Corruption?” ECONOMIC ISSUES, no. 6 (February).

Mauro, Paolo. “Corruption and Growth.” The Quarterly Journal of Economics 110, no. 3 (1995): 681-712. Accessed January 19, 2021.

MEON, PIERRE G., and KHALID SEKKAT. 2005. “Does corruption grease or sand the wheels of growth?” Public Choice 122 (1): 69-97.


Otusanya, Olatunde J. 2011. “Corruption as an obstacle to development in developing countries: a review of literature.” Journal of Money Laundering Control 14 (4): 387 – 422.

Risk and Compliance Portal. 2020. “India Corruption Report.” Accessed December 12, 2020.

Rout, Rajaram, and Prasad R. Satapaty. 2017. “Impact of Corruption and its Impact in Indian Society: Causes and Remedies.” International Journal of Research and Development – A Management Review (IJRDMR) 6 (3): 85-89.

Shleifer, Andrei, and Robert W. Vishny. “Corruption.” The Quarterly Journal of Economics 108, no. 3 (1993): 599-617. Accessed January 17, 2021.

Tax Justice Network. 2020. “The State of Tax Justice 2020: Tax Justice in the time of COVID-19.”

Transparency International. “Corruption Perceptions Index” Accessed December 5, 2020.

Transparency International India (TII). 2019. “India Corruption Survey 2019.”

Wei, S. (1999). Corruption in economic development: Beneficial grease, minor annoyance, or major obstacle? Policy Research Working Papers.

World Bank. “Foreign direct investment, net inflows (BoP, current US$) – India” The World Bank Group. December 5, 2020.

World Bank. “GDP (constant 2010 US$) – India” The World Bank Group. December 5, 2020.

World Bank. “GDP Growth (annual %) – India” The World Bank Group. December 5, 2020.

Mukherjee N. & Sah R. (2021). Corruption and Economic Growth: A Correlation Study for India. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law 1(4), 2248-2263.

The Effect of Pandemic on Crude Oil Prices

Pradhnya Bhirud and Navya Maheshwari
Volume 1, Issue 4
17th June 2021
Page No.: 2266-2300

The Coronavirus (COVID-19) induced fear and instability around the world, wreaking havoc on the global economy and aggravating financial market volatility. In addition to the ongoing menace, the world witnessed a price war between Russia and Saudi Arabia as they failed to reach a consensus regarding the downward adjustment of oil supply. The oil prices went downhill on March 9, 2020, when Saudi Arabia flooded the market with oil, 49 days after the World Health Organization (WHO) released the first coronavirus monitoring study. As a consequence of elevated supply and almost negligible demand, oil prices declined drastically in the global markets. The oil prices continued plunging till 20th April 2020, when the price for oil futures entered negative territory, significantly impacting the major oil-exporting economies in the world. In light of this, the objective of the paper is to explore the effect of COVID-19 on crude oil prices and to study how and why the crude oil prices turned negative. The research also circles the impact of the fall in crude oil prices on the major exporting countries of the United States of America, Saudi Arabia, and Russia using comparative analysis.

Pradhnya Bhirud
B.com (Costing), Symbiosis College of Arts and Commerce, Savitribai Pule Pune University, India
Navya Maheshwari
B.A. Hons. Economics, Daulat Ram College, University of Delhi, India

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>Bhirud P. and Maheshwari N. (2020). The Effect of Pandemic on Crude Oil Prices . International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law1(3), 2266.



Delving into India's Abysmal Menstrual Health Management

Avika Singh and Pratishtha Budhiraja
Volume 1, Issue 4
24th June 2021
Page No.: 2301-2321

Given the fact that the menstrual cycle is a recurring occurrence for the majority of the reproductive ages, menstrual hygiene is of utmost importance as it is a basic human right of all menstruating individuals. However, globally and specifically in India, the stigma that clouds the minds of society, complemented by a myriad of other factors, hinders achieving adequate menstrual hygiene management. Through this paper, the authors attempt to provide an in-depth analysis of the different obstructions in the menstrual hygiene system in the country by delving into the multifaceted reasons for the same. Further, the paper seeks to bring into cognizance the maligning consequences of the most conventionally used commercial sanitary products: disposable sanitary napkins. Consequently, information on the different alternatives to sanitary napkins such as menstrual cups and cotton pads is disseminated. Adding on to that, the paper additionally aims to highlight the shortcomings of the existing institutional framework and policies regarding menstrual health management; providing a workable course of actions that can be incorporated into the existing policies. The paper deduces that there is a pressing need for a multidimensional and holistic approach to tackle the problem of period poverty.

Avika Singh
B.A. Hons. Political Science, Lady Shri Ram College for Women, University of Delhi, India

Pratishtha Budhiraja
B.Sc. Hons. Computer Science, Keshav Mahavidyalaya College, University of Delhi, India


Central Pollution Control Board. (2018). Guidelines for Management of Sanitary Waste.

FSG. (2016). Menstrual Health in India | Country Landscape Analysis.

Godbole, T. (2017). The Government Thinks Women Need Sindoor More Than Sanitary Napkins | #ThePadEffect. Feminism In India.

Goonj. (2020). Not Just A Piece of Cloth.

Greetz, A., Iyer, L., Kasen, P., Mazzola, F., & Peterson, K. (2016, May). Menstrual Health in India | Country Landscape Analysis. FSG.

International Institute for Population Sciences & ICF. (2017). National Family Health Survey (NFHS-4), 2015–16: India. Mumbai: IIPS.

Kapoor, M. (2020, October 6). “Period” talk: Are synthetic sanitary pads used during menstruation a health, environmental hazard? Find out. DNA India.

Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Tata Institute of Social Sciences, & Water Sanitation and Hygiene Section – UNICEF. (2016, February). Review MHM in Schools in India.

Mahon, T., & Fernandes, M. (2010). Menstrual hygiene in South Asia: a neglected issue for WASH (water, sanitation and hygiene) programmes. Gender &
Development, 18(1), 99-113. Manjunath, C. (2018). The Menstruation Benefit Bill Proposes Two Days Menstrual Leave. Does This Help Women? Feminism In India.

Manorama, S., & Desai, R. (2020). Menstrual Justice: A Missing Element in India’s Health Policies. The Palgrave Handbook of Critical Menstruation Studies, 511-527

Mini sanitary napkin making machine. (n.d.). National Innovation Foundation-India.

MSME – Development Institute, Ministry of Micro, Small & Medium Enterprises, Government of India. (2020). Project Profile on Sanitary Napkin Pads Manufacture.

Muralidharan, A. & WaterAid India. (2018). Management of Menstrual Waste. Menstrual Health Alliance India.

Netscribes (India) Pvt Ltd. (2021). Feminine Hygiene Products Market in India 2020. Research and Markets.

Nielsen, A. C. (2010). Sanitary Protection: Every Woman’s Health Right. Plan India.

R, S. (2019, May 28). Menstrual Hygiene Day is not just for women: young trans people speak out. YourStory.Com.

Rabindranath, D. (2021). “I Feel Left Out. I Get My Periods Too, And People Just Assume I Am A Female.” Youth Ki Awaaz.

Ram, U., Pradhan, M., Patel, S., & Ram, F. (2020). Factors Associated with Disposable Menstrual Absorbent Use Among Young Women in India. International Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, 46.

Sahu, S. (2017). A Reality Check of Menstruation in Rural India. The Logical Indian.

Shuchi hit owing to shortage of funds: Health Minister. (2017). The Hindu.

Singh Sambyal, S., Henam, S., & Tariang, F. (2019). Is green menstruation possible? Down To Earth.

Sivakami, M., Maria van Eijk, A., & Thakur, H., Kakade, N., Patil, C., Shinde, S., Surani, N., Bauman, A., Zulaika, G., Kabir, Y., Dobhal, A., Singh, P., Tahiliani, B., Mason, L., Alexander, K. T., Thakkar, M. B., Laserson, K. F., & Phillips-Howard, P. A. (2019). Effect of menstruation on girls and their schooling, and facilitators of menstrual hygiene management in schools: surveys in government schools in three states in India, 2015. Journal of global health, 9(1), 010408.

Van Eijk, A. M., Zulaika, G., Lenchner, M., Mason, L., Sivakami, M., Nyothach, E., … & Phillips-Howard, P. A. (2019). Menstrual cup use, leakage, acceptability, safety, and availability: a systematic review and meta-analysis. The Lancet Public Health, 4(8), e376-e393

Youth Ki Awaaz & Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council. (2020). The Ultimate Survey On What Young India Thinks About Periods. Youth Ki Awaaz.

Singh A. & Budhiraja P. (2021). Delving into India’s Abysmal Menstrual Health Management. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law 1(4), 2301-2321.

Study of Changing Trends and Patterns of Internal Migration and Factors Affecting It

Anushka Gupta and Mehak Miglani
Volume 1, Issue 4
24th June 2021
Page No.: 2322-2343

Migration has been an inherent part of human existence and in today’s world, it is shaped by several factors related to economic, political, religious, life risk, and various ethnic and socio-cultural issues. (Debnath and Roy, 2011). The paper aims to understand the changing patterns of internal migration in the pre and post-reform period, the factors affecting internal migration, and to highlight the gaps in existing policies. The present study is a descriptive study based on secondary data from the Census of India and NSSO. This study shows that with liberalization, privatization, and globalization, migrants are attracted to urban areas which increase rural to urban and urban to urban migration. Inter-state migration to urban areas shows prominent growth reflecting the migration of people from lower socio-economic classes. Urban migration has been constantly increasing in the lower economic class which indicates migration is dominated by poorer sections. Given the current growth of urbanization, increasing regional disparities, it is likely that migration to urban areas will be more prominent in the future due to the changing nature of the economy. Hence, there is a need to look into the changing pattern of migration which is critical to explore the emerging issues, identify the challenges and accordingly analyze the policy gaps. At the policy level, the major focus should be to link migration policies with employment and social services, in order to enhance the wellbeing of the migrants.

Anushka Gupta
B.A. Hons. Economics, Ramjas College, University of Delhi, India
Mehak Miglani
B.A. Hons. Economics, Ramjas College, University of Delhi, India

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[3] Bhagat, R.B. & Mohanty, S. (2009). Emerging patterns of migration and contribution of migration in urban growth in India. Researchgate.net  https://www.researchgate.net/publication/228431591_Emerging_pattern_of_urbanization_and_the_contribution_of_migration_in_urban_growth_in_India

[4] Biswas, A. K., Saklani, U., & Tortajada, C. (2017). India’s rural-urban conundrum – Third World Centre for Water Management. Third World Centre for Water Management. https://thirdworldcentre.org/2017/10/indias-rural-urban-conundrum/

[5] Debnath, A. & Roy, N. (2011). Impact of Migration on Economic Development: A Study of some selected State. Iepdr.comhttp://www.ipedr.com/vol5/no1/42-H00092.pdf

[6] Edwin, T. (2020). Why migrant workers are protesting: no money to buy essentials, limited access to cooked food. The Hindu Business Line. thehindubusinessline.com https://www.thehindubusinessline.com/news/why-migrant-workers-are-protesting-no-money-to-buy-essentials-limited-access-to-cooked-food/article31352912.ece

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[8] Etzo, I. (2008). Internal Migration: a review of literature mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/8783/

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[14] Kundu, A. & Gupta S. (1996). Migration, Urbanisation and Regional Inequality. Economic and Political Weekly. Epw.in  https://www.epw.in/journal/1996/52/special-articles/migration-urbanisation-and-regional-inequality.html

[15] Kundu, A. (2003). Urbanisation and Urban Governance: Search for a Perspective beyond NeoLiberalism. Economic and Political Weekly. Epw.in  https://www.epw.in/journal/2003/29/special-articles/urbanisation-and-urban-governance.html

[16] Mahapatro, S. R. (2012). The Changing Pattern of Internal Migration in India: Issues and Challenges. https://epc2012.princeton.edu/papers/121017

[17] Malhotra, N. & Devi, P. (2016). Analysis of Factors Affecting Internal Migration in India. amity.edu https://amity.edu/UserFiles/admaa/a446aPaper%203.pdf

[18] Narayan, R., & Singh, S. K. (2016, May 4). Differentials and Determinants of Out Migration in Eastern Uttar Pradesh | Narayan | Social Science Spectrum. Social Science Spectrum. http://www.socialspectrum.in/index.php/sp/article/view/37/32

[19] Only IAS Exam. (2019). Ravenstein law of Migration. Onlyiasexam.com https://www.onlyiasexam.com/2020/02/ravenstein-law-of-migration.html

[20] Only IAS Exam. (2009). Theory of Intervening Opportunities by Stouffer. Onlyiasexam.com  https://www.onlyiasexam.com/2020/02/theory-of-intervening-opportunities-by-stouffer.html#:~:text=As%20per%20Stouffer%20law%2C%20the,available%20between%20source%20and%20destination

[21] Only IAS Exam. (2009). Gravity Model of Migration.onlyiasexam.com  https://www.onlyiasexam.com/2020/02/gravity-model-of-migration.html

[22] Ranjan, R. (2021). SAGE Journals: Your gateway to world-class research journals. SAGE Journals. https://journals.sagepub.com/action/cookieAbsent

[23] Rele, J. R. (1969). Trends and Significance of Internal Migration in India. Jstor.org https://www.jstor.org/journal/sankhyaseriesb?refreqid=excelsior%3Aa02c141fa8f7769296f7861fbf24a83c

[24] Singapur, D. & K.N., S. (2014). The Social impacts of migration in India. Ijssi.org  http://www.ijhssi.org/papers/v3(5)/Version-3/D0353019024.pdf

[25] Singh, S. & Magazine, A. (2020). Indian migrants, across India. The Indian Express. Indianexpress.com  https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/coronavirus-india-lockdown-migran-workers-mass-exodus-6348834/

[26] Sinha, D. K. (2014, November 21). Impact of Migration on Major Cities in India. Your Article Library. https://www.yourarticlelibrary.com/essay/impact-of-migration-on-major-cities-in-india/42412

[27] Skeldon, R. (1986). On Migration Patterns in During the 1970s. Population and Development Review. Jstor.org  https://www.jstor.org/stable/1973434?seq=1

[28] Times of India. (2020). Migrants resort to desperate means to reach home; the centre asks states to permit more special trains. Timesofindia.indiatimes.com  https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/migrants-resort-to-desperate-means-to-reach-home-centre-asks-states-to-permit-more-special-trains/articleshow/75662842.cms

[29] Tiwary, G., Gangopadhyay, P. K., Biswas, S., Nayak, K., Chatterjee, M. K., Chakraborty, D., & Mukherjee, S. (2012). Socio-economic status of workers of the building construction industry. doi.org  https://doi.org/10.4103/0019-5278.107072

[30] Turrey, A. A. (2016). An Analysis of Internal Migration Types in India in Purview of its Social and Economic Impacts. International Journal of Economic and Business Review, 4(1). http://epratrust.com/articles/upload/22.Aijaz%20Ahmad%20Turrey.pdf

[31] Wikipedia. (2021). Indian Migrant workers during the COVID-19 Pandemic. wikipidea.org https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indian_migrant_workers_during_the_COVID-19_pandemic#:~:text=Indian%20migrant%20workers%20during%20the%20COVID%2D19%20pandemic%20have%20faced,and%20uncertainty%20about%20their%20future.

Gupta A. and Miglani M. (2020). Study of Changing Trends and Patterns of Internal Migration and Factors Affecting It . International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law1(3), 2322.



Paternity Benefit Leaves in India: Need, Cost and Gender Reform

Ananya Dhanuka and Kashish Banthia
Volume 1, Issue 4
24th June 2021
Page No.: 2344-2359

The recent onset of maternity leaves is essential for empowering the modern-day woman. But at the same time, it continues to reinforce the idea of ‘Women as the caregiver.’ We raise a simple question – what about the duty of Fathers as equal caregivers? In the 21st century, we continue to battle against a plethora of gender-biased norms reflected in a country’s legal regime. This social construct discriminates against people based on their gender overlooking the abilities they possess. Beyond breaking these taboos, we prove that Paternity leaves foster better bonds between the father and child while increasing the economic labour force participation of women. To live up to the constitutional principle of equality, the recently introduced Indian Paternity Leave Bill rekindles hope for creating an economically viable policy to enable Indian men to take up greater household roles. We propagate for learning from the Scandinavian countries and instilling their best practices in domestic policy. To conclude, we aim to establish the need for lengthened paternity leaves as a policy measure and as a reform that transforms social structures.

Ananya Dhanuka
B.A. Hons. Economics, Shri Ram College of Commerce, University of Delhi, India
Kashish Banthia
B.A. Hons. Economics, Gargi College, University of Delhi, India

[1] Addati,Cassirer,Gilchrist, L. A. N. C. K. G. (2014, May 13). Maternity and paternity at work: Law and practice across the world. ILO. https://www.ilo.org/global/topics/equality-and-discrimination/maternity-protection/publications/maternity-paternity-at-work-2014/lang–en/index.htm

[2] Agarwal, A. A. (2020, November 8). Fatherhood is more fulfilling. The Indian Express. https://indianexpress.com/article/opinion/a-fatherhood-more-fulfilling-7013342/

[3] BARNES, M. W. B. (n.d.). Parental leave. BRITANNICA. Retrieved April 23, 2021, from https://www.britannica.com/topic/parental-leave

[4] CHOWDHURY, A. C. (2020, January 23). Paternity Leaves: The Sexist Gap In Our Parental Policies. FII.

[5] https://feminisminindia.com/2020/01/23/paternity-leaves-sexist-gap-parental-policies/   

[6] Dearing, H. D. (2015, March). Does parental leave influence the gender division of labour? Recent empirical findings from Europe.Mag. Helene DearingMarch 2015. EFMD EQIUS ACCREDITED. https://core.ac.uk/reader/35454060

[7] Dubey, S. D. (2021, January 13). Gender (In)Equality in India: Analysing Maternity Benefits and Parental Leaves. Lokniti. https://mpp.nls.ac.in/blog/gender-inequality-in-india-analysing-maternity-benefits-and-parental-leaves/

[8] Globalization Partners. (2021, May 20). Hungary PEO & Employer of Record – Expand Business into Hungary. https://www.globalization-partners.com/globalpedia/hungary-employer-of-record/

[9] Is paid leave available to mothers and fathers of infants? (n.d.). WORLD. Retrieved April 23, 2021, from https://www.worldpolicycenter.org/policies/is-paid-leave-available-to-mothers-and-fathers-of-infants/is-paid-leave-available-for-fathers-of-infants

[10] Kritika. (n.d.). Paternity Benefit Laws in India- A Necessity. Legal Service India-E Journal. Retrieved April 28, 2021, from http://www.legalserviceindia.com/legal/article-2836-paternity-benefit-laws-in-india-a-necessity.html

[11] LOBO, R. L. (2019, December 20). India: Paternity Benefit Bill. MONDAQ. https://www.mondaq.com/india/employee-rights-labour-relations/877518/paternity-benefit-bill

[12] MAHAJAN, P. M. (2019, August 22). Fathers, Paternity Benefits and Gender Norms. SSRN. https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3441024

[13] Nepomnyaschy, L. N. (2007, November). Article Paternity leave and fathers’ involvement with their young children. Research Gate. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/247516271_Paternity_leave_and_fathers%27_involvement_with_their_young_children

[14] Online, I. E. (2020, November 8). A fatherhood more fulfilling. The Indian Express. https://indianexpress.com/article/opinion/a-fatherhood-more-fulfilling-7013342/

[15] PETTS, R. J. P. (2018, May 3). Paternity Leave‐Taking and Father Engagement. WILEY ONLINE LIBRARY. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/jomf.12494

[16] Rehel, E. M. (2013). When Dad Stays Home Too: Paternity Leave, Gender, and Parenting. SAGE Journals. Published. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0891243213503900

[17] Rust, E. R. (2019, September 25). Rethinking Paternity Leave. Brown Political Review. https://brownpoliticalreview.org/2019/09/rethinking-paternity-leave/

[18] Waziri, A. W. (2021, February 3). Acknowledging unpaid care work and the need for a Paternity Benefit Act. Bar and Bench. https://www.barandbench.com/columns/acknowledging-unpaid-care-work-and-the-need-for-a-paternity-benefit-act

[19] What are gender roles and stereotypes? (n.d.). Planned Parenthood. Retrieved April 26, 2021, from https://www.plannedparenthood.org/learn/gender-identity/sex-gender-identity/what-are-gender-roles-and-stereotypes

Wulfhorst, E. W. (2019, June 5). Nappies? No thanks, say most men with few still taking full paternity leave. Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-women-conference-fathers-idUSKCN1T626D

Dhanuka A. and Banthia K. (2020).Paternity Benefit Leaves in India: Need, Cost and Gender Reform . International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law1(3), 2344.


The Psychological, Social, and Economic Impact of COVID-19 and its Associated Implications on Women

Radhika Ahuja and Janhvi
Volume 1, Issue 4
24th June 2021
Page No.: 2360-2377

Due to the strict measures imposed by the government to curb the spread of the novel coronavirus across the world the people were forced to stay at home longer. The indirect effects of covid-19 are far more than the pathogen itself. The social isolation measures have had a profound impact on the mental and psychological health of people. Some of the consequences include stress, anxiety, and lack of sleep. Also, the pandemic has been biased towards women from facing economic consequences to increased household work. The cumulative effect of managing work and home has also been a major contributor to their mental turmoil. The pandemic also aggravated the problem of gender abuse and gender inequality which have been thoroughly analyzed. The paper aims to argue that though the pandemic had a lethal impact on the population, unintended impacts can not be avoided. The methodology used to present data in bibliographic research considering reliable resources. The results offer a comprehensible view of the problem aggravated during the pandemic.

Radhika Ahuja
St. Mark’s Senior Secondary Public School, Meera Bagh, Delhi, India
B.A. Hons. Economics, Maitreyi College, University of Delhi, India

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[2] Adults Reporting Symptoms of Anxiety or Depressive Disorder During COVID-19 Pandemic. (2021, April 16). KFF. https://www.kff.org/other/state-indicator/adults-reporting-symptoms-of-anxiety-or-depressive-disorder-during-covid-19-pandemic/?currentTimeframe=

[3] Almeida, M. (2020, December 1). The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on women’s mental health. Archives of Women’s Mental Health. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00737-020-01092-2?error=cooki es_not_supported&code=aaf4abd2-130b-49ab-8186-afb9a80cb079

[4] Bachmann, S. (2018, July 1). Epidemiology of Suicide and the Psychiatric Perspective. PubMed Central (PMC). https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6068947/

[5] BBC News. (2020, September 18). India’s Covid crisis sees rise in child marriage and trafficking. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-india-54186709

[6] Birla, N. (2019, October 10). Mental health in India: 7.5% of country affected; less than 4,000 experts available. The Economic Times. https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/magazines/panache/mental-health-i n-india-7-5-of-country-affected-less-than-4000-experts-available/articlesho w/71500130.cms?from=mdr

[7] Contributors, E. T. (2020, August 24). How the coronavirus pandemic has changed the lives of working women. The Economic Times. https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/wealth/plan/how-the-coronavirus-pandemic-has-changed-the-lives-of-working-women/articleshow/77688497.c ms?from=mdr

[8] COVID-19 and Girls’ Education: What We Know So Far and What We Expect. (n.d.). Center For Global Development https://www.cgdev.org/blog/covid-19-and-girls-education-what-we-know-so -far-and-what-we-expect-happen

[9] Crimi, C. (2021, January 1). Challenges for the female health-care workers during the COVID-19 pandemic: the need for protection beyond the mask | Pulmonology. https://www.journalpulmonology.org/en-challenges-for-female-health-care workers-articulo-S2531043720302117#bib0040

[10] Das, M., Das, A., & Mandal, A. (2020). Examining the impact of lockdown (due to COVID-19) on Domestic Violence (DV): An evidences from India. Asian Journal of Psychiatry, 54, 102335. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajp.2020.102335

[11] Financial Capability Study. (n.d.). Financial Capability Study https://www.usfinancialcapability.org/

[12] From insights to action: Gender equality in the wake of COVID-19 | Digital library: Publications. (n.d.). UN Women. Retrieved April 20, 2021, from https://www.unwomen.org/en/digital-library/publications/2020/09/gender-e quality-in-the-wake-of-covid-19

[13] Ghosh, R. (2020, September 17). Talking Turkey Blog. Times of India, T. O. (2021a, April 19). Women Empowerment. The Times of India https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/topic/Women-Empowerment

[14] Kapur, R. O. S. H. N. I. (2020, July 15). Women Empowerment in India:More needs to be done. Isas. https://www.isas.nus.edu.sg/papers/women-empowerment-in-india-more-n eeds-to-be-done/

[15] Krishnakumar, A., & Verma, S. (2021). Understanding Domestic Violence in India During COVID-19: a Routine Activity Approach. Asian Journal of Criminology, 16(1), 19–35. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11417-020-09340-1

[16] Malala Fund releases report on girls’ education and COVID-19. (2020, April 6). Malala Fund | Newsroom. https://malala.org/newsroom/archive/malala-fund-releases-report-girls-education-covid-19#:%7E:text=Malala%20Fund’s%20report%20estimates%20that,has%20passed%2C%20not%2010%20million.

[17] Maskara, S. (2020, August 19). Decoding mental health and domestic violence in Covid times. The Daily Guardian. https://thedailyguardian.com/decoding-mental-health-and-domestic-iolen ce-in-covid-times/

[18] Mental health: strengthening our response. (2018, March 30). Who. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/mental-health-strengte ning-our-response

[19] Mental health in the Covid-19 pandemic. (2020, March 30). PubMed Central (PMC). https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7184387/ of India Blog. https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/blogs/talkingturkey/

[20] Patnaik, A. (2021, January 7). No data to handle mental health crisis during COVID-19. Indian Express. https://www.newindianexpress.com/opinions/2021/jan/07/no-data- o-handl e-mental-health-crisis-during-covid-2246594.html

[21] Psycom.net. (2020, November 24). Suicide and Suicide Prevention: Risk Factors and Treatment. Psycom.Net – Mental Health Treatment Resource Since 1996. https://www.psycom.net/depression.central.suicide.html

[22] Schäfer, S. (2020). Impact of COVID-19 on Public Mental Health and the Buffering Effect of a Sense of Coherence. FullText – Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics 2020, Vol. 89, No. 6 – Karger Publishers. https://www.karger.com/Article/FullText/510752#ref6

[23] Simon, N. M. (2020, October 20). Mental Health Disorders Related to COVID-19–Related Deaths. Psychiatry and Behavioral Health | JAMA | JAMA Network. https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2771763#jvp200211r2

[24] Singaravelu, N. S. S. R. V. (2020, June 24). Data | Domestic violence complaints at a 10-year high during COVID-19 lockdown. The Hindu https://www.thehindu.com/data/data-domestic-violence-complaints-at-a- 0 -year-high-during-covid-19-lockdown/article31885001.ece

[25] Su, Z. (2021, January 5). Mental health consequences of COVID-19 media coverage: the need for effective crisis communication practices. Globalization and Health. https://globalizationandhealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12992- 020-00654-4#ref-CR42

[26] Watkins, A., Rothfeld, M., Rashbaum, W. K., & Rosenthal, B. M. (2020, April Top E.R. Doctor Who Treated Coronavirus Patients Dies by Suicide. The New York Times. https://www.google.com/amp/s/www.nytimes.com/2020/04/27/nyregion/ne w-york-city-doctor-suicide-coronavirus.amp.html

[27] What is COVID-19? (2021, April 23). https://www.medscape.com/answers/2500114-197401/what-is-covid-19

[28] What’s happening to girls’ education during the COVID-19 pandemic? (2020, July 10). Girls Not Brides. https://www.girlsnotbrides.org/articles/educating-girls-during-covid-19/

[29] WHO. (2020, October 5). COVID-19 disrupting mental health services in most countries, WHO survey. www.Who.Int. https://www.who.int/news/item/05-10-2020-covid-19-disrupting-mental-health-services-in-most-countries-who-survey

Ahuja A. and Janhvi (2020). The Psychological, Social, and Economic Impact of COVID-19 and its Associated Implications on Women . International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law1(3), 2360.


Urbanization and Transmission of Covid-19 with a Focus on Developing Countries: India as a Case Study

Sushmitta Renganathan and Abhivyakti Mishra
Volume 1, Issue 4
29th July 2021
Page No.: 2378-2421

Around the world, global cities played an important role in the transmission of the COVID-19 disease at its early stages. But the impact of the spread was much severely felt by the cities of the developing world, than by those in the developed countries. The unique aspects attributed to rapid urbanization and high population growth in the developing countries, make the cities of this part of the world distinct from those of the developed countries. Therefore the COVID-19 protocols propagated by the high-income countries not only were a challenge to implement in these cities but were also effective only for a segment of the society. In this paper, we explore the distinct features of cities in the developing world against the challenges posed by the COVID-19 pandemic and the importance of context-based solutions to help the cities of developing countries successfully handle a pandemic like the COVID-19.

Sushmitta Renganathan
Masters of Regional Planning Program, Cornell University, New York, United States of America

Abhivyakti Mishra
B.A. Hons. Economics, Daulat Ram College, University of Delhi, India


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Cow Protection sans Minority Welfare: Why the Beef Ban only Succeeds Where it Shouldn't

Sreekara Adwaith and Jishnu Verma
Volume 1, Issue 4
29th July 2021
Page No.: 2422-2431

The Beef Ban laws have acted as a vehicle of marginalisation for Indian minorities. The paper argues against the core argument – the utility of the Beef Ban for animal welfare – that is made by proponents of the law. The paper uses PESTLE analysis to posit that the only way to improve the well-being of cows is to ameliorate the material reality of the workers in the livestock industry. Animal welfare can help farmers improve the quality of their end product, access welfare-conscious western markets, and reduce medication costs. Methods like stunning and shielding can provide animals with a painless death and can also prove to be cost-effective. However, the first step towards meaningful and inclusive animal welfare policies is the depoliticisation of the issue.

Sreekara Adwaith
Bachelor’s in History and Politics, KREA University, Sricity, Andhra Pradesh, India

Jishnu Verma
B.Com. Hons, University of Delhi, India


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Nomani, A., & Salman, M. (2016). Impact of the beef ban on economy and meat processing industry of India: A complete value chain analysis. Management Studies and Economic Systems, 2(4), 325-334.

Parikh, A., & Miller, C. (2019). Holy cow! Beef ban, political technologies, and Brahmanical supremacy in Modi’s India. ACME: An International Journal for Critical Geographies, 18(4), 835-874.

Sarkar, R., & Sarkar, A. (2016). Sacred slaughter: An analysis of historical, communal, and constitutional aspects of beef bans in India. Politics, Religion & Ideology, 17(4), 329-351.

Sinclair, M., Fryer, C., & Phillips, C. J. (2019). The benefits of improving animal welfare from the perspective of livestock stakeholders across Asia. Animals, 9(4), 123.

Singay, K. A. (2020). Social Marginalisation and Scapegoating: A Study of Mob Lynching in Pakistan and India. Pakistan Social Sciences Review, 526-536.

Staples, J. (2018). Appropriating the cow: Beef and identity politics in contemporary India.

Adwaith S. & Verma J. (2021). Cow Protection sans Minority Welfare: Why the Beef Ban only Succeeds Where it Shouldn’t. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law 1(4), 2422-4231.

How does America Perceive Abortion?: A Comprehensive Literature Review of Abortion Attitudes in the Twentieth and Twenty-First Centuries American Societies

Sanah Malik
Volume 1, Issue 4
29th July 2021
Page No.: 2432-2436

Women have been forced to extreme discrimination in the past few decades because of the ‘issue’ of abortion. Czarnecki et al. (2019), have indicated that attitudes towards abortion have changed significantly in American societies and are now in favour of women’s reproductive rights, unlike popular beliefs. In addition, Hertel et al. (1974), in “Religion and Attitudes Toward Abortion: A Study of Nurses and Social Workers” hypothesize that religion is the main factor that influences decisions regarding the practice of abortion and liberal Christian denominations have more chances of approving it, as compared to their conservative counterparts. Whereas Czarnecki et al. (2019) reveal how people’s approaches towards sensitive topics like abortion have changed massively, and today people’s decisions are guided by an array of factors and religion- despite being a key variable is not the most important- both contributions circle around the common premise of abortion and had similar subjects, such as healthcare providers like nurses and welfare caseworkers. Given the 43 years difference between the studies, it is discovered that decision-making at work, especially in medical care, has evolved, and although the underlying similarity is religion, factors such as foetus’ gestational age and reasons for terminating pregnancy are the primary concerns.

Sanah Malik
HBA, University of Toronto Scarborough, Toronto, Canada


Czarnecki, D., Anspach, R. R., De Vries, R. G., Dunn, M. D., Hauschildt, K., & Harris, L. H. (2019). Conscience reconsidered: The moral work of navigating participation in abortion care on labor and delivery. Social Science & Medicine, 232, 181–189.

Hertel, B., Hendershot, G. E., & Grimm, J. W. (1974). Religion and Attitudes toward Abortion: A Study of Nurses and Social Workers. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 13(1), 23–34.

Malik S. (2021). How does America Perceive Abortion?: A Comprehensive Literature Review of Abortion Attitudes in the Twentieth and Twenty-First Centuries American Societies. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law 1(4), 2432-2436.

Role of Literacy in Ensuring a Clean and Sustainable Environment

Krithi Bajaj and Oscar Chibueze Amaechi
Volume 1, Issue 4
29th July 2021
Page No.: 2437-2451

The concept of a sustainable environment, environmental education, its implications and the necessity of a clean environment has been discussed in this paper. Ecological Education imparts information about the current circumstance and future possibilities of nature. It instructs individuals to investigate every one of the issues identified with climate and take part in wise methods of saving it. It is also tied with learning the manner in which we ought to live and how we can create practical methodologies to protect the environment. It assists people with building up a comprehension of living and actual climate and how to determine testing physical aspects of the environment influencing nature. As well as considering the actual parts of the environment, it additionally underscores the need to monitor biodiversity and receive a more economical way of life and use assets in a dependable manner. The paper also talks about plastic pollution and ways to tackle it. It focuses on the rudimentary ways of reusing and recycling plastic as well as reducing the use of the same. India and Nigeria are the two countries that have been paid attention to in the paper as the situation in both of these countries is worrisome when it comes to plastic pollution. The study of the environment helps us gain imperative knowledge about the current scenario of the surroundings we live in and how we can make it better.

Krithi Bajaj
B.A. Mass Communication, Symbiosis Centre of Media and Communication, Pune, India

Oscar Chibueze Amaechi
Department of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria


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Bajaj K. & Chibueze Amaechi O. (2021). Role of Literacy in Ensuring a Clean and Sustainable Environment. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law 1(4), 2437-2451.

Evolution of Start-Up Ecosystem in India

Nikki Arora
Volume 1, Issue 4
29th July 2021
Page No.: 2452-2466

The Great Depression 2008 crisis led to the evolution of the startup ecosystem in India. Although, the evolution has been going on from the late 90s in a way it was mainly confined to setting up small-scale businesses. The government in the late 1900s was offering incentives and encouraging people to come up and set up any kind of business on their own which would ultimately provide employment to the lower class and give a boost to Gross Domestic Product (GDP). At the beginning of 2000, we saw the rise of the internet in developed countries and slowly taking the pace within a decade in developing countries as well. As there is a saying, every dark phase in your life extracts the best out of you; interpreting this term in terms of business- every crisis often brings disruptive ideas into the industry like Flipkart, OYO, Ola to name a few in India. Earlier, the world’s startup was mainly in the USA but now India is at number 3 in terms of the number of startups in the country. The COVID-19 pandemic accelerated the growth of startups in India, the unicorns have been rising like never before and also offering everyone regardless of their age the opportunity to start something on their own.

Nikki Arora
B.A Hons. Economics, Hansraj College, University of Delhi, India


Business Standard. (2020, April). Covid-19: Fitch cuts India’s FY21 GDP growth forecast to 1.8% from 4.6%.

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Donatekart by TOI. (2021, February 1). Union Budget: Govt allocates Rs 830 cr for Fund of Funds for Startups. The Times of India.

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James, A. (2021, June 2). Priority for MSMEs in Post-COVID. Project Report Builder for Bank Loan.

Kuligowski, K. (2020, December 30). 12 Reasons to Use Instagram for Your Business. Business.Com.

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Mukherjee, D. (2020, November 6). Government Schemes In India For Startups And MSME. MyHQ Digest.

Rakheja, H. (2021, April 1). As Tech Platforms Expand, India’s Gig Economy Can Provide 90 Mn Jobs, Generate $250 Bn In Volume Of Work. Inc42 Media.

Rowley, J. D. (2017, June 23). The 2007–2009 Financial Crisis Was Surprisingly Kind To Tech Startups. Mattermark.

Rs 15,700 cr provided for MSME sector in Union Budget Read more at:
https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/small-biz/sme-sector/rs-15700-cr-provided-for-msme-sector-in-union-budget/articleshow/80627459.cms?utm_source=contentofinterest&utm_medium=text&utm_campaign=cppst. (2021).

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Arora N. (2021). Evolution of Start-Up Ecosystem in India. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law 1(4), 2452-2466.

Analysis of Rural-Urban Migration in India and Impact of COVID-19

Abhay Garg and Priyanshu Agarwal
Volume 1, Issue 4
29th July 2021
Page No.: 2467-2493

This paper examines the Rural-Urban Migration in India and the Impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on the Migrants and the governmental stance and policies on migration during the global pandemic. A major determinant of migration is the higher expected wages offered in the Urban Sector along with better employment opportunities as depicted by the theoretical framework in Harris-Todaro Model. A Case Study of Uttarakhand State is also presented to depict the migrants’ situation in the view of this model. Further, the paper examines the trends and patterns of Migration for the Census Year 2001 and 2011 and analyses the reasons behind inter-state migration through an econometric viewpoint. The results correspond to the HarrisTodaro Model depicting an inverse relation between In-Migration Rate and Unemployment rate in contrast to positive relation with poverty rate and State’s Net Domestic Product. While there has been a significant jump in all the streams of migration except Urban to Rural from 2001 to 2011, a close analysis of the data reflects that employment is not a major factor responsible for migration in developing countries rather sociological factors also influence a substantial flow of migration.

Abhay Garg
B.A. Hons. Economics, Shri Ram College of Commerce, University of Delhi, India

Priyanshu Agarwal
B.A. Hons. Economics, Shri Ram College of Commerce, University of Delhi, India


Ajay Dandekar and Rahul Ghai (2020). Migration and Reverse Migration in the Age of Covid-19. Economic and Political Weekly Vol 9.

Ansary, Rabiul. (2018). Emerging patterns of migration streams in India: A state-level analysis of the 2011 census. Migration Letters.

Bhati, Rakesh. (2015). A study of Rural to Urban Migration in India.

COVID-19 crisis and urbanization, migration and inclusive city policies in India: A new theoretical framework by Namrata. S. Panwar and Alok Kumar Mishra.

Debraj Ray, Development Economics, Oxford University Press, 1999

Handbook of Regional and Urban Economics by Gilles Duranton, Vernon Henderson, William Strange.

Harpreet Singh (2016). Increasing Rural to urban migration in India: A Challenge or an opportunity. International Journal of Applied Research.

Kailash C. Das et. al. “Inter-state migration and regional disparities in India Khan, Jabir & Hassan, Tarique &, Shamshad. (2011). Socio-Economic Causes of Rural to Urban Migration in India. Asia-Pacific Journal of Social Sciences. 3. 138-158.

Madhu G. R. and H.R. Uma (2014). Rural to Urban Migration – Opportunities and Challenges. International Journal of Advance Research, Volume 2, Issue 6.

Mishra and Panwar (2017). Migration and Public Policy in India: Revisiting the HarrisTodaro Model. Indian Journal of Economics and Development, Vol 5 (11), 2017.

Mitra, Arup & Murayama, Mayumi. (2008). Rural to Urban Migration: A District Level Analysis for India. Institute of Developing Economies, Japan External Trade Organization (JETRO), IDE Discussion Papers. 5. 10.1108/17479894200900011.

Rajkumar Sangappa Sali and Shanta. B. Astige (2015). Causes and Consequences of Migration in India: A Sociological Perspective

Sahni, Sakshi & Aulakh, Rawal. (2020). Impact of COVID 19 on Rural Migrants in India.

Sikdar and Mishra (2020). Reverse Migration during Lockdown: A Snapshot of Public Policies. National Institute of Public Finance and Policy, New Delhi.

S. Madheswaran and Jajati Keshari Panda (2010). Spatial Heterogeneity and Population Mobility in India. Institute for Social and Economic Change, Bengaluru.

S. Chandrasekhar, Ajay Sharma (2014). Urbanization and Spatial Patterns of Internal Migration in India. Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai. 

The COVID-19 Pandemic and Internal Labour Migration in India: A ‘Crisis of Mobility’ by S. Irudaya Rajan, P. Sivakumar & Aditya Srinivasan

United Nations Population Division 2018 Report

Garg A. & Agarwal P. (2021). Analysis of Rural-Urban Migration in India and Impact of COVID-19. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law 1(4), 2467-2493.

Behavioural Insights on Poverty and Developmental Policy

Padmini Prasad
Volume 1, Issue 4
29th July 2021
Page No.: 2494-2511

Successful development interventions rely on people to behave and choose in a certain way, and insights from behavioural economics help us understand why people behave and choose as they do. This paper aims to investigate the emergence and relevance of behavioural economics in development and study the interlinkages between preferences, cultures, biases and institutions and their policies. The issues of poverty and development urge us to further study topics of savings, contracts and technology uptake, with a particular focus on human behaviour. The paper then focuses on how to design development programs that are cognizant of and informed by behavioural insights across health, education, agriculture, finance and other public services. Finally, it reviews some ways in which behavioural insights and design principles can be incorporated into existing and planned policy interventions to improve their reach and effectiveness.

Padmini Prasad
B.A. (Hons) Economics, Shri Ram College of Commerce, University of Delhi, India


Anderson C.L., Stamoulis K. (2007) Applying Behavioural Economics to International Development Policy. Studies in Development Economics and Policy.

Banerjee, A. (2001). The two poverties. Nordic Journal of Political Economy, 26, 129-41.

Berndt, Christian. (2019). Behavioral economics and development policy. University of Zurich.

Bertrand, M., S. Mullainathan, & E. Shafir. (2004). A Behavioral Economics View of Poverty. American Economic Review, 94(2). 419–23.

Brune, L., X. Gine, J. Goldberg, & D. Yang. (2011) Commitments to Save: A Field Experiment in Rural Malawi. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper No.5748.

Camerer, C., Issacharoff, S., Loewenstein, G., O’Donoghue, T. & Rabin, M. (2003). Regulation for conservatives: Behavioral economics and the case for ‘asymmetric paternalism’. University of Pennsylvania Law Review, 151. 1211-54.

Chibba, M. (2012). Behavioural Economics and International Development. Global Policy.

Datta, S. & Mullainathan, S. (2014). Behavioural Design: A New Approach to Development Policy. Review of Income and Wealth, 60(1). 7-35.

Demeritt, A., & Hoff, K. (2018). The Making of Behavioral Development Economics. Policy Research Working Paper; No. 8317. World Bank.

Duflo, E. (2005). Field Experiments in Development Economics. BREAD Policy Paper No. 012, December 2005, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Duflo, E. (2006). Poor but rational? Understanding Poverty, Oxford University Press. 367-78.

Duflo, E., M. Kremer, & J. Robinson. (2011). Nudging Farmers to Use Fertilizer: Evidence from Kenya. American Economic Review, 101(6). 2350–90.

Hanna, R., S. Mullainathan, & J. Schwartzstein. (2012). Learning by Attending: Theory and Experimental Evidence in Seaweed Farming. NBER Working Paper No. 18041.

Haushofer, J. & E. Fehr (2014). On the psychology of poverty. Science, 344 (6186). 862-67.

Kahneman, D. (2011) Thinking, Fast and Slow, Macmillan, New York. Karlan, D., M. McConnell, S. Mullainathan, & J. Zinman. (2010) Getting to the
Top of Mind: How Reminders Increase Savings. NBER Working Paper No. 16205.

Kaur, S., M. Kremer, & S. Mullainathan. (2011). Self-Control at Work. Journal of Political Economy, 123(6).

Kautalya. (1992) The Arthashastra. Penguin Books India. Kremer, M., Rao, G. & Schilbach, F. (2019). Chapter 5 – Behavioural development economics. Handbook of Behavioral Economics: Applications and Foundations 1, 2, 345-458.

Mishkin, F. S., & Eakins, S. G. (2011) Financial Markets and Institutions. Pearson Education. 369-382. Morris, M., V. Kelly, R. Kopicki, & D. Byerlee. (2007). Fertilizer Use in African Agriculture: Lessons Learned and Good Practice Guidelines. World Bank.

Mullainathan, S. & R. H. Thale. (2000). Behavioral Economics. NBER Working Paper No. 7948.

Tversky, A. & D. Kahneman (1974). ‘Judgment under uncertainty: Heuristics and biases’, Science, 185 (4157):1124-31.

Schultz, T. W. (1979). Theodore W. Schultz – Prize Lecture: The Economics of Being Poor. The Royal Swedish Academy of Science.

Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation. (2008). Perspectives on the making markets work for the poor (M4P) approach. The Springfield Centre.

Thaler, Richard H. & Cass R. Sunstein (2008), Nudge: Improving Decisions About Health, Wealth, And Happiness. Yale University Press.

Vohs, K., R. F. Baumeister, B. J. Schmeichel, J. M. Twenge, N. M. Nelson, & D. M. Tice. (2008) Making Choices Impairs Subsequent Self-Control: A Limited-Resource Account of Decision Making, Self-Regulation, and Active Initiative. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 94(5). 883–98.

World Bank (2015). World Development Report 2015: Mind, Society and Behavior. The World Bank.

Prasad P. (2021). Behavioural Insights on Poverty and Development Policy. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law 1(4), 2494-2511.

International Law, State Sovereignty and Responsibility: A Non-Western Perspective

Hari Godara
Volume 1, Issue 4
29th July 2021
Page No.: 2512-2534

The inception of the Westphalian state system introduced a legal framework on an international basis, but the intrinsic superiority given to developed western countries seems to be continuously contested by emerging nations fueled with the advent of multipolarity. The current balance of sovereignty and responsibility poses a complicated scenario in which developed countries are supposed to bear a burden for the sake of civilization as a whole, but developing countries appear to find this situation discriminatory. The Mekong River Basin project and the Amazon Rainforest quandary bring us to the intricate and deeply complicated area of state accountability that stems from state sovereignty in International Relations. Just as state responsibility cannot be bound by its territorial boundaries, the timeframe of any event should not bind any state to take positive initiative for any event of great contemporary significance. Just like the example of Affirmative action in Municipal law of many countries.

Hari Godara
Kurukshetra University, Haryana, India


Baldwin, S. E. (1916). The Relation of International Law to the Law of England and of the United States of America. By Cyril M. Picciotto, with an Introduction by L. Oppenheim LL.D. , New York: McBride, Nast & Co. 1915. pp. 128. American Journal of International Law, 10(1). https://doi.org/10.2307/2187383

Basist, A., & Williams, C. (2020). Monitoring the Quantity of Water Flowing Through the Upper Mekong Basin Under Natural (Unimpeded) Conditions.

Bobbit P. (2003). The Shield of Achills: War, Peace, And The Course of History. New York: Anchor Books.

Borchard, E. (1940). The Relation between International Law and Municipal Law. Virginia Law Review, 27(2), 137. 

Bratman, E. Z. (2019). Governing the Rainforest: Sustainable Development Politics in the Brazilian Amazon. Oxford University Press, USA. 

Carswell, A. J. (2013). Unblocking the UN Security Council: The Uniting for Peace Resolution. Journal of Conflict and Security Law, 18(3). 

Christol, C. Q. (1980). International Liability for Damage Caused by Space Objects. American Journal of International Law, 74(2), 346–371. https://doi.org/10.2307/2201505

Dupuy, P. M. (1989). The Law of International Responsibility of States: Revolution or Evolution? Michigan Journal of International Law, 11. Published.

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Hassan D. (2006). The Rise of Territorial State and The Treaty of Westphalia, Year book of New Zealand Jurisprudence.

Heywood, A. (2004). Political Theory: An Introduction. Palgrave Macmillan.

Hobbs T. (1651) : Leviathan , ch. xvii (R. Tuck ed., Cambridge University Press, 1991).

Hohfeld, W. N., & Picciotto, C. M. (2013). The Relation of International Law to the Law of England and of the United States of America a Study. Gale, Making of Modern Law. 

Holsti, K. J. (1996). Peace and War: Armed Conflicts and International Order, 1648–1989 (Cambridge Studies in International Relations, Series Number 14). Cambridge University Press.

Holsti K.J. (1996), The State, War and State of War, 1648-1989, Cambridge University Press.

Jenks, W. (1966). Liability for Ultra-Hazardous Activities in International Law, Collected Courses of the Hague Academy of International Law, 117, 99-200.

Kang, K. (2019). On the problem of the justification of river rights. Water International, 44(6–7), 667–683.

Kennedy D. (1988). A New Stream of International Law Scholarship, Wisconsin International Law Journal

KLABBERS, J. (1998). Clinching the Concept of Sovereignty: Wimhledon Redux. Austrian Review of International and European Law Online, 3(1).

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Magraw, D. B. (1986). Transboundary Harm: The International Law Commission’s Study of “International Liability.” American Journal of International Law, 80(2), 305–330.

Nathan, J. A. (2002). Soldiers, Statecraft, and History: Coercive Diplomacy and International Order. Praeger.

Osborne, M. (2009). The Mekong River Under Threat. Lowy Institute Paper, 27.

Permanent Court of International Justice. (1923). S.S. “WIMBLEDON.”

Phan L. (2019). The Sambor Dam: How China’s Breach of Customary International Law Will Affect the Future of the Mekong River Basin, The Georgetown Environmental Law Review, 32(1).

Piccioto, C. M., & Oppenheim, L. (1915). The Relation of International Law to the Law of England and of the United States of America. American Journal of International Law. Published.

Pillsbury, M. (2015). The Hundred-Year Marathon: China’s Secret Strategy to Replace America as the Global Superpower. Henry Holt and Co.

Robinson J.B. (2004). Squaring the Circle? Some Thoughts on the Idea of Sustainable Development, Ecological Economy, 48(4).

Stewart, M. P. R. (2020, July 30). An Analysis of Amazonian Forest Fires – Towards Data Science. Medium.

Taulbee, J. L., & Glahn, G. V. (2017). Law Among Nations: An Introduction to Public International Law (11th ed.). Routledge.

Trimble P.R. (1990). A Revisionist View of Customary International Law, UCLA Law Review, 42. 

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Watkins F.M. (1968), International Encyclopedia of The Social Sciences, USA: Macmillan Reference.

Yoshida, Y., Lee, H. S., Trung, B. H., Tran, H. D., Lall, M. K., Kakar, K., & Xuan, T. D. (2020). Impacts of Mainstream Hydropower Dams on Fisheries and Agriculture in Lower Mekong Basin. Sustainability, 12(6), 2408.

Zhong, X., & Wang, B. (2016). Debating the Socialist Legacy and Capitalist Globalization in China. Palgrave Macmillan.

Godara H. (2021). International Law, State Sovereignty and Responsibility: A Non-Western Perspective. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law 1(4), 2512-2534.

Conflict and Conflict Resolution Research Plan: Uncovering the Dynamics of the US-Iran Conflict

Gracy Singh
Volume 1, Issue 4
29th July 2021
Page No.: 2535-2547

The US-Iran confrontation is one of the most hot-headed conflicts at present and has been quite dynamic over the course of time. The reasons for the conflict are varied and range from issues surrounding Iran’s natural resources, the bigger question of nuclear weapons, ideological differences, etc. However, the unfortunate reality showcases that both the countries, despite numerous efforts, have not been able to establish sustained diplomatic channels. Consequently, the conflict has escalated over the years. The tensions reached their peak during the tenure of the Trump administration with the employment of the “maximum pressure” doctrine, the reasoning behind which was to create uncomfortable conditions for the economically fragile Iran, in order to bring it to the negotiation table. However, the doctrine had quite the opposite effect and led to the worsening of the relations between the two countries. Therefore, making conflict resolution a far-fetched dream. The coming of the Biden administration provides hope for a better future, but this needs to be analyzed by acknowledging the impact of various other players in the bilateral relations of the two countries.

Gracy Singh
B.A. Hons. Political Science, Lady Shri Ram College for Women, University of Delhi, India


‘Analysis: What is next in Iran-US Conflict?’, Stanly Johny, The Hindu, January 08,2020

Barnes, J. E., & Gibbons-Neff, T. (2019, June 24). U.S. Carried Out Cyberattacks on Iran. The New York Times.

Cooper, H. (2019, July 18). What We Know About Iran Shooting Down a U.S. Drone. The New York Times.

Dewan, A. C. (2017, February 5). How Iran-US relations plummeted in a week – CNNPolitics. CNN.

Gaouette, K. C. L. A. N. (2018, May 9). Iran deal: Trump announces withdrawal, will re-institute sanctions – CNNPolitics. CNN.

Gilsinan, K. (2019, June 27). Why Does the U.S. Protect the Strait of Hormuz? The Atlantic.

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Meredith, S. (2019, June 22). Oil tanker attacks in the Strait of Hormuz require an “international response,” US envoy to Iran says. CNBC.

Montville. J.V. (2006). Track two diplomacy: The work of healing history. The Whitehead Journal of Diplomacy and International Relations.

Mowing the Grass’: Israel’s Strategy for Protracted Intractable Conflict, Efraim Inbar January 2014, Journal of Strategic Studies 37(1). ResearchGate

Ramkumar, A., & Iosebashvili, I. (2019, September 17). Oil’s Swings Reinforce Saudi Arabia’s Key Role in Energy Markets. WSJ.

Shear, M. D., Schmitt, E., Crowley, M., & Haberman, M. (2019, July 19). Strikes on Iran Approved by Trump, Then Abruptly Pulled Back. The New York Times.

The US-Iran conflict: A timeline of how we got here’, Harmeet Kaur, Allen Kim and Ivory Sherman, CNN, January 11,2021

US-Iran relations: A brief history, BBC News, January 6,2020

US-Iran Relations: Issues, Challenges and Prospects, Nazir Hussain, January 2015, ResearchGate

U.S. Names Iran Envoy in Battle of Wills With Tehran Over Nuclear Negotiations’, Lara Jakes and Michael Crowley, the new York Times, January 28,2021

Wong, E. (2019, June 25). Trump Imposes New Sanctions on Iran, Adding to Tensions. The New York Times.

64 Years Later, CIA Finally Releases Details of Iranian Coup. (2017).

Singh G. (2021). Conflict and Conflict Resolution Research Plan: Uncovering the Dynamics of the US-Iran Conflict. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law 1(4), 2535-2547.

Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on Visually Impaired People with Public Media Alliance and Accessibility to Persons with Disability in India

Laiba Qamar
Volume 1, Issue 4
29th July 2021
Page No.: 2548-2565

It was only last year when Prime Minister Narendra Modi laid out National Disaster Management Guidelines on Disability Inclusive Disaster Risk Reduction (DIDRR) and earlier this year in March, the Department of Empowerment of Persons with Disabilities issued comprehensive disability-inclusive guidelines to States/UTs for protection and safety of persons with Disabilities (Divyangjan) in light of COVID-19 Pandemic. The steps undertaken were upright in ensuring thorough inclusivity of persons with disabilities but sadly when it came down to the implementation of the guidelines issued earlier, both the Centre and the State machinery failed people with disabilities bringing their life to a halt. “The only thing worse than living in a world of darkness is not being able to touch it.” The visually impaired persons in India faced unique and critical challenges during the lockdown and with subsequent relaxations. The directive and guidelines of ‘social distancing’, refraining from touching the surroundings or wearing gloves came in as a two-edged sword for them. Where infected surfaces are a continuous threat, wearing gloves reduced the sense of touch and perception of people living with disabilities. For those who relied heavily on touch and tactile perception to navigate through life, the guidelines, to say the least, were not inclusive. The inclusivity towards people with disabilities has always been a challenge and the pandemic has further exacerbated it.

Laiba Qamar
B.A. Journalism and Mass Communication, Vivekanand Institute of Professional Studies, New Delhi, India


Akbar, S., Kukreti, D., Sagarika, S., Pal, J. “Temporal Patterns in COVID-19 misinformation in India.” Joyojeet Pal, University of Michigan(2020).

Chandani, Alim. “How can Deaf Indians call up Covid-19 helplines? Modi govt must take these steps immediately.” The Print, July 2, 2020.

Choudhary, Pritha Roy. “Coronavirus: Why online learning is even harder for the disabled.” Careers 360, April 20, 2020.

David, Shantanu. “Sight-impaired in India are more affected by COVID-19 pandemic: RN Mohanty.” The New Indian Express, May 7, 2020.

India Today. “Disabled students at risk of dropping out as they are unable to cope with online learning: Report.” Accessed by December 10, 2020.

India Tv Tech Desk. “Khabri podcasts app introduces COVID-19 helpline for the visually-impaired.” India TV, April 20, 2020.

L Dandona, R Dandona, M Srinivas, P Giridhar, K Vilas, M N Prasad, R K John, C A McCarty, and G N Rao. “Blindness in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh.” Invest Ophthalmol Visc Sci 42 no. 5 (April 2001): 908-916.

Mascarenhas, Anuradha. “8.8 million blind in India in 2015, says study in Lancet.” The Indian Express, August 4, 2017.

Menon, Shruti. “Coronavirus: The human cost of fake news in India.” BBC, June 30, 2020.

Newz Hook. “Changing Attitude towards Disability.” Accessed on December 15, 2020.

OHCHR. “Covid-19 And The Rights Of Persons With Disabilities.” Accessed December 25, 2020.

Pandey, Akhilesh. “COVID-19 exposes failure of the government’s Accessible India Campaign.” The Caravan, October 2, 2020.

Rahman, Saba. “Aarogya Setu remains inaccessible for disabled despite push from activists.” The Indian Express, May 27, 2020.

Rohit Khanna, Usha Raman, and Gullapalli N Rao. “Blindness and poverty in India: the way forward.” Optometry 90, no. 6 (November 2007): 399-491.

Sinha, Kounteya. “India has largest blind population.” The Times of India, October 11, 2007.

Thomas, Rosamma. “Bombay HC to Hear PIL on Visually Impaired Students’ Access to Education.” News Click, October 5, 2020.

Uber. “Uber Partners with National Association for the Blind to support the blind and people with disabilities.” Accessed on December 25, 2020.

United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs. “Global Forum on the COVID-19 crisis and persons with disabilities.” Accessed on December 15, 2020.

World Health Organisation. “Blindness and Vision Impairment.” AccessedDecember 15, 2020.

Qamar L. (2021). Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on Visually Impaired People with Public Media Alliance and Accessibility to Persons with Disability in India. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law 1(4), 2548-2565.

Determinants of Social Mobility in India and Policy Recommendations

Amitoj Singh Kalsi and Harsh Kapoor
Volume 1, Issue 4
29th July 2021
Page No.: 2566-2581

The objective of this paper is to assess the determinants of social mobility in Indian society and provide nuanced policy recommendations to improve mobility for the immobile sections. This paper is both review-oriented and recommendatory. Using secondary data, this study analysed the complex interplay between caste, migration, and education as determinants of social mobility. Furthermore, the paper studies intersectionality as an approach for assessing social mobility, focusing on secondary determinants such as gender, religion, marriage, and geography. Does access to education undermine the origin-destination association? Why do some religious groups experience a decreasing relative social mobility? Have linkages between caste and outcomes weakened post-economic liberalisation? Does merit take precedence over caste in determining opportunities available to individuals in modern India? How is the rural women’s experience different from urban women with regards to social mobility? How do migration patterns influence mobility trends? The study unravelled myriad correlations between multiple determinants and stark sectional variations in the social mobility for different sub-groups. Using insights from these interplays between different determinants, the paper puts forth several policy recommendations which will improve mobility for the lesser ‘opportune’ classes, thereby undermining intergenerational socio-economic inequalities which continue to plague the Indian society.

Amitoj Singh Kalsi
B.A. Hons. History, Hindu College, University of Delhi, India

Harsh Kapoor
All India Secondary School Examination, Bhatnagar International School, New Delhi, India



Anikeeva, E. N. (2020). Cultural Anthropology, Cast Hierarchy and Religious Values in Modern India. Atlantis Press, 416(4), 493–496.

Asher, S., Novosad, P., & Rafkin, C. (2020). Intergenerational Mobility in India: New Methods and Estimates Across Time, Space, and Communities.

Dhawan, B. (2020, December 23). India ranks 131 on Human Development Index 2020: All you need to know. THE FINANCIAL EXPRESS.

Iyer, M. (2020, June 10). Migration in India and the impact of the lockdown on migrants. PRS Legislative Research.

Kumar, S., Heath, A., & Heath, O. (2002). Determinants of Social Mobility in India. Economic and Political Weekly, 37(29), 2983–2987.

Press Trust of India. (2020, January 20). India ranks low at 76th place on global Social Mobility Index.
https://www.thehindu.com/business/india-ranks-low-at-76th-place-on-global-social-mobility-ind ex/article30607184.ece

Sankhe, S., Madgavkar, A., Kumra, G., Woetzel, J., Smit, S., & Chockalingam, K. (2020, November 12). India’s turning point: An economic agenda to spur growth and jobs. McKinsey & Company.

The Global Social Mobility Report 2020 Equality, Opportunity and a New Economic Imperative. (2020, January). World Economic Forum.

Vaid, D. V. (2018). Uneven Odds: Social Mobility in Contemporary India. Oxford University Press.

Singh Kalsi A. & aKapoor H. (2021). Determinants of Social Mobility in India and Policy Recommendations. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law 1(4), 2566-2581.

Rethinking Motherhood: A Feminist Exploration of Social Construction of Motherhood in India

Tanvi Kapoor
Volume 1, Issue 4
29th July 2021
Page No.: 2582-2591

Motherhood is a social construction that rejects any assumption that involves practices of mothering, characteristics of mothers, and the multitudes of meanings of motherhood that are in any way biological, natural or essential. It implies that the ways of experiencing and perceiving motherhood in society are the result of social construction. Social Construction of reality or social constructionism is a theory of knowledge of sociology that examines the jointly constructed understanding of the world. Social constructionism is defined as a perspective that believes that human life exists the way it does due to social and interpersonal influences (Gergen, 1985). Social Constructionism has been instrumental in trying to make sense of the social world, by viewing knowledge as constructed as opposed to created. Motherhood is seen as a status that adheres to the social norms and expectations of society. It is a normative status that a woman achieves after childbirth. The importance of offspring and the continuous need for reproduction to uphold in society is manifested in the idea of motherhood. Societies lay down few expectations from their members and in an ideal society, such expectations are fulfilled by its members. Motherhood is one such expectation from women. Societal expectations are channelized through socialisation, where the family, as agents of socialisation, has the most important role to play. The hypothesis of the paper is that motherhood is not natural, but is a binary social construct. It is, therefore, ‘normal’ for a woman to seek motherhood as the course of life. Any conventionalist woman looks forward to getting married and achieve the status of motherhood. She aspires for this status not only for individual gratification but for the happiness of her husband and her family. This status that a woman achieves by becoming a mother is framed by society. Where does that leave mothers who are trans women, queer mothers, adoptive mothers, mothers who are single & unmarried? Motherhood is by no means uniform & toppling of the ideal of the perfect mother deconstructs the inherent meaning, the glory that the term holds and the respect that is related to the concept of motherhood as a mere social product.

Tanvi Kapoor
B.A. Multi-Media and Mass Communication, Indraprastha College for Women, University of Delhi, India



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Gibson, M. (2014). Queering Motherhood: Narrative and Theoretical Perspectives

Hook, Misty. (2010). Book Review: From Motherhood to Mothering or How

Feminism Got Its Mother Back. Psychology of Women Quarterly. Published.

Johnston, D. & Swanson, D. (2003). Invisible Mothers: A Content Analysis of Motherhood Ideologies and Myths in Magazines.

MacCormack, Carol. (1980). Nature, Culture and Gender

Moore, Henrietta L. (1988). Feminism and Anthropology

Ortner, Sherry B. (1974). Is Female to Male as Nature is to Culture?

Rich, Adrienne. (1976). Of Woman Born: Motherhood as Experience and Institution

Vagmita, Veeksha. (2019, March 7). The Varied Notions of Motherhood. The Wire.

Walls, Lori. (2007). The Social Construction of Motherhood: Implications and Interventions.

Kapoor T. (2021). Rethinking Motherhood: A Feminist Exploration of Social Construction of Motherhood in India. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law 1(4), 2582-2591.

COVID-19 from Game Theory’s Perspective: Lockdown and Vaccine Rollouts

Namya Manchanda, Sanjana Kumari, Oishika Kar, Lubna Malhotra and Taruni Bhardwaj
Volume 1, Issue 4
29th July 2021
Page No.: 2592-2624

The novel Covid-19 pandemic has wreaked havoc across the world. It has infected almost 195 million people globally, and 4 million people have succumbed to its deadly effects (WHO Coronavirus Dashboard). This paper tries to analyse the responses of variables of different scenarios to prevent the spread of the virus, based on game theory. The three games formulated in this paper talk about the different aspects of the lockdown. The first one is a payoff between countries that wish to opt for a lockdown and those that don’t. The second game is a modern take on the original “Battle of the Sexes”, reflecting a couple’s choices on going out during the pandemic. The last one illustrates the vaccinated and unvaccinated people along with their utilities. While these games look at different variables individually, on a whole, they look at various aspects of the pandemic in relation to the lockdown. Equilibriums like Mixed Strategy, Nash Equilibrium, and Game Tree have been reflected in these three games. The way forward to tackling the pandemic is through the means of lockdown, vaccines, as well as social distancing. The paper tries to highlight and analyse measures to prevent the spread of the virus. The decision to incorporate changes is a big toll on countries, communities, as well as individuals. It also takes control of spread as an important area of focus. While for the lockdown, we analyse the different utilities based on the economy and saving lives. For vaccines, we analyse the responses of different groups involved. Furthermore, the paper also maps the response of individual and joint choices of couples to the Covid-19 lockdown and their strategies in case of going out.

Namya Manchanda
B.A. (Hons) Economics, Lady Shri Ram College for Women, University of Delhi, India

Sanjana Kumari
B.A. (Hons) Economics, Lady Shri Ram College for Women, University of Delhi, India

Oishika Kar
B.A. (Hons) Economics, Lady Shri Ram College for Women, University of Delhi, India

Lubna Malhotra
B.A. (Hons) Economics, Lady Shri Ram College for Women, University of Delhi, India

Taruni Bhardwaj
B.A. (Hons) Economics, Lady Shri Ram College for Women, University of Delhi, India

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Manchanda N., Kumari S., Kar O., Malhotra L. & Bhardwaj T. (2021). COVID-19 from Game Theory’s Perspective: Lockdown and Vaccine Rollouts. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law 1(4), 2591-2624.

COVID-19 and its Economic Toll on Women Informal Sector Workers in India: The Story Behind the Numbers

Archi Gupta and Bhavya Gupta
Volume 1, Issue 4
29th July 2021
Page No.: 2625-2643

This study aims to highlight how women informal workers were disproportionately affected due to Covid-19 and how the pre-existing gender inequalities have been strengthened. Though the government has adopted policies, the gender dimensions are not clear. Using qualitative and quantitative secondary sources we found that women are overrepresented in the sectors which are hardest hit by covid-19 like domestic and care work, waste pickers and absence of social protection, inadequate access to capital, public services, lack of capacity for collective bargaining lower their capacity to absorb economic shock. Hand-washing, self-isolation and wearing masks or other personal protective equipment are unrealistic options. Covid-19 has led to an increase in unpaid care which is a contributing factor that leads to a permanent exit from the labour market (WIEGO 2020a). Domestic violence against women informal workers has also increased due to lockdown and curfews. Women migrants, especially domestic workers may be hesitant to comply with covid-19 screening, testing and treatment procedures due to fear of documentation checks by authorities and potential fines, arrest, detention or deportation. Women informal workers in the gig economy have also been affected due to no minimum wage guarantees. Women homeworkers who produce for global supply chains are particularly affected by Covid-19, as their incomes depend heavily on now-suspended orders from high-income countries.

Archi Gupta
 B.A. (Hons) Economics, Maitreyi College, University of Delhi, India

Bhavya Gupta
 B.A. (Hons) Economics, Maitreyi College, University of Delhi, India


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