ISSUE 3 (2)


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Role of Misinformation in Migration

Alron Chittedam
Volume 1, Issue 3
31st March, 2021
Page No.: 1693-1711

While there is a large literature on misinformation, disinformation and its harmful effects, and also a separate set of literature on migration and anti-migrant groups, this research paper exhibits a roadmap combining the two sets of literature. Using research papers, news articles, correlation is explored between misinformation and migration, the paper analyzes two significant migration crises – The Rohingya Crisis and The Central American Migrant Caravan. The analysis is further bifurcated into Pre-migration Misinformation and Post-migration Misinformation to plot the instrumentalization of misinformation. Additionally, special focus is done on the migration due to misinformation in the context of Covid-19. Decoding the traits from the analysis, sustainable, feasible, and justifiable solutions are sought out to tackle the issue. Keywords: Misinformation, Migration, Covid-19, Migrant Protection Protocol, Rohingya Refugee Crisis, Central American Migrant Caravans

Alron Chittedam
B.A. Economics, University of Mumbai, India

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Esses, V. (2020, September 11). Prejudice and Discrimination Toward Immigrants. Annual Review.  

Gaucher, D., Friesen, J., Neufeld, K., & Esses, V. (2017, December 27). Changes in the Positivity of Migrant Stereotype Content: How System-Sanctioned Pro-Migrant Ideology Can Affect Public Opinions of Migrants. SAGE Journals. 

Gruer, L., Agyemang, C., Bhopal, R., Chiarenza, A., Krasnik, A., & Kumare, B. (2021, February 10). Migration, ethnicity, racism and the COVID-19 pandemic: A conference marking the launch of a new Global Society. ScienceDirect. 

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Misago, J., Freemantle, I., & Landau, L. (2015, February). Protection from Xenophobia: An Evaluation of UNHCR’s Regional Office for Southern Africa’s Xenophobia Related Programmes. UNHCR. 

Pathak, R. (2020, September 15). Govt Says Over 1 Crore Migrants Went Home Due to Covid-19 Lockdown, but Actual Figure Higher.News18.

Posetti, J., & Matthews, A. (2018, July 23). A Short Guide to the History of ‘Fake News’ and Disinformation: A New ICFJ Learning Module. International Center for Journalists. 

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Roose, K. (2018, November 4). We Asked for Examples of Election Misinformation. You Delivered. The New York Times. 

Roose, K. (2018a, October 24). Debunking 5 Viral Images of the Migrant Caravan. The New York Times. 

Rubio, M., Byrne, S., & Manzanero, A. (2020, December). Violence and torture against migrants and refugees attempting to reach the European Union through Western Balkans. 

SIMMONS, D. E. B. R. A. (n.d.). See what it’s like walking with the migrant caravan in Central America. National Geographic. 

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Chittedam A. (2021). Role of Misinformation in Migration. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law, 1(3), 1693-1711.

Climate Change through the Gender Lens

Deepali Dewan and Vidhi
Volume 1, Issue 3
31st March, 2021
Page No.: 1712-1743

Changes in weather patterns, freak-weather phenomena, warming up of oceans, and melting of polar caps are just the larger impacts of climate change. They are a reflection of a serious imbalance in our ecosystem that can change the global agricultural pattern, forest cover and impact natural resources, and can severely impact existing human settlements. And although human beings are responsible for this catastrophe, climate change seems to be disproportionately impacting half the global population more. Women have been on the receiving end of the impacts of climate change for a long time. With its exponentially increasing impact, the hard-hit section of the population has been the one more dependent on natural resources, with lower means and almost non-existent skill to respond to natural disasters. In India, the predominantly patriarchal nature of the society has kept women issues like education, healthcare, and skill development on the back-burner. Especially in rural India, women belong to the low-income, aggrieved strata of the society, with a heavy dependence on resources. This dependence has led to systemic health and lifestyle issues prevalent across the board. This study is an attempt to discern the severity of the impact that climate change has on factors like proneness to chronic health issues, livelihood opportunities, and other socio-economic issues. Case studies have been used to demonstrate how women-led climate-resilient models of change have been important success stories in the fight against climate change. Recommendations suggested can be used to include gender vulnerability in climate adaptation and its mitigation strategies.

Deepali Dewan
B.A. Hons. Economics, Gargi College, University of Delhi, India
BSc. Hons. Mathematics, Kirori Mal College, University of Delhi, India

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Dewan D. and Vidhi (2020). Climate Change through the Gender Lens. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law1(3), 1712-1743.

Decluttering the Future: An Analysis of Indian Minimalism

Aastha Rathour and Gunita Mankame
Volume 1, Issue 3
31st March, 2021
Page No.: 1744-1765

Minimalism is a tool to rid yourself of life’s excesses and to focus on what’s important, to find happiness, fulfilment, and freedom. India has not been left behind in the wave of minimalism, whether it was back in the sustainable era of Mahatma Gandhi or the 21st century where Indian minimalists are embracing the traditional “less is more” lifestyle. The wave of minimalism rose vividly post the COVID-19 outbreak. Indian minimalists are palpable in every discipline and are mindful of their environment and lifestyle choices. The previous works have not rigorously examined the future of minimalism in India. Our paper aims to focus solely on Indian minimalism and its progress in Indian society. The current paper has analyzed secondary data imparting valuable information that adds meaning and structure to the aim of the paper. The paper highlights insightful corners of Indian minimalism and its acceptance as a lifestyle, with the help of secondary data. It focuses on the essence of certain mindful behaviours such as thrifting, recycling, upcycling, and cautious consumerism. It explores the plausible future of minimalism along with practical alternatives that can be adopted by contemporary Indian minimalists.

Aastha Rathour
Amity University Noida, India

Gunita Mankame
Bachelor of Management Studies, V. G Vaze Kelkar College, Mumbai, India

Adhia, V. (2021, February 25). SDG 12: Sustainable Consumption and Production – what does it imply for India. ETEnergyworld. 

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Bruwer, G. (2018, May 13). Scandinavian vs. Minimalism: Knowing Lagom from Less is More [Blog post]. Retrieved from 

Chowdhary, C. (2020). Can You Be a Minimalist While Being a Mum of Two? This 33-YO Has The Answer. The Better India.
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Cultures: The Effects of Individualism and Power Distance. Frontiers In education.

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Goyal, M. (2018, Oct 07). Less is more: Why affluent Indians are going minimalist. The Economic Times. 

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Gurung, S. (2021, Jan 17). Online thrift stores proliferated in 2020, but questions remain about how such businesses can be sustained. Firstpost. 

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Kalra, S. (2017, Sep 23). A Calmer You by Sonal Kalra: Do you own a lot of stuff? Try minimalism. Hindustan Times. 

Kang, J. , Martinez, C.M.J. & Johnson, C. (2021). Minimalism as a sustainable lifestyle:
Its behavioral representations and contributions to emotional well-being. Sustainable Production and Consumption, 27, 802-813.

Kapoor, K. (2020, Feb 12). Lagom: The Swedish Art Of Striking A Balance. Times of India.

Khokhar, R. (2021, February 19). Bringing a touch of minimalism to work. Mint. 

Kiran & Deepak. (2020, Jul 18). Why we need to think about digital minimalism. The Indian Express. 

Kumar, S. (2020, Oct 20). Simple and natural – minimalism in design the Gandhi way. Beautiful Homes. 

Leake,G., Toole, K., Divis, P. & Torres-Sánchez,C.(2010, Feb 19). Bamboo as a solution for low-cost housing and storage in Pabal (India) [Paper presentation]. ‘From Small Steps to Giant Leaps putting research into practice’, UK. 

Lloyd, K. & Pennington, W. (2020).Towards a Theory of Minimalism and Wellbeing. International Journal of Applied Positive Psychology, 5, (121-136).

Lobo, J., Behrawala, K. Roy, R., Sanghvi, R.B. & Sundaram, S. (2020, Feb 10). 40 under 40: India’s most exciting young chefs. Condé nast traveller india. Retrieved from 

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Rathour A. & Mankame G. (2021). Decluttering the Future: An Analysis of Indian Minimalism. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law, 1(3), 1744-1765.

Is India Ready to Adopt Sweden’s Waste Management System

Aashna Baweja and Soudamini Desai
Volume 1, Issue 3
31st March, 2021
Page No.: 1766-1780

The authors of this paper were inspired by the announcement of the India-Sweden partnership in the virtual joint summit 2021. Sweden has received worldwide recognition for its Waste Management System (WMS), and the successful implementation of public-private partnership is the essence of its success. The study carefully analyses the Indian Waste Management System (WMS). The authors aim is to know whether a public-private partnership for waste management will be effective in a country like India, which is 7 times larger than Sweden. It is observed that policy drivers & citizen engagement play a crucial role in the successful execution of a system. This paper also studies the willingness of the residents of India to work in harmony with the government in reforming the WMS. The authors have conducted a primary survey to know the opinions and beliefs of the respondents on the privatisation of WMS, organizational holdings, and the role of government. The authors have highlighted recommendations, potential opportunities and obstacles based on the results of the survey and secondary research.

Aashna Baweja
M.Sc. Mathematics, Department of Mathematics, (NCWEB) University of Delhi, India

Soudamini Desai
M.Sc Economics (Development studies), Symbiosis School of Economics, Symbiosis International Deemed University, Maharashtra, India

Anderson, B. (2011, June). Privatization A Formula for Provision or Perversion of Municipal Solid Waste Management? WordPress.  

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Chan Kim, W., & Mauborgne, R. (2018, July 11). From Trash to Treasure: Sweden’s Recycling Revolution. Blue Ocean Strategy. 

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Corvellec, H., Bramryd, T., & Hultman, J. (2011). The business model of solid waste management in Sweden – a case study of two municipally-owned companies. The Business Model of Swedish Municipal Waste Management Companies, 30(5), 512–518.×11427944 

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Miliute-Plepiene, J., & Plepys, A. (2009). Driving Forces for High Household Waste Recycling. Lessons from Sweden. Researchgate.Net. 

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Ohri, A., & Singh, P. K. (2009, January). Private Sector Participation in Municipal Solid Waste Management in India: Observation and Options. Recent Advances in Waste Management 2009, Varnasi, India. 

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Baweja A. & Desai S. (2021). Is India Ready to Adopt Sweden’s Waste Management System. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law, 1(3), 1766-1780.

Global Surge in Civil Unrest: Checks and Balances

Sampriti Das and Simran Kapoor
Volume 1, Issue 3
31st March, 2021
Page No.: 1781-1800

Civil Unrest has doubled over the past decade raising concerns towards the functioning of ruling authorities, the social environment, and the changing demands of the civilians. Civil Unrest can reveal public insecurities, challenge government incapabilities, and may result in the devastation of resources when dealt with violence. The role of misinformation and interference by external stakeholders highlights the disruption and the execution of a peaceful mass demonstration. Hereby, a comparative analysis has been done to examine the civil unrest undertaken in developed, developing/underdeveloped economies while addressing the diminishing public faith in their administration, and pestle analysis understanding the triggers and trends in the social, economic, political, legal, and natural environments are studied to comprehend the fundamental causes of a civil uprising. The general response by the government with its sustainability for the nation’s stability has been interpreted further suggesting an adequate action plan that has witnessed historical success. In discourse, the authors have also recommended measures that ultimately provide policy recommendations and possible solutions to stabilise institutions of governance to ameliorate public satisfaction levels, reducing injustices, and overall tackle this impending crisis.

Sampriti Das
B.A. Hons. Economics, Sri Guru Tegh Bahadur Khalsa College, University of Delhi, India

Simran Kapoor
PGDBM, International Trade Management, NMIMS, Mumbai, India

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Benjamin Press, & Carothers, T. (2020, December 21). Worldwide Protests in 2020: A Year in Review. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. 

BER staff. (2019, March 6). The Power of Protests. Econreview.Berkeley.Edu. 

Bertelsmann Transformation Index. (n.d.). BTI Blog.

Chandran, N. (2014, November 12). 10 countries vulnerable to extreme civil unrest. CNBC. 

Chenoweth, E. (n.d.). The Future of Nonviolent Resistance. Www.Journalofdemocracy.Org.

Fake News and Cyber Propaganda: The Use and Abuse of Social Media. (2017, June 13). Www.Trendmicro.Com.

Farzanegan, M. R. (2017, June 16). Can we predict political uprisings? The Conversation.

Ghosh, I. (2020, January 22). World Leaders at Davos Need to Take Declining Trust in Institutions Seriously—or Else Face More Populism, Protest, and Upheaval. Foreign Policy.

Global Protest Tracker. (n.d.). Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. 

Guess, Lyons, A. M. B. A. (n.d.). Misinformation, Disinformation, and Online Propaganda. Www.Cambridge.Org. 

Hamm, J. A. (2019, May 15). Understanding the psychological nature and mechanisms of political trust. Journals.Plos.Org.

Hribernik, M., & Haynes, S. (2021, January 19). 47 Countries Witness Surge In Civil Unrest. Verisk Maplecroft.

Kirdy, E. M. (2011, March 8). THE ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF PROTEST. Monocle.Com.

Krishnan, M. (2020, March 11). WhatsApp in India: Scourge of violence-inciting fake news tough to tackle. Www.Dw.Com.

Lauritsen, E. N. (2016, April 19). Economic under-development leads to civil unrest. Sciencenorway.No.

Luce, I. J. K. (2019, October 2). World on fire: All the protests happening around the globe right now. Business Insider.

Mahapatra, R. (2021, January 10). The world is pro-protests, now. Www.Downtoearth.Org.In. 

Reid, D. (2020, January 16). Almost 40% of the world’s countries will witness civil unrest in 2020, research claims. CNBC. 

Satell and Popovic, G. S. (2017, January 27). How Protests Become Successful Social Movements. Hbr.Org.

Schwartz, M., & Sánchez, E. (2016, June 30). Social Movements That Changed Our World For The Better. Global Citizen.

Stewart, F. (n.d.). Root causes of violent conflict in developing countries. Www.Ncbi.Nlm.Nih.Gov.

The Danger of Fake News in Inflaming or Suppressing Social Conflict. (n.d.). Www.Cits.Ucsb.Edu.

Vukic, S. (2020, December 7). Civil unrest on the rise. Vision of Humanity. 

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Das S. & Kapoor S. (2021). Global Surge in Civil Unrest: Checks and Balances. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law, 1(3), 1781-1800.

Investigative Study on the Implementation of Education Policies in Secondary Schools: A Review of Bangladesh and Nigeria

Chibuike Ezeanochie and Jafreen Alamgir
Volume 1, Issue 3
31st March, 2021
Page No.: 1801-1817

Education Policy can be seen as a fuel that propels both the curriculum and extracurricular activities in the education system. This research essay has been developed to investigate the implementation of education policies in secondary schools in Bangladesh and Nigeria. Research has shown that a proper implementation of education policies in both Primary, Secondary and Tertiary institutions will in no doubt enhance the academic prowess of students. As regards this, no matter how good a policy might be, if there is an implementation constraint, it will definitely lead to zero archival of the educational objectives. This expository work also discussed the current system of education and the existing education policies of the countries under study and throws light on its success and faultlines. Furthermore, the paper elucidates upon the shortcomings in the implementation of education policies in secondary schools. The research essay concludes by giving certain proposals and recommendations which will aid Governments and Policymakers on how to ensure an effective and efficient implementation of education policies in secondary schools

Chibuike Ezeanochie
University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria


Jafreen Alamgir
Brac University Dhaka, Bangladesh

Alvarez, B. (2000). Secondary Education: Critical Policy Issues (7101.). Inter-American Development Bank. Retrieved from 

Arata, N. (2020). Education. Britannica, 1. 

Arif, S. (2016). Formal and Non-Formal Education in the New Era. ResearchGate, 1. 

Chowdhury, R., & Sarkar, M. (2018). Education in Bangladesh: Changing contexts and emerging realities. In Engaging in Educational Research (pp. 1-18). Springer, Singapore. Retrieved from 

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Isaac, I. (2020). The system of education in Nigeria. Flashlearners, 1. 

Margaret, R. (2015).Implementation. Whatis.Com, 1. 

Mitchell. (2011). Evidence-based practice in real-world services for young people with complex needs: New opportunities suggested by recent implementation science. Psycnet.Apa.Org, 1. 

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Novosadova, et al. (2013). The Impact of Non Formal Education on Young People and Society. Brussels: AEGEE-Europe, 

Okoroma, N. S. (2006). Educational policies and problems of implementation in Nigeria. Australian Journal of Adult Learning Volume 46, Number 2, 1. 

Plecher, H. (2020). Unemployment rate in Nigeria. Statistita, 1. 

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Yawe, A. A. (2015). The need for educational planning and Implementation in Nigeria. Journal of Educational Policy and Entrepreneurial Research., 1.  

Ezeanochie C. & Alamgir J. (2021). Investigate Study on the Implementation of Education Policies in Secondary Schools: A Review of Bangladesh and Nigeria. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law, 1(3), 1801-1817.

Impact of Sexual Objectification on the Well-Being of People

Usha Mishra
Volume 1, Issue 3
31st March, 2021
Page No.: 1818-1838

The current study aims to study the Impact of Objectification on the Well-being of People. For obtaining a better in-depth understanding various sources of objectification have been studied along with how people objectify themselves and others. The results obtained show that there is a negative impact on the physical, mental, emotional, and subjective wellbeing of people. The paper also draws attention to public health and safety concerns. A PESTEL analysis has been done to understand the effects of objectification on the political, economical, social, technological, educational, and legal aspects. Based on the gained understanding the author has various recommendations that can help society move towards a healthier and flourishing society

Deepali Dewan
Maniben Nanavati Women’s College, Mumbai, India

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Mishra U. (2020). Impact of Sexual Objectification on the Well-Being of People. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law1(3), 1818-1838.