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An Analysis into Religious Violence and Socio-Economic Impacts in India

Murchana Nath and Thomas Karthik Varghese
Volume 2, Issue 1
16 October 2021
Page No.: 2644-2677

India is characterised by a number of religions with religious mistrust and intolerance as part of Indian history. Most studies in religious violence mainly emphasize socio-economic and political aspects on the occurrence of violence. Communal conflicts bring down the process of national integration, peace and harmony. It hampers the overall economic growth, pushes the victims towards the edge of unemployment and poverty. A significant surge in crime and human rights violation is observable in riots. An instigating push potentially causes riots in areas having an atmosphere of communal vitiation. More often than not, political influence especially when it is based on religious identity is suspected to give this push. In this research, it was found that successive governments of different political parties have failed to address the issues of the victims of the violence. Specifically, this paper gives an in-depth case study analysis on two of the important riots of post-independent India and examines the less studied ethical, environmental and technological aspects of religious violence as a whole along with its social, economic, political and legal aspects. This paper finds that religious riots have underpinnings that are complex and evolving over time and have a trend of increasing intensity with more costs associated with it.

Murchana Nath
M.A. Economics, Centre for Economic Studies and Planning, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi
Thomas Karthik Varghese
M.A General Economics, Madras School of Economics, Central University of Tamil Nadu

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Nath M. & Varghese T. K. (2021). An Analysis into Religious Violence and Socio-Economic Impacts in India. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law2(1), 2644-2677.


Childhood Maltreatment as a Risk Factor for Depression: A Comparative Analysis of China and Finland

Ishika Mehta and Janhavi Makhijani
Volume 2, Issue 1
16 October 2021
Page No.: 2678-2695

People often fail to realize and pay attention to the adverse long-term consequences of childhood maltreatment. Despite the presence of laws against child maltreatment in several countries, children globally, continue to be victims of sexual, emotional, physical abuse and neglect. The impact of the trauma of childhood maltreatment is often severe enough to cause developmental problems and mental health and well-being issues such as depression, anxiety, substance abuse, and suicidal ideation, and attempts in adulthood. With this study, we seek to extend our understanding of childhood maltreatment as a risk factor for depression through a comparative analysis of two countries, namely, China and Finland. Secondary data available on childhood maltreatment and depression among young adults were collected to perform the comparative analysis. The findings of the comparative analysis did suggest a role of childhood maltreatment in depression during adulthood in China. The rate of child maltreatment in China was lower than that of Finland, however, the majority of the adults in Finland with a history of child maltreatment did not show any signs of depression. These findings, therefore, emphasize the need to focus on the prevention of child maltreatment at a global level, and the accessibility and affordability of better equipped mental health services and facilities with trauma-focused interventions to prevent the development of depressive symptoms in children with a history of childhood maltreatment and provide them with tools to cope with such situations.

Ishika Mehta
B.A. Hons. Psychology, Daulat Ram College, University of Delhi
Janhavi Makhijani
Grade XI, Shiv Nadar School, Gurgaon, Haryana

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Mehta I. & Makhijani J. (2021). Childhood Maltreatment as a Risk Factor for Depression: A Comparative Analysis of China and Finland. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law2(1), 2678-2695.


Women in the Urban and Rural Workforce in India with Focus on the Pandemic

Yamini Suri and Sumukhi Pandey
Volume 2, Issue 1
16 October 2021
Page No.: 2696-2716

India is a diverse nation with 28 states and 8 union territories, catering to the needs of various communities, religions, and cultures. However, when it comes to the treatment of women in society, there is always the issue of discrimination and disparity. In the workforce, the COVID-19 pandemic has also had a large impact. The paper makes an extensive study of women in rural and urban workforces of India, through case studies, to discuss the ground reality of Indian women in the national workforce. The paper looks at the journey of Indian women from being confined by the limitations of domestic duties, to their advent in contributing to a significant age of the national workforce. It aims to throw light on the barriers holding women back from achieving their true potential in the national workforce, and on the role played by the COVID-19 pandemic.

Yamini Suri
B.A. Hons. Economics, Maitreyi College, University of Delhi
Sumukhi Pandey
Grade XII, Greater Valley School, Uttar Pradesh

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Suri Y. & Pandey S. (2021). Women in the Urban and Rural Workforce in India with Focus on the Pandemic. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law2(1), 2696-2716.


Universal Basic Income: A Tool for Poverty Alleviation in Rural India

Mabad Ali and Shubhi Singh
Volume 2, Issue 1
16 October 2021
Page No.: 2717-2742

Universal Basic Income (UBI) guarantees cash transfer to all citizens on an unconditional basis and has been recognized as a poverty alleviation tool around the world. Various pilot programmes have been conducted to test its efficiency, the results of which have been in favour of the goal that the programme wishes to achieve – improved living conditions of individuals. India strives to eliminate the deep-rooted poverty, especially in rural areas, where around eighty per cent of India’s poor population resides (World Bank, 2016), earn meagre income, and, as a result, are unable to live a dignified life creating a need for a policy like the UBI. In this paper, an analysis of the implementation of UBI as a poverty alleviation tool has been presented by discussing the inefficiencies of existing poverty alleviation programs, followed by a cost-benefit analysis of UBI in the context of rural India, which is reinforced by the findings of SEWA-UNICEF’s pilot in Madhya Pradesh, India. The pilot study highlights the significance of a basic income to free the rural poor from the vicious cycle of multidimensional poverty. A fiscally feasible plan for the implementation of UBI by addressing the greatest critiques of UBI has been presented at the end of the paper

Mabad Ali
B.A. Hons. Economics, Daulat Ram College, University of Delhi
Shubhi Singh
B.A Hons. Philosophy, Daulat Ram College, University of Delhi

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[46] Van Parijs, P. (2004). Basic Income: A Simple and Powerful Idea for the Twenty-First Century. Politics & Society, 32(1), 7–39. https://doi.org/10.1177/0032329203261095

[47] Wijngaarde, I., Vinanchiarachi, J., & Readman, J. (2020, July). Universal Basic Income (UBI) for Reducing Inequalities and Increasing Socio-Economic Inclusion: A Proposal for a New Sustained Policy Perspective. In Kury, H., & Redo, S. (eds.) Crime Prevention and Justice in 2030. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-56227-4_6

[48] Yadav, R. (2020, September 30). Poverty Alleviation Programmes In India. Legal Bites – Law And Beyond. https://www.legalbites.in/poverty-alleviation-programmes#_ftnref3

Ali M. & Singh S. (2021). Universal Basic Income: A Tool for Poverty Alleviation in Rural India. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law2(1), 2717-2742.


Impact of Reservations on the Socioeconomic Mobility of the Scheduled Castes

Yashovardhan Singh
Volume 2, Issue 1
16 October 2021
Page No.: 2743-2767

Caste has been used historically as a tool of oppression against the marginalised lower castes. Since India’s independence and abolishment of untouchability and other forms of discrimination, a considerable section of the society holds the view that Caste-based discrimination is a thing of the past. While the cases of explicit forms of discrimination have surely decreased, caste still plays a very important role in the modern economy and so does the implicit form of discrimination accompanying it. To undo this injustice, reservations were introduced, hoping that they would act as a catalyst in the upward mobility of the Scheduled Castes. However, the situation continues to be grim and the opposition against caste-based discrimination has only increased. Therefore, to analyse these arguments and provide a quantitative analysis of the plight of Scheduled Castes becomes necessary. This paper is an examination of the different facets of caste in a modern economy and how effective reservations have been in ensuring the upward mobility of the Scheduled Castes. It also analyses the present intergenerational mobility in India and traces how reservations have impacted this socio-economic mobility. The paper starts with an extensive introduction of sociological as well as historical aspects of Caste in India and contextualises socio-economic mobility in India with respect to caste. This is followed by a literature review of mobility studies in India and the identification and impact of caste-based discrimination in the modern economy of India. The paper concludes with a quantitative analysis of the impact of reservations on the socio-economic mobility of Scheduled Castes in India.

Yashovardhan Singh
B.A. Hons. Economics, Hindu College, University of Delhi

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[19] Somanathan, R. (2006). Assumptions and Arithmetic of Caste Based Reservations. Economic And Political Weekly, 3.

[20] Srinivas, M. N. (1951, October). The Social System of a Mysore Village. Economic and Political Weekly, 3(42).

[21] Subramaniam, A., & Paliath, S. (2020, October 15). Economic liberalisation has worsened caste differences, says Harvard professor Ajantha Subramanian. Scroll.in. https://scroll.in/article/975766/economic-liberalisation-has-worsened-caste-differences-in-india-says-harvard-professor

[22] Thorat, S., Madheswaran, S., & Vani, B. P. (2021, May). Caste and Labour Market Employment Discrimination and Its Impact on Poverty. Economic and political Weekly, LVI(20), 55-61.

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[24] Thorat, S., Tagade, N., & Naik, A. K. (2016, February). Prejudice against Reservation Policies How and Why? Economic and Political Weekly, LI(8), 61-69.

[25] Vaid, D. (2014). Caste in contemporary India: Flexibility and Persistence. Annual Review of Sociology, 40, 391-410. 10.1146/annurev-soc-071913-043303 

[26] Weisskopf, T. E. (2004, September). Impact of Reservation on Admissions to Higher Education in India. Economic and Political Weekly, 4339-4349.

Singh Y. (2021). Impact of Reservations on the Socioeconomic Mobility of the Scheduled Castes. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law2(1), 2743-2767.


Problems Plaguing Anganwadis: A Study of Decentralised Healthcare in Rural India During the COVID-19 Pandemic

Naina Shukla and Samruddhi Puranik
Volume 2, Issue 1
16 October 2021
Page No.: 2768-2792

Anganwadi workers under the Integrated Child Development Scheme, have time and again proven themselves to be an asset to healthcare development in rural areas. The COVID-19 pandemic pushed them to become frontline workers which translated to their contributions transcending the scope of the scheme. Through this paper, the authors analyse the problems faced by Anganwadi workers in rural India during the pandemic due to inadequate decentralisation of healthcare. This has been achieved through PESTLE analysis to give a holistic understanding of the issue. This paper found that the overarching issue of inadequate decentralisation manifests itself in a myriad of ways. Politically, the implications of erroneous terminology used to define Anganwadi workers coupled with discrepancies between state policies and their execution highlighted their plight. Economically, a shortcoming in the budget, the problematic nature of an honorarium, improper distribution of essential resources and the crippling infrastructure of Anganwadi centres was observed. Sociologically, the gender wage gap, loss of confidence in the Anganwadi institution and the augmentation of malnutrition have plagued the rural areas. Technologically, the issue of a distinct lack of virtual connectedness has hampered the functioning of the Anganwadis. Legally and ethically, the undervaluation of the contributions made by Anganwadi workers is a drawback that needs to be addressed

Naina Shukla
B.A. Hons. History, Lady Shri Ram College For Women, University of Delhi
Samruddhi Puranik
B.A. Hons. Psychology, Mata Sundri College For Women, University of Delhi

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Shukla N. & Puranik S. (2021). Problems Plaguing Anganwadis: A Study of Decentralised Healthcare in Rural India During the COVID-19 Pandemic. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law2(1), 2768-2792.


A Trend Analysis of Indian Manufacturing Sector Since Second Five-Year Plan

Rajsi Sah and Prachi Yadav
Volume 2, Issue 1
16 October 2021
Page No.: 2793-2817

The Indian manufacturing sector has undergone a complete change since independence and has emerged as one of the highest growing sectors in India during recent times. The sector has evolved from the days of colonial rule that ravaged the Indian economy to initial industrialization and license raj, followed by liberalisation and globalisation, thus experiencing growth by leaps and bounds. The paper explores this transformation of the manufacturing sector since the second five-year plan in three phases:(i) pre-1980; (ii) post-1980 till 1990; (iii) and post-1991, the year of economic reforms. The paper attempts to characterise the performance of the manufacturing sector at the aggregate level by analysing the trends in manufacturing value-added and growth rate, labour productivity, employment, and Index of Industrial Production (IIP). The analysis reveals that while the sector has witnessed an increase in labour productivity and employment in absolute terms, their growth rates have observed significant fluctuations, with a noticeable slowdown in the last two decades. Finally, the paper discusses the various constraints on the expansion of the country’s manufacturing sector and sheds light on the initiatives taken by the government to resolve them

Rajsi Sah
B.A. Hons. Economics, Shri Ram College of Commerce, University of Delhi
Prachi Yadav
B.A. Hons. Economics, Shri Ram College of Commerce, University of Delhi

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A Comparative Study of Climate Change and its Rippling Psychological Effect in Nigeria and India

Palak Mehra and Precious Amaechi Chigozie
Volume 2, Issue 1
16 October 2021
Page No.: 2818-2847

Since the dawn of civilization, the aim of humankind has been to modernise and unveil the infinite potential of technology. With passing years a lot has been achieved in the realm of science. Unfortunately, it was not a complete victory, since something crucial was put at stake at the same time- nature. Nature has been the lone sufferer bearing the ravages of human actions. Climate change is one of the many ways of the environment to point at the ticking clock to save the planet before it’s too late. Effects of climate change on physical health are very well versed by individuals, but the other important aspect of holistic health, that is mental health, is often overlooked. The aim of this research paper is to provide a detailed comparative analysis of the current climate change scenario in two third world countries- India and Nigeria- and concerning mental health outcomes. With time, the climate has drastically changed in both countries and has led to an increase in natural disasters. Which in turn, has raised the plight of those affected. The fruition of this paper is to call out climate change as a global emergency and render mental health its long due importance. The paper also outlines ways to minimise climate change and strategies to cope and adapt to the same

Palak Mehra
B.Sc. Clinical Psychology, Amity University Gurugram, Haryana
Precious Amaechi Chigozie
B.Eng. Mechanical Engineering, Federal University of Technology Owerri

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Mehra P. & Chigozie P. C. (2021). A Comparative Study of Climate Change and its Rippling Psychological Effect in Nigeria and India. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law2(1), 2818-2847.


Inaccessibility to Proper Maternal Healthcare Across India

Shramana Guchhait and Vishnupriya
Volume 2, Issue 1
17 October 2021
Page No.: 2848-2876

The National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) was introduced in 2005, however, even after 15 years of its implication, there’s a major difference in Maternal Mortality Rate in different states in India as it remains significantly higher than the other states according to National Family Health Mission-5 (NFHM-5). This paper aims to study the four most important Maternal Healthcare Services, the causes that have led to the differences, the impact on society and if all the maternal healthcare services are accessed properly. By using the PESTLE Analysis, the authors attempt to compare the data between states to formulate the possible reasons behind the inaccessibility of proper maternal healthcare. The study noticed a substantial gap in the accessibility of proper maternal healthcare across the different states of India. Awareness plays a very important part in the development of maternal health. Social awareness via different schemes and programmes, development of rural healthcare services with better technologies are needed to bridge this gap. The paper aims to highlight the inter-state disparities with respect to maternal health care and the need to approach a multi-faceted approach so as to tackle the issue.

Shramana Guchhait
B.Sc. Life Science, Daulat Ram College, University of Delhi
B.A. Hons. Economics, Shri Ram College of Commerce, University of Delhi

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Guchhait S. & Vishnupriya (2021). Inaccessibility to Proper Maternal Healthcare Across India. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law2(1), 2848-2876.


Sex Discrimination: Beyond the Two Genders

Rinta John and Prerna Sahni
Volume 2, Issue 1
17 October 2021
Page No.: 2877-2910

This paper is about sex discrimination in contemporary Indian society. It delves into the intricate distinctions between male, female, and LGBTQIA communities related to biological and sociological perspectives. The discourse revolves around how stereotypes make or break a person and explain terminologies related to gender that one needs to keep in mind. The focus is on women subordination and the discrimination towards the LGBTQIA community. Emphasis is laid on Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 5: Gender Equality. The subordination of women can be related to different factors ranging from patriarchy to ideas followed in educational institutions. Psychological and medical communities have attempted to resolve how one’s sex should be determined for medical purposes. Legal authorities have been blind to the need to define ‘male’ and ‘female’. It ignores other medical conditions in which an individual’s sex may be equivocal. Even in the 21st century, women are expected to confine themselves to their ‘gender roles’ and there still remains stigma associated with the LGBTQIA community. Suggestions and recommendations have been made to overcome gender disparity and promote a gender-friendly world.

Rinta John
M.A. Public Policy, Law and Governance, Central University of Rajasthan
Prerna Sahni
B.A. Hons. Political Science, Maitreyi College, University of Delhi

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John R. & Sahni P. (2021). Sex Discrimination: Beyond the Two Genders. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law2(1), 2877-2910.


The Impact of Patriarchy on Mental Health and Physical Well-Being in India with Kashmir as a Case Study

Aayat Aziz and Kashish Goel
Volume 2, Issue 1
17 October 2021
Page No.: 2911-2940

Patriarchy is a generations-old idea that has reinforced gender imbalance resulting in unequal use of power; it affects all aspects of life from the workplace to the household. The paper aims to assess the effects of patriarchy on the mental and physical health of the Indian population with Kashmir as a case study. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the effects of patriarchy on the population of Indian men, women, and gender minorities using secondary sources. No primary data has been used but this research would act as a standpoint for further research on this topic. The study aims at understanding the reasons behind the physical and mental health consequences of patriarchy and assesses the challenges posed by patriarchy in achieving Sustainable Development Goal 3 and Sustainable Development Goal 5. The paper further looks at feminism as a potential way to curb patriarchy. It discusses the existing government policies and schemes, analyses their efficiency and makes recommendations on creating a more accepting and safe society for everyone.

Aayat Aziz
Liberal Education, Flame University, Pune
Kashish Goel
B.A. Hons. Psychology, Keshav Mahavidyalaya, University of Delhi 2911

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“Greening” the Indian Economy: A Tryst with India’s Fashion Industry

Malaika Aggarwal and Mehak Vohra
Volume 2, Issue 1
17 October 2021
Page No.: 2941-2961

It is inherent human need and nature to be driven towards profit and growth. Humans owe everything to nature; it is the reason for their survival, however, they have exploited and destroyed it to no end. The paper tries to answer the question of why transitioning to a green economy could help India grow faster and discusses the objectives and features of a green economy. In addition, the paper thoroughly performs a PESTELE analysis of a green economy. Further, it dissects the fast fashion industry by discussing its shortcomings and bringing to light the unsustainable practices by which products are produced. The paper talks about the importance of accountability towards all practices and studies how luxury brands dabble a little in sustainable practices. It finds that the clothes used by karighars are unsustainable, however, many luxury brands tie up and offer them sustainable clothes in return for their sustainable practices. Moreover, it argues that sustainable goods would increase self-reliance, purchasing power and employment. A green economy would also help human society grow by working towards social inclusion. The paper concludes by suggesting a few public policy recommendations. Shifting to a greener economy with one of the biggest industries- fashion- taking the first step towards sustainable practices, would not only help in saving the environment but also help humans grow faster.

Malaika Aggarwal
M.A. Economics, Central European University, Vienna
Mehak Vohra
B.A. Hons. Economics, University of Delhi

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Aggarwal M. & Vohra M.  (2021). “Greening” the Indian Economy: A Tryst with India’s Fashion Industry. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law2(1), 2941-2961.


Boom and Bust cycle of India’s Services Sector and the Road ahead. Are the Prospects Optimistic?

Nirav Shedge
Volume 2, Issue 1
17 October 2021
Page No.: 2962-2988

The covid-19 pandemic disrupted many parameters of the Indian economy, and the mechanisms of social distancing and lockdowns have opened up new doors of opportunities. Given this pandemic, the paper focuses on why the services sector is extremely important to the Indian economy, and especially its role in the post-pandemic world. The services sector witnessed massive contraction during the first wave of the pandemic, wherein the services exports also plummeted, as global demand was weak, and due to restrictions on proximity. India is known to have a comparative advantage in the services sector and its exports, and mainly in digitally-enabled services which can provide a plethora of opportunities as the country starts opening up. The paper initially outlines the historical trends of the services sector, and later dives into the impact the covid19 pandemic has had on the economy, and how optimistic do the prospects look going forward.

Nirav Shedge
Economics, D.G. Ruparel College of Arts, Science and Commerce, University of Mumbai

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Shedge N. (2021). Boom and Bust cycle of India’s Services Sector and the Road ahead. Are the Prospects Optimistic?. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law2(1), 2962-2988.


Decriminalising Indian Sex Work: A Concern of Women Empowerment

Nikita Singh and Sagarika Rastogi
Volume 2, Issue 1
17 October 2021
Page No.: 2989-3011

Sex work has always been viewed as an international taboo, a criminal offence, and a discriminatory practice. Individuals, particularly women who engage in commercial sex are often viewed as societal undesirables and people of loose moral character, and their contribution to the workforce and economy is unrecognized. Not only this, but in order to increase the empowerment and independence of the community, it has become absolutely necessary to decriminalise this practice. By removing laws that prevent reporting of exploitation and abuse, decriminalisation allows sex workers to work more safely, thereby reducing marginalization and vulnerability.

Nikita Singh
M.Sc. Forensic Psychology, National Forensic Sciences University, Gandhinagar
Sagarika Rastogi
B.A. Hons. Economics, Maitreyi College, University of Delhi

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[2] Amsterdam’s policy. (2019, February 28). Red Lights Secret. https://www.redlightsecrets.com/history/amsterdam-s-policy/

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[4] Bhandari, S. (2010, June 19). sex work in Colonial India – Mainstream. Mainstream. http://www.mainstreamweekly.net/article2142.html

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[6] Bi, J. (2020, May 26). Summary and Notes: Difference and Dominance by Catherine McKinnon. Johnathan at Limbo. https://johnathanbi.com/book-notes-summaries/difference-and-dominance

[7] Chachra, M. (2019, August 9). HIV Rates Are Down. There’s Little Else Going For India’s Sex Workers. IndiaSpend. https://www.indiaspend.com/hiv-rates-are-down-theres-little-else-going-for-indias-sex-workers/

[8] Colundalur, N. (2011, January 21). “Devadasis are a cursed community.” The Guardian.

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[10] Cruz, J., & Iterson, S. (2021). The Audacity of Tolerance: A Critical Analysis of Legalized Prostitution in Amsterdam’s Red Light District – Humanity in Action. Humanity in Action. Retrieved 10 September 2021, from https://www.humanityinaction.org/knowledge_detail/the-audacity-of-tolerance-a-critical-analysis-of-legalized-prostitution-in-amsterdams-red-light-district/ 

[11] FERRER, I. (2017, August 28). How a brothel in Amsterdam empowers sex workers https://english.elpais.com/elpais/2017/08/28/inenglish/1503919322_472902.html

[12] Hegde, S. U. (2018). The Ritualized Prostitution of India’s Devadasis: Re-Configuring an International Feminist Critique of Human Rights. NCJ Int’l L., 43, 204.

[13] Jaiswal, S. (2001). Female Images in the Arthashastra of Kautilya. Social Scientist, 29(3/4), 51-59.

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[16] Nagaraj, A. (2017, December 13). Rescued child sex workers in India reveal hidden cells in brothels. Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-india-trafficking-brothels-idUSKBN1E71R1

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[18] Pandey, S. (2018). Trafficking of Children for Sex Work in India: Prevalence, qHistory, and Vulnerability Analysis. Explorations, 2(1), 21-43.

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[26] Scott, J. (2017, August 7). Technology drives the need to rethink sex work industry regulations. The Conversation.

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[31] Tambe, A. (2005). THE ELUSIVE INGÉNUE A Transnational Feminist Analysis of European sex work in Colonial Bombay. Gender & Society, 19(2), 160-179.

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Singh N. & Rastogi S. (2021). Decriminalising Indian Sex Work: A Concern of Women Empowerment. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law2(1), 2989-3011.


Serious Implications of Globalisation on the Mental Health of the Populace of India

Jigisha Sharma and Shivani Sharma
Volume 2, Issue 1
17 October 2021
Page No.: 3012-3031

Globalisation being a multi-dimensional concept has dealt with prosperities as well as drawbacks in the past. However, to this day the repercussions of globalisation are felt to the core in India. One such vital aspect has been mental health issues. This paper aims to highlight the plight of people suffering from mental illnesses because of the harsh implications of globalisation. The authors attempt to bring into the light how mental health issues have become a serious subject amongst the population of India and the way forward so as to improve the situation by promoting mental health protection to cope better with stressors created by the globalised world. The very foundation of globalisation is biased in nature, which is evidently clear in the difference of international trade laws imposed on third world countries and developed countries. This paper seeks to present a critical overview of globalisation on mental health and delves into the fact that although globalisation has been projected fruitful and “good for all”, the same has not applied to the global south nations in general, and specifically in India.

Jigisha Sharma
B.A. Hons. Economics, Maitreyi College, University of Delhi
Shivani Sharma
B. A. Hons. Psychology, Graphic Era University

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[4] Cho, S. Y. (2012). Integrating Equality – globalisation, Women’s Rights, and Human Trafficking. SSRN Electronic Journal. Published. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2099326

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[6] Goldin, I. (n.d.). Global Solutions for globalisation’s Problems — BRICS Business Magazine. BRICS Magazine. Retrieved June 25, 2021, from https://bricsmagazine.com/en/articles/global-solutions-for-globalisation-s-problems

[7] Grassi, K. W. (2013, June 23). Is the World Bank Partisan? E-International Relations. https://www.e-ir.info/2013/06/21/is-the-world-bank-partisan/

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[19] Naidu, Y. G. (2006). Globalisation and its impact on Indian society. The Indian Journal of Political Science. Published.

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[24] Sharma, S. (2016). Impact of Globalisation on Mental Health in Low- and Middle-income Countries. Psychology and Developing Societies, 28(2), 251–279. https://doi.org/10.1177/0971333616657176

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Sharma J. & Sharma S. (2021). Serious Implications of Globalisation on the Mental Health of the Populace of India. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law2(1), 3012-3031.


The Impact of Unstable Family Structures on Economy: A Comparative Analysis of the USA and India

Anshika Sharma and Muskan Gupta
Volume 2, Issue 1
17 October 2021
Page No.: 3032-3052

Economic growth is extremely significant for a country as it decides the standard of living of the individuals residing within that country. Economics has long considered every household as a single decision-maker with every decision of a single-family influencing important theories like that of household economics. With households being one of the major factors influencing the economy, it has become vital to understand the family dynamics and how they can impact economies. Family dynamics look very different in various countries. Differences in values, cultures and traditions along with countrywide policies impact the family structure to a large extent. But in an era of globalization and multiculturalism family structures across the globe are rapidly changing. While in the east, traditional family structure has been breaking down to a nuclear family structure, in the west the nuclear family structure has been breaking down further. From east to west, the average family size has significantly declined. Elements of dysfunctionality or instability are presiding over stability and harmony in families across the globe. Children who grow up with a lack of stable family background are likely to be affected adversely while growing up and in the future.


As separation and divorces become common it has become an important matter of study as to what their economic impact can be. With the impact of a two-parent family being questioned, this paper aims to review and establish a link between various family structures and their economic impact despite an absolute relationship existing between the dynamic interaction of families and economic growth. With the different unstable family structures of two countries-India and the U.S., we compare and contrast the psychological and economic impact of dysfunctional family structures on the future of two of the biggest economic giants present in the world currently

Anshika Sharma
B.Com. Hons. University of Delhi
Muskan Gupta
M.A. Behavioural Sciences, Christ (Deemed to be) University, Bangalore

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Sharma A. & Gupta M. (2021). The Impact of Unstable Family Structures on Economy: A Comparative Analysis of the USA and India. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law2(1), 3032-3052.


Deepening of Gendered Fault Lines in the Indian Labour Market by the Pandemic

Mukul Kumar
Volume 2, Issue 1
17 October 2021
Page No.: 3053-3066

Witnessing a paradoxical trend, the trajectory of Indian economic growth is a glaring manifestation of augmenting rates of growth of GDP amidst dwindling rates of labour force participation. In a social fabric that is riddled with inequalities along gendered lines, women are manifold more prone to reel under the brunt of the formidable sociological hardships such as juggling between economically unacknowledged household chores and a formal job. The onset of the pandemic has marred the Indian labour market with conundrums that are so much so more abysmally vexing in the case of females that they have pushed them on the verge of exclusion from the labour market. This paper endeavours to instrumentally unravel how the existing chasm in the participation of women in the workforce has been aggravated with the hitting of the pandemic by adding impetus to the downward momentum of labour force participation.

Mukul Kumar
Global Partnership Network Scholar, M.A. Economics, Centre for Economic Studies & Planning, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi

[1] Abraham, R., Basole, A., & Kesar, S. (2021) “Tracking Employment Trajectories during the Covid-19 Pandemic: Evidence from Indian Panel Data”,Centre for Sustainable

[2] Employment Working Paper #35, Azim Premji University, Bangalore,35,1-31 https://cse.azimpremjiuniversity.edu.in/wp-content/uploads/2021/01/Abraham_Basole_Kesar_Covid_Trajectories_Jan_2021.pdf

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[4] Government of India, Lok Sabha Secratariat (2021, August 3). Parliamentary Standing Committee Report on Labour 2020-2021, “Impact of Covid-19 on Rising Unemployment and Loss of Jobs & Livelihoods in Organised and Unorganised Sectors’’, 25th, 4-32. https://eparlib.nic.in/bitstream/123456789/810441/1/17_Labour_25.pdf 

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[6] Himanshu. (2021, March 29). “Jobless growth: The pandemic has revealed India’s crisis of unemployment”, The Indian Express. https://indianexpress.com/article/opinion/columns/india-unemployment-crisis-economic-growth-covid-pandemic-7249627/

[7] International Monetary Fund (2019, October), World Economic Report https://www.imf.org/en/Publications/WEO/Issues/2019/10/01/world-economic-outlook-october-2019 

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[10] Nikore, Mitali (2021, March 7), “Has the pandemic deepened the gendered fault lines in the Indian labour market?”, The Times of India. https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/blogs/irrational-economics/has-the-pandemic-deepened-the-gendered-fault-lines-in-the-indian-labour-market/

[11] Oxfam International (2021, January), “The Inequality Virus”, Oxfam Briefing Paper https://oxfamilibrary.openrepository.com/bitstream/handle/10546/621149/bp-the-inequality-virus-summ-250121-en.pdf

[12] Press Trust of India. (2019, May 31), “Unemployment rate at 45 year high confirms Labour Ministry Data”. The Hindu   https://www.thehindu.com/business/Economy/unemployment-rate-at-45-year-high-confirms-labour-ministry-data/article27379174.ece   

[13] Vyas, Mahesh (2020, December 14). “Female workforce shrinks in economic shocks”, Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy Pvt. Ltd.   https://www.cmie.com/kommon/bin/sr.php?kall=warticle&dt=2020-12-14%2012:48:29&msec=703   

[14] Vyas, Mahesh (2021, July 26). “Employment recovery expected in July”, Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy Pvt Ltd.    https://economicoutlook.cmie.com 

[15] World Bank Open Data (1990-2020) https://databank.worldbank.org/home.aspx

Kumar M. (2021). Deepening of Gendered Fault Lines in the Indian Labour Market by the Pandemic. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law2(1), 3053-3066.


The Impact of Covid-19 on Working Women in India: A Gender Analysis

Kritanjali Chaurasia
Volume 2, Issue 1
17 October 2021
Page No.: 3067-3084

Whenever we talk about any pandemic, we often fail to address the after-effects because it always outlasts the pandemic that had occurred. The virus has affected every segment of society be it economy, livelihood, education, environment etc. Women are one of the highly vulnerable groups of society, which makes them more prone to facing inequalities and discrimination during the period of Covid-19. This paper is an attempt to examine the profound impact of Covid-19 on the working women of the organised sector. Have women experienced more psychological issues than men during the pandemic? Were the dual responsibilities and the patriarchal mindset the root cause for the deteriorating health of women? Therefore, to answer the above key questions and many other correlated questions, this study seeks to understand the broader set of problems women faced during the pandemic along with the range of critical issues which further widened the gender gap in the country. Additionally, In the effort to recognise the various obstacles encountered by women, the research strives to cover the distinctive states and regions of the country to form an extensive perspective of problems and hardships faced. This paper further renders the predicament women experienced in terms of social, economic, psychological aspects.

Economic growth is extremely significant for a country as it decides the standard of living of the individuals residing within that country. Economics has long considered every household as a single decision-maker with every decision of a single-family influencing important theories like that of household economics. With households being one of the major factors influencing the economy, it has become vital to understand the family dynamics and how they can impact economies. Family dynamics look very different in various countries. Differences in values, cultures and traditions along with countrywide policies impact the family structure to a large extent. But in an era of globalization and multiculturalism family structures across the globe are rapidly changing. While in the east, traditional family structure has been breaking down to a nuclear family structure, in the west the nuclear family structure has been breaking down further. From east to west, the average family size has significantly declined. Elements of dysfunctionality or instability are presiding over stability and harmony in families across the globe. Children who grow up with a lack of stable family background are likely to be affected adversely while growing up and in the future.


Kritanjali Chaurasia
B.A. Hons. Political Science, Gargi College, University of Delhi

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Chaurasia K. (2021).The Impact of Covid-19 on Working Women in India: A Gender Analysis. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law2(1), 3067-3084.


Trans Community in India: Struggles with Rights and Representation and its Impact on their Mental Health and Well-Being

Ria Singh and Pariksha Onta
Volume 2, Issue 1
17 October 2021
Page No.: 3085-3124

Economic growth is extremely significant for a country as it decides the standard of living of the individuals residing within that country. Economics has long considered every household as a single decision-maker with every decision of a single-family influencing important theories like that of household economics. With households being one of the major factors influencing the economy, it has become vital to understand the family dynamics and how they can impact economies. Family dynamics look very different in various countries. Differences in values, cultures and traditions along with countrywide policies impact the family structure to a large extent. But in an era of globalization and multiculturalism family structures across the globe are rapidly changing. While in the east, traditional family structure has been breaking down to a nuclear family structure, in the west the nuclear family structure has been breaking down further. From east to west, the average family size has significantly declined. Elements of dysfunctionality or instability are presiding over stability and harmony in families across the globe. Children who grow up with a lack of stable family background are likely to be affected adversely while growing up and in the future.

Ria Singh
B.A. Hons. Economics, Zakir Husain Delhi College, University of Delhi
Pariksha Onta
M.Sc. Forensic Psychology, National Forensic Sciences University, Gujarat

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[76] van Gerwen, O. T., Jani, A., Long, D. M., Austin, E. L., Musgrove, K., & Muzny, C. A. (2020). Prevalence of Sexually Transmitted Infections and Human Immunodeficiency Virus in Transgender Persons: A Systematic Review. Transgender Health, 5(2), 90–103. https://doi.org/10.1089/trgh.2019.0053

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[84] Yang, Zhao, Wang, Hao, Gu, Song, Zhao, Wang, X. L. L. Z. L. W. C. H. Y. G. W. S. Q. Z. X. W. (2016). Quality of Life of Transgender Women From China and Associated Factors: A Cross-Sectional Study. Science Direct. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1743609516300844

Singh R. & Onta P. (2021). Trans Community in India: Struggles with Rights and Representation and its Impact on their Mental Health and Well-Being. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law2(1), 3085-3124.


Impact of Different Teaching Methodologies and Student Peer Relations on the Socio-Emotional Abilities of Children: A Comparative Study Between Closed and Open Classrooms for 8-10 Age Group

Dhvani Jhawar
Volume 2, Issue 1
17 October 2021
Page No.: 3125-3137

Socio-emotional development is one of the key stages of child development milestones that prepare them for life. Children shape the society of our future and it’s imperative to be cognizant of the impact we have on their development through our classroom environment, teacher presence or methodologies, and student peer relations. The purpose of this study is to understand the impact of different teaching practices and student relations in two different types of classroom cultures or environments on middle-aged children. This information will be used to infer some of the best classroom practices to ensure good classroom behaviour, student participation, ownership, learning, and socio-emotional development. To analyze this impact, comparative analysis methodology is used to critique different teacher practices and student relations in an open and closed classroom environment, where there have been assumptions made on the two classroom environments. It studies the alignment of different teacher practices with the different child development milestones and helps in inferring a suitable classroom practice. Lastly, this paper infers that any class should be using a blend of a variety of different teaching practices and student peer relations to have a sustainable classroom learning culture that caters to the socio-emotional development of the middle age students.

Dhvani Jhawar
B.Sc. Hons. Economics, University of Calcutta, Kolkata

[1] A National Scan of Teacher Preparation and Social & Emotional Learning. (2017, February). https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED582029.pdf 

[2] Benefits of SEL. (n.d.). CASEL. https://casel.org/impact/ 

[3] CONCRETE OPERATIONAL STAGE OF PIAGET’S COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT THEORY: AN IMPLICATION IN LEARNING MATHEMATICS Safda. (2016, June). http://www.gomal.pk/GUJR/JUNE_%202016_%20PDF/2_%20Karim_%20Concrete%20Operati  onal%20Stage%20of%20Piagets%20Cognitive%20Development%20Theory.pdf 

[4] Engaging with others’ mathematical ideas: Interrelationships among student participation, teachers’ instructional practices, and learning. (n.d.). Science Direct. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0883035513000141 

[5] Indian Education Report. (n.d.). NCEE. https://ncee.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/10/India-Education-Report.pdf 

[6] Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development. (n.d.). Gracepoint.

[7] https://www.gracepointwellness.org/1272-child-development-theory-middle-childhood-8-11/artic le/37692-kohlbergs-stages-of-moral-development 

[8] Middle Childhood Development. (n.d.). IGI. https://www.igi-global.com/viewtitlesample.aspx?id=252652&ptid=239387&t=middle+childhood+development 

[9] Open v Closed Classrooms. (n.d.). JSTOR. https://www.jstor.org/stable/30194664 

[10] Peer Relations and Learning. (n.d.). Https://Education.Stateuniversity.Com/Pages/2315/Peer-Relations-Learning.Html.  https://education.stateuniversity.com/pages/2315/Peer-Relations-Learning.html

[11] Students’ self-regulation and achievement in basic reading and math skills: the role of student-teacher relationships in middle childhood. (2016). European Journal of Developmental Psychology. Published. https://doi.org/10.1080/17405629.2016.1196587 

[12] What is SEL? (n.d.). CASEL. https://casel.org/what-is-sel/

Jhawar D. (2021).Impact of Different Teaching Methodologies and Student Peer Relations on the Socio-Emotional Abilities of Children: A Comparative Study Between Closed and Open Classrooms for 8-10 Age Group. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law2(1), 3125-3137.


Consumers’ Preference Towards OTT Platforms During COVID-19 Pandemic: A Case Study of Pune District, Maharashtra

Ananya Singh and Manasi Nagpal
Volume 2, Issue 1
17 October 2021
Page No.: 3138-3154

OTT platforms have emerged as a new trend during the COVID times. The study aims to find the most preferred OTT platform and the reasons that affect the consumers’ preferences in selecting an OTT platform. The study also compares the preferences of millennials with those of non-millennials. The survey has been conducted only on the population of Pune district, Maharashtra. Graphs and diagrams are used to analyze the data collected. A Chi-square test using MS Excel has been used for testing the hypothesis. This paper concludes with findings that are a mixture of the differences as well as the common interests of the millennials and non-millennials with respect to OTT platforms. It has been found that Netflix is the most preferred OTT platform because of the variety of content it offers. The study winds up inferring that the consumers will continue to enjoy the services provided by these platforms even in the post-COVID time.

Ananya Singh
B.Sc. Economics, MIT WPU School of Economics, Maharashtra
Manasi Nagpal
B.Sc. Economics, MIT WPU School of Economics, Maharashtra

[1] Daniel Varun Paul (2020)- A Study on Over-the-Top Platforms on DTH and its Impact on Consumer Behavior https://www.ijresm.com/Vol.3_2020/Vol3_Iss3_March20/IJRESM_V3_I3_119.pdf 

[2] Dr. Mrunal Chatterjee, Sambit Pal (2020)- Globalization propelled technology often ends up in its micro localization: Cinema viewing in the time of OTT, http://gmj.manipal.edu/issues/june2020/2%20Cinema%20viewing%20in%20the%20time%20of%20OTT.pdf 

[3] Dr. Sabyasachi Dasgupta, Dr. Priya Grover (2019)- Understanding adoption factors of over-the-top video services among millennial consumers https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3537570 

[4] Editorial staff- Delhicourses.in (2020)- The Indian OTT Industry – The Rise of Digital Content (blog) https://www.delhicourses.in/blog/the-indian-ott-industry-the-rise-of-digital-content/ 

[5] KPMG (2017)- The ‘digital first’ journey- how OTT platforms can remain ‘on-demand’ ready https://assets.kpmg/content/dam/kpmg/in/pdf/2017/10/The-Digital-First-journey.pdf 

[6] Paramveer Singh (2019)- New Media as a Change Agent of Indian Television and Cinema: A study of over-the-top Platforms https://www.researchgate.net/publication/335526353_New_Media_as_a_Change_Agent_of_Indian_Television_and_Cinema_A_study_of_over_the_top_Platforms 

[7] Rohit Jacob Jose (2020)- Factors influencing the shift from traditional TV to OTT platforms in India http://sersc.org/journals/index.php/IJAST/article/view/22888 

[8] Vidooly (2019)- Indian OTT landscape https://vidooly.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2019/12/Indian-OTT-Landscape-Report-FREE-SAMPLE-1.pdf   

Singh A. & Nagpal M. (2021). Consumers’ Preference Towards OTT Platforms During COVID-19 Pandemic: A Case Study of Pune District, Maharashtra. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law2(1), 3138-3154.


The Prevalence of Depression and Suicide Ideation among the LGBTQIA+ Community

Chitra Anand
Volume 2, Issue 1
17 October 2021
Page No.: 3155-3182

Globalisation is said to have brought the world closer together, but the distinction between the binary and those belonging to the LGBTQIA+ community is clear as ever. In the contemporary world, the significance of mental health is not very high and the mental health of those belonging to the community is even less deliberated. This paper is an attempt to draw attention to the worsening mental health issues faced by the members belonging to the LGBTQIA+ community and further explores how a fair majority of the members cope with suicide ideation and depression through descriptive methodology and qualitative and quantitative data. The paper analyses the thoughts about suicide ideation and depression in the minds of the members of the LGBTQIA+ community of varying ages, across different parts of India. Although in recent times, the world has acknowledged the need for better accommodation of all genders and sexes, not part of the majority of the population and has become more open to accepting different types of preferences of the minority population. Yet, stereotypes towards them are still prevalent at various levels, and that leads to mental stress. Hopefully in the future, we can all value mental health and understand that “love is love”.

Chitra Anand
B.A. Hons. Psychology, Zakir Husain College, University of Delhi

[1] American Psychiatric Association. (n.d.). What is depression? Retrieved September 10, 2021, from https://www.psychiatry.org/patients-families/depression/what-is-depression

[2] Baams, L., Grossman, A. H., & Russell, S. T. (2015). Minority stress and mechanisms of risk for depression and suicidal ideation among lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth. Developmental psychology, 51(5), 688–696. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0038994

[3] Faulkner, A. H., & Cranston, K. (1998). Correlates of same-sex sexual behavior in a random sample of Massachusetts high school students. American Journal of Public Health, 88(2), 262–266. https://doi.org/10.2105/ajph.88.2.262

[4] Marshal, M. P., Dietz, L. J., Friedman, M. S., Stall, R., Smith, H. A., McGinley, J., Thoma, B. C., Murray, P. J., D’Augelli, A. R., & Brent, D. A. (2011). Suicidality and depression disparities between sexual minority and heterosexual youth: a meta-analytic review. The Journal of adolescent health: official publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine, 49(2), 115–123. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2011.02.005

[5] Meyer, I. H. (2001, September 7). Prejudice, social stress, and mental health in lesbian, gay, and bisexual populations: Conceptual issues and research evidence. Www.Ncbi.Nlm.Nih.Gov. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2072932/

[6] Ryan, C., Russell, S.T., Huebner, D., Diaz, R. and Sanchez, J. (2010), Family Acceptance in Adolescence and the Health of LGBT Young Adults. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing, 23: 205-213. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6171.2010.00246.x

[7] Newton, M. A. (n.d.). Suicide Prevention Resource Center. (2008). Suicide risk and prevention for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth. Www.Sprc.Org. Retrieved October 15, 2021, from https://sprc.org/sites/default/files/migrate/library/SPRC_LGBT_Youth.pdf

[8] Rotheram-Borus, M. J., & Fernandez, M. I. (1995). Sexual Orientation and Developmental Challenges Experienced by Gay and Lesbian Youths. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 25, 26–34. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1943-278x.1995.tb00487.x 

[9] Russell, S. T., & Joyner, K. (2001). Adolescent sexual orientation and suicide risk: evidence from a national study. American journal of public health, 91(8), 1276–1281. https://doi.org/10.2105/ajph.91.8.1276

[10] Russell, S. T., & Fish, J. N. (2016). Mental Health in Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) Youth. Annual review of clinical psychology, 12, 465–487. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-021815-093153

[11] The economic cost of stigma and the exclusion of LGBT people: A case study of india (No. 94040). (2014, October). World Bank. https://documents1.worldbank.org/curated/en/527261468035379692/pdf/940400WP0Box380usion0of0LGBT0People.pdf

[12] Wilson, C., & Cariola, L. A. (2019). LGBTQI+ youth and mental health: A systematic review of qualitative research. Adolescent Research Review, 5(2), 187–211. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40894-019-00118-w

[13] World Health Organisation. (2020, January 30). Depression. Www.Who.Int. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/depression 

[14] WORLD HEALTH ORGANISATION. (2021, June 17). Suicide. Who.Int. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/suicide.

Anand C. (2021). The Prevalence of Depression and Suicide Ideation among the LGBTQIA+ Community. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law2(1), 3155-3182.


Understanding Sociology of Health among Prostitution Workers in India

Ashiv Duvedi and Mansha Dhikkar
Volume 2, Issue 1
17 October 2021
Page No.: 3183-3202

The health conditions of female sex workers in India is an area of concern. The paper identifies the health of Female Sex Workers (FSWs) as a social concept, contextualising it through a range of social, political and cultural factors. The stigmatisation of sex work, based on superficial standards of ethics and morality nurtured by preconceived notions has led to poor self-image among sex workers and limited their access to health care. This creates a social hierarchy where women get limited choices and face violence. These countless problems have shown an increase in substance abuse among FSWs which has exacerbated the situation. Further, decriminalisation of sex work is discussed to stop the human rights abuses faced by sex workers and consequently improve their health conditions. The problems encountered by NGOs while implementing targeted intervention projects to improve health outcomes are also examined. A PESTELE analysis is done to understand the situation from all perspectives and finally, recommendations are made to increase sensitisation among other stakeholders with the active collaboration of FSW collective groups regarding the circumstances in which they work, and for further research in examining the role and scope of interventions among other stakeholders in affecting the health outcomes of Female Sex Workers.

Ashiv Duvedi
B.A. History and Economics, Hansraj College, University of Delhi
Mansha Dhikkar
B.A. Hons. Economics, Indraprastha College for Women, University of Delhi

[1] Conrad, P., & Barker, K. K. (2010). The Social Construction of Illness: Key Insights and Policy Implications. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 51(1_suppl), S67–S79. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022146510383495

[2] Dasgupta, S. (2020). Violence in Commercial Sex Work: A Case Study on the Impact of Violence Among Commercial Female Sex Workers in India and Strategies to Combat Violence. Violence Against Women. Published. https://doi.org/10.1177/1077801220969881

[3] Ghosal, S., Jana, S., Mani, A., Mitra, S., & Roy, S. (2020, December 11). Sex Workers, Stigma and Self-Image: Evidence from Kolkata Brothels | The Review of Economics and Statistics | MIT Press. MIT Press Direct. https://direct.mit.edu/rest/article/doi/10.1162/rest_a_01013/97748/Sex-Workers-Stigma-and-Self-Image-Evidence-from

[4] Goffman, E. (1963). Stigma;: Notes on the management of spoiled identity. Prentice-Hall.

[5] Jana, S., Dey, B., Reza-Paul, S., & Steen, R. (2013). Combating human trafficking in the sex trade: can sex workers do it better? Journal of Public Health, 36(4), 622–628. https://doi.org/10.1093/pubmed/fdt095

[6] Lewis, A. (1953). Health as a Social Concept. The British Journal of Sociology, 4(2), 109. https://doi.org/10.2307/587206 

[7] Little, W. (2014, November 6). Chapter 19. Health and Medicine – Introduction to Sociology – 1st Canadian Edition. Pressbooks. https://opentextbc.ca/introductiontosociology/chapter/chapter19-health-and-medicine/#section19.1

[8] NZPC > The New Zealand Model. (2021). NZPC. https://www.nzpc.org.nz/The-New-Zealand-Model

[9] PTI. (2020, September 26). ‘Prostitution not a criminal offence’: Bombay HC orders release of 3 sex workers. The Hindu. https://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/mumbai/prostitution-not-a-criminal-offence-bombay-hc-orders-release-of-3-sex-workers/article32701646.ece#:%7E:text=There%20is%20no%20provision%20under,running%20a%20brothel%20is%20illegal.

[10] Punyam, S., Pullikalu, R. S., Mishra, R. M., Sandri, P., Mutupuru, B. P., Kokku, S. B., & Parimi, P. (2012). Community advocacy groups as a means to address the social environment of female sex workers: a case study in Andhra Pradesh, India. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 66(Suppl 2), ii87–ii94. https://doi.org/10.1136/jech-2011-200478

[11] Ratta, A., & Meshram, P. (2020). Aspects of working with female sex workers: Perspectives of NGOs implementing targeted intervention projects in HIV/AIDS. Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care, 9(10), 5171. https://doi.org/10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_858_20

[12] Ryan, M. S., Nambiar, D., & Ferguson, L. (2019). Sex work-related stigma: Experiential, symbolic and structural forms in the health systems of Delhi, India. Social Science & Medicine, 228, 85–92. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2019.02.052

[13] Sagade, J., & Forster, C. (2018). Recognising the Human Rights of Female Sex Workers in India: Moving from Prohibition to Decriminalisation and a Pro-work Model. Indian Journal of Gender Studies, 25(1), 26–46. https://doi.org/10.1177/0971521517738450

[14] Shankar, M. (2015, October 23). Decriminalising sex work: Will India lead the way? IHP.https://www.internationalhealthpolicies.org/blogs/why-decriminalisation-of-sex-work-is-the-way-to-go-an-indian-perspective/ 

[15] Steele, C. M, “The Psychology of Self-affirmation: Sustaining the Integrity of the Self”, in Leonard Berkowitz, ed., Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, Elsevier, 1998, pp.261-299 

[16] UNDP, UNAIDS, & UNFPA. (2012). Sex Work and the Law in Asia and the Pacific. United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved October 20, 2021, from https://www.undp.org/publications/sex-work-and-law-asia-and-pacific

Duvedi A. & Dhikkar M. (2021). Understanding Sociology of Health among Prostitution Workers in India. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law2(1), 3183-3202.


Microfinance: Contemporary Effects on Poverty Alleviation in Rural Bengal

Yash Vira and Rayandev Sen
Volume 2, Issue 1
17 October 2021
Page No.: 3203-3222

This paper makes an effort to assess the benefits of microfinance through self-help groups, state-led and NGO-sponsored microcredit schemes on poverty alleviation in rural West Bengal. The performance parameters used in the investigation involve wage rate, consumption expenditures, income bearing and asset holding capacity, employment and skill generation, and financial viability of these projects. The research is empirical, based on mainly secondary data collected from various government agencies and independent researchers. The study reports that microcredit institutions have had a marginally positive impact on earnings and asset retention, by opening up new livelihood opportunities and smoothening their consumption. However, its performance in terms of job creation and financial feasibility remains dismal. Therefore, a multipronged approach that includes social safety nets is the need of the hour to address the regional mismatch between the concentration of poverty and that of access to credit. Microfinance programs and poverty alleviation schemes are complementary, rather than being absolute substitutes for each other.

Yash Vira
B.Sc. Hons. Economics, Presidency University, Kolkata
Rayandev Sen
B.A. Hons. Economics, Jadavpur University. Kolkata

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Vira Y. & Sen R. (2021). Microfinance: Contemporary Effects on Poverty Alleviation in Rural Bengal. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law2(1), 3203-3222.


Assessment of Financial Cognizance of Women in India

Aayushi Tomar, Devanshi Agarwal, Sajneet Kaur Bagga and Sneha Kumari
Volume 2, Issue 1
17 October 2021
Page No.: 3223-3247

With the development of a more sophisticated financial system, it has become imperative to have financial literacy in order to make better decisions pertaining to investment and financial aspects. Despite its significance, the general level of financial knowledge in India is not satisfactory, especially in the case of Indian women. Although our country has made noteworthy progress in this area, still improvement is required. To assess the behaviour of Indian women in making financial decisions and their level of financial literacy, we conducted a study that consists of a questionnaire survey taken by 225 Indian women and the statistical analysis of the responses received. Results of the analysis revealed that the level of financial literacy and participation of women in financial matters is poor. It also indicates that financial knowledge highly depends on the occupation and region of residence, and there is a disparity in Indian families when it comes to taking finance and investment-related decisions. On the positive side, we see that the willingness of women in gaining financial knowledge and awareness of related policies and programs have taken a rise, but there is a need for implementing proper education and training programs in this field

Aayushi Tomar
B.Sc. Hons. Mathematics, Miranda House, University of Delhi
Devanshi Agarwal
B.Sc. Hons. Mathematics, Miranda House, University of Delhi
Sajneet Kaur Bagga
B.A. Programme, Economics and Mathematics, Miranda House, University of Delhi
Sneha Kumari
B.Sc. Hons. Mathematics, Miranda House, University of Delhi

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[2] Baluja, G., (2016). “Financial Literacy Among Women in India: A Review”, Pacific Business Review International, http://www.pbr.co.in/2016/2016_month/October/11.pdf

[3] Women and Financial Literacy, The Hindu (2020). Retrieved from –https://www.thehindu.com/opinion/open-page/women-and-financial-literacy/article32990046.ece

[4] Chijwani, M et al., (2014). “A Study of Financial Literacy among Working Women in Pune”, Academia,


[5] D’Silva et al., (2012). “Assessing the Financial Literacy Level Among Women in India: An Empirical Study”, Journal of Entrepreneurship and Management, http://www.publishingindia.com/GetBrochure.aspx?query=UERGQnJvY2h1cmVzfC8xMjAxLnBkZnwvMTIwMS5wZGY=

[6] Here’s to Embracing Financial Literacy in 2021, Feminism in India (2021). Retrieved from – https://feminisminindia.com/2021/01/20/financial-literacy-women-in-finance/#:~:text=Or%20so%20we%20hope!,limited%20access%20to%20banking%20services 

[7] Klatt, M., (2009). “An Assessment of Women’s Financial Literacy”, The Graduate School, University of Wisconsin-Stout, http://www2.uwstout.edu/content/lib/thesis/2009/2009klattm.pdf

[8] Lusardi, A., and Mitchell, O. (2008). “Panning and Financial Literacy: How do Women Fare?”, National Bureau of Economic Research,


[9] Lusardi et al., (2010). “Financial Literacy among the Young”, The Journal of Consumer Affairs, https://www.jstor.org/stable/23859796

Tomar A., Agarwal D., Bagga S. K. & Kumari S. (2021). Assessment of Financial Cognizance of Women in India. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law2(1), 3223-3247.



Tackling of COVID-19 in the Education Landscape: An Analysis of Policies Implemented by the USA and India

Akanksha Yadav and Aishwarya Singh
Volume 2, Issue I
17 October 2021
Page No.: 3248-3283

The COVID-19 pandemic has made remote learning the new norm. Governments across the world have ordered schools to move to online classes. With school closures and the cancellation of examinations, there has been a severe impact on the social-emotional learning of children and other aspects. This paper tries to assess if the government’s response tackles the education crisis posed by COVID-19 effectively. The analysis about the issue covers the various policies implemented by the United States and the Indian government based on the issues of Digital Divide, Loss of Nutrition, tackling Mental Health Issues, and Changes in assessment patterns. Through this analysis, we gauge that the key to effective governance is creating dynamic policies that build equity in society, which further translates to access and opportunity in education. The study showcases that the government has taken the fire-fighting approach in terms of response and policy in the education sector. Remote learning in both the USA and India will create a further divide in education and further in learning outcomes and their social-emotional development. Students from lower-income or minority communities are at a higher risk due to this widening gap in learning. Policy Makers around the world can undertake steps towards recovery at these three major levels: Urgent, Managing and Boosting

Akanksha Yadav
B.A. Hons. Economics, Maitreyi College, University of Delhi
Aishwarya Singh
B.Sc. Hons. Economics, University of Warwick, Coventry

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[16] Garcia, Weiss, E. E. (2020, September 10). COVID-19 and student performance, equity, and U.S. education policy: Lessons from pre-pandemic research to inform relief, recovery, and rebuilding. Economic Policy Institute. https://www.epi.org/publication/the-consequences-of-the-covid-19-pandemic-for-education-performance-and-equity-in-the-united-states-what-can-we-learn-from-pre-pandemic-research-to-inform-relief-recovery-and-rebuilding/

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[24] Lynch, M. (2020, December 30). 10 Reasons the U.S. Education System Is Failing (Opinion). Education Week. https://www.edweek.org/leadership/opinion-10-reasons-the-u-s-education-system-is-failing/2015/08

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Yadav A. & Singh A. (2021). Tackling of COVID-19 in the Education Landscape: An Analysis of Policies Implemented by the USA and India. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law2(1), 3248-3283


Exchange Market Pressure of Japan: An Empirical Estimation of the GR Model

Apoorva Tyagi and Nirlipta Rath
Volume 2, Issue I
17 October 2021
Page No.: 3284-3312

This study of exchange market pressure has been carried out to estimate the GR monetary model to the post-recession period, i.e., from 2009: IV to 2020: II, of the Japanese Economy. The main objective of the paper is to empirically analyze the relationship of the Exchange Market Pressure (EMP) with various determinants, for Japan in the selected period. It explains the variation in the magnitude and direction of exchange rate pressure as a result of any change in its determinants. The estimations and analysis have been made within the framework of a bilateral model consisting of Japan and the US Economy

Apoorva Tyagi
B.A. Hons. Economics, Dyal Singh College, University of Delhi
Nirlipta Rath
B.A. Hons. Economics, Dyal Singh College, University of Delhi

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