VOLUME 1 - ISSUE 1

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An Analysis of Mental Health in Slums of India

Diya Goswami
Volume I, Issue I
13 September 2020
Page No.: 1-7

There has been a rapid growth of the urban population and more than 65 million inhabitants live in almost 14 million urban slum households in India. (Mercian Daniel, 2019) With the dearth of sanitation, food insecurity and bare-minimum incomes, slum dwellers fail to rectify their mental health. Although mental health problems in developing countries are highly prevalent, such issues are not yet adequately addressed in their rapidly urbanising megacities, where a growing number of residents live in slums. Little is known about the spectrum of mental well-being in urban slums and only poor knowledge exists on health promotive socio-physical environments in these areas. (Gruebner, 2012)

Diya Goswami
B.A. Hons. Sociology, Hindu College, University of Delhi, India

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[3]  Gruebner, O. (2012, March 9). Mental health in the slums of Dhaka – a geoepidemiological study. Retrieved from https://bmcpublichealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2458-12-77

[4] Malhotra, S., & Shah, R. (2015). Women and mental health in India: An overview. Indian Journal of Psychiatry , 57 (6), 205.

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[6] Mathias, K. (2018, August 18). Outcomes of a brief mental health and resilience pilot intervention for young women in an urban slum in Dehradun, North India: a quasi-experimental study. Retrieved from https://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s13033-018-0226-y?error=cookies_not_supported&code=658d38ee-be2a-4569-bf89-900e460cb0b1#Bib1

[7] MentAl Health Risk Factors among Older AdolesceNts living in Urban SluMs: An InTervention to Improve ResIlience (ANUMATI). (2019, December 1). Retrieved June 20, 2020, from https://www.georgeinstitute.org/projects/mental-health-risk-factors-among-older-adolescents-living-in-urban-slums-an-intervention

[8] Patel, V., Flisher, A. J., Hetrick, S., & McGorry, P. (2007). Mental health of young people: a global public-health challenge. The Lancet , 369 (9569), 1302–1313.

https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(07)60368-7

[9] Sinha Roy, A. K., Sau, M., Madhwani, K. P., Das, P., & Singh, J. K. (2018). A study on psychosocial problems among adolescents in urban slums in Kolkata, West Bengal. International 6 Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health , 5 (11), 4932. https://doi.org/10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20184599

[10] Subbaraman, R., Nolan, L., Shitole, T., Sawant, K., Shitole, S., Sood, K., … Patil-Deshmukh, A. (2014). The psychological toll of slum living in Mumbai, India: A mixed methods study. Social Science & Medicine , 119 155–169. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2014.08.021

Chauhan, I. (2020). Understanding the Need for Holistic Education Models and its Importance in the lives of Children Living in Indian Urban Slums. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law1(1), 8-17. <br>

http://ijpsl.in/wp-content/uploads/2021/10/Analysis-of-Mental-Health-in-Slums-of-India_Diya-Goswami.pdf

Understanding the Need for Holistic Education Models and its Importance in the lives of Children Living in Indian Urban Slums

Ishika Chauhan Volume I, Issue I
13 September 2020
Page No.: 8-17

Education has always been synonymous to lecture learning and memorisation; both variables that change as we move from one student to another. This paper talks about the need to change how education is looked at and what it stands for, in a way that it is not limited to a set pattern of learning. This study also focuses on how often when we talk about children being educated we leave a substantial lot behind; the slum youth, which leads us to believe that a radical change is required, a model that strikes a perfect balance between multiple aspects of learning and not just one: The Holistic Education model. The Holistic Education Model is one that allows children to not be mere passive observers but to be able to research, locate, analyse and differentiate between right and wrong which further helps develop them as a whole. The importance of the same is evident as the paper moves forward with a practical example that has changed the dynamics of education for the slum youth in one small part of Mumbai. Given that previously this topic has not been given a fair amount of consideration, this study seeks to be a standpoint for further research on the same.

Ishika Chauhan
Department of Political Science, Kalindi College, University of Delhi, India

A. (2017, March 24). The Importance of including Holistic Education in our School Curriculum | CBSE Schools in Ambernath. Arya Gurukul.
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Advantages and disadvantages of lectures. (n.d.). Learningspark.Com. Retrieved June 20, 2020, from https://www.learningspark.com.au/kevin/issues/advantages_of_lectures.htm

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infed.org. (2013, May 8). A brief introduction to holistic education – infed.org:
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Loveless, B. (n.d.). Holistic Education: A Comprehensive Guide. Educationcorner.Com. Retrieved June 20, 2020, from https://www.educationcorner.com/holistic-education.html

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New Models of Education. (n.d.). Brookings Education. Retrieved June 19, 2020, from
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Priya S., L. (2018). Move Over Rote Learning: Unique Mumbai School Helps Slum Kids Study Better! Thebetterindia.Com.
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UNESCO. (2010). Background paper prepared for the Education for All Global Monitoring Report 2010, Reaching the marginalized, Deprivation of Education: A Study of Slum Children in Delhi, India. Retrieved from
https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000186592/PDF/186592eng.pdf.multi

Chauhan, I. (2020). Understanding the Need for Holistic Education Models and its Importance in the lives of Children Living in Indian Urban Slums. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law1(1), 8-17. http://ijpsl.in/wp-content/uploads/2021/08/Understanding-the-Need-for-Holistic-Education-Models-and-its-Importance-in-the-lives-of-Children-Living-in-Indian-Urban-Slums.pdf

Innovations In Public Policies Targeted towards Urban Slum Development

Vardaan Shekhawat
Volume I, Issue I
13 September 2020
Page No.: 23-32

The world’s urban population is increasing by about 70 million people a year (Fiscella & Williams, 2004). This increase in population comes with an increase in the basic human requirements for survival which include shelter, employment, food, healthcare etc. However, various developing economies and governments fail to provide these for all its population. Thus, it forces the ones left out to rely on or create their own informal network and infrastructure, a manifestation of such state of affairs are urban slums. Due to their informal and unsafe nature; slums are illegal settlements and have become the living space for millions of people around the world. As per an Indian Government 2010 report “A compact settlement of at least 20 households with a collection of poorly built tenements, mostly of temporary nature, crowded together usually with inadequate sanitary and drinking water facilities in unhygienic conditions is a slum.”(Government of India,2010)

Vardaan Shekhawat
Department of Political Science, Kirori Mal College, University of Delhi, India

[1] Balasubramanian, H. (2019, January 17). List Of Urban Development Schemes in India.  Retrieved January 11, 2020.

[2] Fiscella, K., & Williams, D. R. (2004). Health Disparities Based on Socioeconomic Inequities: Implications for Urban Health Care. Academic Medicine, 79(12), 1139–1147. doi: 10.1097/00001888-200412000-00004. 

[3] Government Of India. (2010). Report of the committee on slum statistics/census. Delhi. 

[4] Government of India, O. of the R. G. & C. C. (2001). Slum Population in Million Plus Cities (Municipal Corporations): Part B.

[5] Human Settlements Programme, U. N. human settlements. (2003). The challenge of slums: Global report on human settlements 2003 [2003]. London: Earthscan.

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Shekhawat, V. (2020). Innovations In Public Policies Targeted towards Urban Slum Development. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law1(1), 23. http://ijpsl.in/wp-content/uploads/2020/09/Innovations-in-Policy_Vardaan.pdf

Tackling the Lack of Education in Slums by Using Nudging to Establish the Existence of Sheepskin Effects

Maanvita Dhaka and Rohit Harlalka
Volume I, Issue I
14 September 2020
Page No.: 33-59

India is a country with the second largest population in the world and a very high illiteracy rate. Therefore, this paper tries to understand the various reasons and dynamics behind the problem of lack of education in urban slums and hence, tries to solve the same by recommending a policy that would use Thaler and Sunstein’s theory of Nudge to establish the existence of sheepskin effects in the minds of the parents dwelling in the slums. The policy of Padho aur Badho is recommended, which entails a cash transfer to the households in slums, on the condition that their children are sent to school. The feasibility of the policy is tested using a cost-benefit analysis and it is concluded that the program would lead to net benefits amounting to more than a million rupees from each student enrolled under the program.

Maanvita Dhaka
Hindu College, University of Delhi, India.
Rohit Harlalka
London School of Economics, England

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[9] Mohamad Yunus, N. (2017). Sheepskin Effects in the Returns to Higher Education: New Evidence for Malaysia. Asian Academy of Management Journal, 22(1), 151–182.

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[14] Ravallion, M., & Wodon, Q. (2000, March). Does Child Labour Displace Schooling? Evidence On Behavioural Responses to an Enrollment Subsidy. Research Gate.

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Dhaka, M., & Harlalka, R. (2020). Tackling the Lack of Education in Slums by Using Nudging to Establish the Existence of Sheepskin Effects. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law1(1), 33. http://ijpsl.in/wp-content/uploads/2020/09/Sheepskin-and-Nudging_Rohit-Maanvita.pdf

Community Health Workers: The COVID Warriors of Rural India

Avantika Thareja and Ashmeet Singh
Volume I, Issue I
15 September 2020
Page No.: 60-73

The diverse roles and activities of community health throughout history have been appreciated across programmes in various countries. In a plethora of cases, CHWs perform a range of different and equally challenging tasks that can be preventive, curative and developmental. CHWs have played an integral role while battling medical emergencies right from Ebola to COVID-19. Our study endeavoured to establish the role played by them in the past and found the acute structural challenges faced by them in the Indian context. Through the medium of this paper we have talked about the steps that are being taken by the Anganwadi Workers — the CHWs of India such as recording people’s travel history from door to door, noting flu symptoms and, where needed, even helping trace contacts. Our Study also tried to grasp the significant role that they’re playing to control this pandemic and suggested measures to do this with more efficiency. However, the challenges are yet to be tackled. Herein, we calculated how the lack of representation, lack of funds, etc., are sabotaging the mission and what could be done to turn this around. Furthermore, we found that if we do not move beyond these barriers, not only are we putting at stake the lives of CHWs, but also reducing the pace at which these pandemic or other medical emergencies could be tackled. We further realised the need for amendments and systemic reforms and suggested different policies/steps which could be implemented/taken to ensure safety, growth, representation and increase the efficiency of the community health workers of India.

Avantika Thareja
Lady Irwin College, University of Delhi, India
Ashmeet Singh
Narsee Monjee Institute of Management Studies, Mumbai, India

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[8] Sandhyarani, M. C., & Usha Rao, D. C. (2013). ROLE AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF ANGANWADI WORKERS, WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO MYSORE DISTRICT. International Journal of Science.

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Thareja, A., & Singh, A. (2020). Community Health Workers: The COVID Warriors of Rural India. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law1(1), 60. http://ijpsl.in/wp-content/uploads/2020/09/Community-Health-Workers_Avantika-Ashmeet.pdf

Drug Abuse In Indian Slums

Chandni Dhawan and Sukriti Arora
Volume I, Issue I
16 September 2020
Page No.: 74-98

Drug Abuse is a plight that breeds in almost every society in the world including India. It is a costly burden that inhibits the growth of a country. However, the prevalence of drug abuse and pattern of drug consumption varies in different types of population. The slum dwellers, whose growth is critically hindered due to economic and social problems, the prevalence of substance abuse in this population might be different from other communities and interrelated to these problems. The aim of this research paper is to study the prevalence of drug abuse and the factors that foster it within the slum population of India. The paper discusses the policies in place to deal with drug abuse in the general scenario and about their enactment gaps in the Slums of India using multitude assessments including the PESTLE analysis and strengths/weaknesses analysis. These policies include- National Drug and Psychotropic Substances Act, 2014 and The Nasha Mukt Bharat Campaign.

Chandni Dhawan
Lady Shyam Lal College, University of Delhi, India
Sukriti Arora
Gargi College, University of Delhi, India.

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[4] Sharma, B., Arora, A., Singh, K., Singh, H., & Kaur, P. (2017). Drug abuse: Uncovering the burden in rural Punjab. Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care, 6(3), 558.

[5] Bardhan, T., Saikia, A., & Baruah, R. (2015). Substance use among adolescents living in slums of Guwahati city, Assam: A growing public health concern. International Journal of Medicine and Public Health,5(4),279.

[6] Ghulam, R., Verma, K., Sharma, P., Razdan, M., & Razdan, R. (2016). Drug abuse in the slum population. Indian Journal of Psychiatry, 58(1), 83–86.

[7] Nayak, S. (2018, March 23). Prevalence and factors affecting tobacco use among urban adolescents in Bhilai city, central India | Nayak | International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health. International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health.

[8]  Department of Social Justice and Empowerment Government of India. (2018). Implementation Framework of National Action Plan for Drug Demand Reduction. Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment. 

[9] N.A. (2008, September 15). Drug Abuse in India. Ground Report.

[10] Haidar, F. (2017, July 8). Drug abuse: Why 80% kids in Delhi’s Seemapuri turn addicts, some as young as 7 – delhi news. Hindustan Times.

[11] Sirohi, T. (2014, January 4). Trending stories on Indian Lifestyle, Culture, Relationships, Food, Travel, Entertainment, News and New Technology News – Indiatimes.com. IndiaTimes.

[12] Sharma, B., Arora, A., Singh, K., Singh, H., & Kaur, P. (2017). Drug abuse: Uncovering the burden in rural Punjab. Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care, 6(3), 558

[13] Bardhan, T., Saikia, A., & Baruah, R. (2015). Substance use among adolescents living in slums of Guwahati city, Assam: A growing public health concern. International Journal of Medicine and Public Health, 5(4), 279.

[14] Ghulam, R., Verma, K., Sharma, P., Razdan, M., & Razdan, R. (2016). Drug abuse in slum population. Indian Journal of Psychiatry, 58(1), 83–86.

[15] Nayak, S., & Mishra, A. (2018). Prevalence and factors affecting tobacco use among urban adolescents in Bhilai city, central India. International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health, 5(4), 1492.

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[18] Toyosi, O. D. (2020). Substance abuse and criminal behaviours among commercial vehicle drivers in Lagos state. Forensic Research & Criminology International Journal, 8(1), 42–50. 

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Dhawan, C., & Arora, S. (2020). Drug Abuse In Indian Slums. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law1(1), 74. http://ijpsl.in/wp-content/uploads/2020/09/Drug-Abuse_Chandni-Sukriti.pdf

The Past, Present and Future of E-Learning: In India

Hanaaya Varyani and Navaneeth M S
Volume I, Issue I
16 September 2020
Page No.: 99-118

E-learning is expected to be the future of education. This paper deals with the concerns that it entails and the development and growth that e-learning offers to India. The dark realities of severe economic muddles and discriminatory affairs of the country make it exclusive only to the privileged.
The major stakeholders, the students are facing immense changes with education transitioning from the traditional face to face method to online platforms, be it in terms of their mental and physical health, all-around development or them missing out on a wholesome learning experience which involves interacting with peers daily. Further, the traditional approaches in Indian pedagogy have clashing views and difficulties in adapting to online education.
Not only them, but education going virtual effects a major part of the society, be it the civil bodies or the private sector. The need for the Indian educational ecosystem to compete with the fast-growing educational technology market around the world is interlinked with the economic and social evolution of the nation. The paper also necessitates e-learning as a social investment and signifies that government policies for e-learning are the elements that solely define the future of e-learning.

Hanaaya Varyani
Sri Guru Gobind Singh College of Commerce, University of Delhi, India
Navaneeth M S
Indian Institute of Technology, Madras, India

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[7]  Islam, N., Beer, M., & Slack, F. (2015, July 13). E-Learning Challenges Faced by Academics in Higher Education: A Literature Review. ResearchGate.

[8] KPMG in India & Google. (2017). Online Education in India: 2021.

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[11] Ministry Of Human Resource Development. (2016). Some Inputs for Draft National Education Policy 2016.

[12] Ministry of Human Resource Development. (2019). Educational Statistics At A Glance.

[13] Ministry of Human Resource Development. (2019). National Education Policy 2019.

[14] Nawaz, A., & Kundi, G. M. (2010). From objectivism to social constructivism: The impacts of information and communication technologies (ICTs) on higher education. Journal of Science and Technology Education Research, 1(2), 30–36.

[15] Product Plan. (n.d.). Power-Interest Grid [Graph]. Product Plan

[16] The Economic Times. (n.d.). Definition of “E-learning.” Retrieved July 24, 2020.

[17] Tognazzini, L. H., Zorn, S., & Austin, T. (2016). Student Mental Health Issues in Online Tourism and Hospitality Education: A Proposed Model to Increase Retention.

[18] Washington, V. (2020, July 13). Google Partners With CBSE to Train 1 Million Teachers to Deliver “Blended Learning.” NDTV Gadgets 360.

 

Varyani, H., & M S, N. (2020). The Past, Present and Future of E-Learning: In India. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law1(1), 99. http://ijpsl.in/wp-content/uploads/2020/09/E-Learning_Hanaaya-Navaneeth.pdf

Patriarchy and Gender Disparities in Rural India: An Analysis to Strive towards SDG-5

Poorvi Sharma and Sarthak Agarwal
Volume I, Issue I
16 September 2020
Page No.: 119-146

For ages, India has been facing gender inequality beyond economic aspects and barriers to education. Patriarchy is deeply rooted especially in Rural India wherein gender inequality exists in the form of predefined gender roles and gender-based discrimination. Gender inequality is said to be a manifestation of the greater evil i.e patriarchy with mechanisms that bestow powers and privilege upon men leading to a sheer disadvantage to women. The authors found the drivers of patriarchy and gender inequalities to be namely: religious and cultural prejudice against women. The purpose of this paper is to provide a detailed analysis of patriarchy and gender disparities in Rural India while aligning with the objectives of Sustainable Development Goal-5. The secondary purpose of this paper is to outline the problems with existing laws, policies and projects that have been implemented to attain gender equality and prohibit the existing gender-biased practices in the country.

Poorvi Sharma
Jesus and Mary College, University of Delhi, India

Sarthak Agarwal
Hansraj College, University of Delhi, India

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Damania, A. P. (2020, May 17). Lockdown and rise in domestic violence: How to tackle situation if locked with an abuser. The Indian Express.
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Gender equality and women’s empowerment. (n.d.). United Nations Sustainable Development. Retrieved July 31, 2020, from https://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/gender-equality/

Ghose, M. (2011). GENDER BIAS IN EDUCATION IN INDIA. Http://Www.Iesd.Org.in/Jesd/Journal%20pdf/2011-VII-2%20Manas%20Ghose.Pdf.
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Indian Journal of Law and Public Policy. (2018, November 21). POLICY ANALYSIS OF ‘BETI PADHAO, BETI BACHAO SCHEME.’
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Joy, S. (2020, April 26). Coronavirus Crisis: No lockdown for domestic violence. Deccan Herald.
https://www.deccanherald.com/specials/insight/coronavirus-crisis-no-lockdown-for-domestic-violence-829941.html

Kar, B. (2018, February 22). Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis in India: The Current Scenario and Potential Developments. Journal of Fetal Medicine.
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s40556-018-0159-1?error=cookies_not_supported&code=c4faa58c-479d-44dd-a4d1-7599da9467ed

Kolisetty, A. (2015, July 2). Child Marriage in India: Loopholes in the Law. IntLawGrrls.
https://ilg2.org/2015/07/02/child-marriage-in-india-loopholes-in-the-law/

Kumari, A. K., Longchar, W. L., & Saini, P. S. (2019). Female Foeticide, Infanticide and Girl Child Trafficking-Challenges and Strategies to Overcome. David Publishing.
https://doi.org/10.17265/2328-7136/2019.02.006

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Maddela, Sudhir & M., Pradeep. (2019). Problems of Women Education in India A Case Study of Mangalagiri Mandal in Guntur District of A.P. International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development. Volume-3. 1069-1073. 10.31142/ijtsrd23148

Mondal, P. (2014, April 12). Women Education in Rural India: Meaning, Need and Barriers. Your Article Library.
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Mukunthan, A. (2018, April 2). Rural India is far behind Urban India in every Indicator of Progress. FACTLY.
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Nikore, M. (2019, January 4). Beti Bachao Beti Padhao – A critical review of implementation. Times of India Blog.
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P. (2019b, January 21). Inequality has ‘female face’ in India, women’s unpaid work worth 3.1% of GDP: Oxfam. The Hindu.
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Pandey, K. P. (2015, July 4). Data indicates poor enforcement of law to check female foeticide. Poor Enforcement of Laws.
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Perapaddan, S. B. K. J. (2018, October 29). Addressing mental health in rural India. The Hindu.
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Seth, R. (n.d.). Social Determinants of Child Marriage in Rural India. PubMed Central (PMC). Retrieved August 1, 2020, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6292470/

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Inefficient Education and High Dropout Rates of School Children in Indian Slums

Prachi Belwariar Vishishtha and Bhanu Jain
Volume I, Issue I
17 September 2020
Page No.: 147-168

This paper focuses on the problems arising in government schools and the education system, which is responsible for high dropout rates among students primarily in the Indian slums. The existing education policies have been reviewed to make relevant recommendations. It has been assumed that a lack of quality education is responsible for the dropouts.
The paper emphasizes the need for the Right to Education (RTE) to safeguard all children under the age of 18 to ensure that no child is denied access from this inalienable right. It underlines the state of execution of the RTE act as well as other related schemes.
The various factors contributing to high dropouts have been explored and relevant solutions have been mentioned. Furthermore, SWOT analysis of the recommendations was carried out to check their effectiveness. They were found to be efficient with the only threat being improper implementation from the concerned authorities end.
The result was that dropouts are due to legal, political and social factors in addition to inadequate quality of education. Also, an appeal has been made to the government to increase the education sector budget allocation to ensure proper infrastructure and technologically advanced learning in the slums.

Prachi Belwariar Vishishtha
Gargi College, University of Delhi, India
Bhanu Jain
St. Stephen’ College, University of Delhi, India

[1] Bakshi, P. M., & Kashyap, S. C. (1982). The constitution of India. Universal Law Publishing.

[2] Prachi Salve, IndiaSpend.com. (2015, March 17). India’s urban slums can house all of Italy. 

[3] NITI Aayog. (2019). SDG India Index and Dashboard 2019-20. NITI Aayog and United Nations.

[4] Ministry of Law and Justice. (2009). The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act. The Gazette of India.

[5] “They Say We’re Dirty.” (2020, June 3). Human Rights Watch.

[6] Gyanesh, A. (2017, July 28). 42 per cent of kids bullied at schools, says survey. The Times of India.

[7] Sanghera, T. S. (2018, November 22). 88% of marginalised children beaten at school; 91% parents okay with it. Business Standard.

[8] Sateesh Gouda M, Sekher TV. Factors Leading to School Dropouts in India: An Analysis of National Family Health Survey-3 Data. J Res Method Educ. 2014;4(6):75-83

[9] Dhande, V. S., Gadekar, R. D., Doibale, M. K., Gattani, P. L., Domple, V. K., & Inamdar, I. F. (2019). Health profile of school dropout children in slums of the municipal corporation area of a city. International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health, 6(6), 2640.

[10] School Education | Government of India, Ministry of Human Resource Development. (n.d.). Ministry of Human Resource Development.

[11] Express Web Desk. (2016, August 29). Bihar midday meal tragedy: Everything you need to know about the incident. The Indian Express.

[12] End child marriage. (n.d.). UNICEF India.

[13] Desk, I. B. L. (2020, February 1). Budget 2020: Rs 99,300 crore allocated for education sector, Finance Minister. @businessline.

[14] Nanda, P. K. (2016, February 29). Budget pegs Rs72,394 crore as education outlay for 2016-17.Livemint

[15] Nanda, P. K. (2017, February 2). Union budget 2017: Education outlay increases 9.9% to Rs79,685.95 crore. Livemint.

[16] Nanda, P. K. (2019a, July 6). Budget 2019: Education sector gets ₹94,854 crore, research gets leg up. Livemint

[17] Kolisetty, A. (2015, July 2). Child Marriage in India: Loopholes in the Law. IntLawGrrlsNanda, P. K. (2019, July 6). Budget 2019: Education sector gets ₹94,854 crore, research gets leg up. Livemint.

Vishishtha, P., & Jain, B. (2020). Inefficient Education and High Dropout Rates of School Children in Indian Slums. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law1(1), 147. http://ijpsl.in/wp-content/uploads/2020/09/Dropout-Rates_Prachi-Bhanu.pdf

Gender Equality and Sustainable Urbanisation: Analysis, Best Practices and Recommendations for India

Bhavya Pandey and Sikha Jaiswal
Volume I, Issue I
17 September 2020
Page No.: 169-202

The UN estimates that by 2030 five billion people will live in cities by 2030. Cities must be made safe for women, which will have positive benefits in terms of their health and well-being, their freedom to move around and to participate fully in all the benefits of urban life. In developing countries, such as India, safety concerns and limited access to transport reduce the probability of women participating in the labour market by 16.5 percent. The issues, hence, faced by women become enfolded into domains of accessibility, education, employment, legal hurdles, infrastructure, mobility, and urban political participation. This paper is both
review-oriented and recommendatory in nature and aims to (a) conduct a SWOT analysis of the status of urban women in India, and (b) recommend policy changes for India on the basis of best practises from countries around the world when it comes to inculcating gender equal practices into sustainable urbanisation. This paper has analysed the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats to urban women in India and has delineated a roadmap to factor-in these notions into the sustainable development and good governance of cities in India. It aimed to project the scope of improvement through four verticals – education, technological integration, economic development, and policy and political participation. Linkages have been established between the measures of sustainable urbanisation and gender-sensitive policy-making which can be implemented in Indian cities

Bhavya Pandey
Daulat Ram College, University of Delhi, India
Sikha Jaiswal
Hindu College, University of Delhi, India

[1] UNFPA. (2017). Urbanization | UNFPA – United Nations Population Fund. United Nations Population Fund. Retrieved July 26, 2020.

[2] Ibid

[3] Ibid

[4] UNDP. (2018). No development without safety for all. Medium. Retrieved July 20, 2020.

[5] Ibid

[6] Women Watch. (2010). Gender Equality for Better Cities and a Better World. United Nations. Retrieved July 20, 2020.

[7] Ibid

[8] Mondal, Puja. (n.d.). Effects of Urbanisation on the Status of Women in India. Your Article Library. Retrieved July 20, 2020.

[9] Kar, Sujita. (2015, April). Impact of rapid urbanization on women’s mental health: a review of literature. Delhi Psychiatry Journal, Vol. 18 No. 1 (No. 1), 1–2. Retrieved July 20, 2020.

[10] Institute for Women’s Policy Research (IWPR) & National Democratic Institute (NDI). (n.d.). Gender, Urbanisation, and Democratic Governance White Paper. Retrieved July 24, 2020.

[11] Ibid

[12] Ibid

[13] Ibid

[14] Ibid

[15] Ibid

[16] Ibid

[17] Ibid

[18] Ibid

[19] Ibid

[20]  Sridhar, Kala Seetharam. (2015). Evaluating the State of Women in Urban India. Financial Express. Retrieved July 26, 2020.

[21] Ratho, Aditi. (2020). Promoting female participation in urban India’s labour force. Observer’s Research Foundation. Retrieved July 26, 2020.

[22] UN Habitat. (2012). Gender Issue Guide: Urban Planning and Design. Retrieved July 26,
2020.

[23] UN Habitat. (2012). Gender Issue Guide: Urban Planning and Design. Retrieved July 26, 2020.

[24] UN Habitat. (2012). Gender Issue Guide: Urban Planning and Design. Retrieved July 26, 2020.

[25] UN Habitat. (2012). Gender Issue Guide: Urban Planning and Design. Retrieved July 26, 2020.

[26] Council of Europe. (n.d.). What is Gender Mainstreaming? Retrieved July 26, 2020.

[27] UN Habitat. (2012). Gender Issue Guide: Urban Planning and Design. Retrieved July 26, 2020.

[28] UN Habitat. (2012). Gender Issue Guide: Urban Planning and Design. Retrieved July 26, 2020.

[29]  UNDP. (2016). Sustainable Urbanization Strategy. Retrieved July 23, 2020.

[30] UNDP. (2016). Sustainable Urbanization Strategy. Retrieved July 23, 2020.

[31] Aneja, Urvasi, & Mishra, Vidisha. (n.d.). Digital India Is No Country for Women. Here’s Why. The Wire. Retrieved July 26, 2020

[32] Ibid

[33] Ibid

[34] UN India. Gender Equality: Women’s Economic Empowerment. (2018, July 17).

[35] Maret, F. R. (2016, November 3). Six ways to enable women’s economic empowerment. Urban Institute.

[36] Maret, F. R. (2016, November 3). Six ways to enable women’s economic empowerment. Urban Institute.

[37] Jaeckel Monika and van Geldermalsen Marieke. (2006, March). Building Gender Equality in Urban Life, Gender Equality and Urban Development: Building Better Communities for All. Global Urban Development Magazine, Volume 2 (Issue 1), 1–3. Retrieved July 20, 2020.

Pandey, B., & Jaiswal, S. (2020). Gender Equality and Sustainable Urbanisation: Analysis, Best Practices and Recommendations for India. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law1(1), 169. http://ijpsl.in/wp-content/uploads/2020/09/Gender-Urbanisation_Bhavya-Sikha.pdf

Strengthening Women, Strengthening India: Need for an Employment Guarantee Programme for Women in Urban India

Tridisha Bhardwaj and Anuj Kapoor
Volume I, Issue I
18 September 2020
Page No.: 203-231

The paper examines the need for an employment guarantee programme for urban women in India. The post Covid world is going to be tremendously difficult for most urban women who would lose their jobs and would not have any option as a fall-back employment. Among various employment schemes, MGNREGA has proved to achieve measurable success, though with its own set of flaws. The grim reality of the urban unemployment scenario thus forces us to push for an employment guarantee scheme, similar to their counterpart in rural areas. Even though India has seen tremendous economic growth, yet it is plagued by serious issues of unemployment and unpaid labour. The broad objective of the study is to investigate the feminisation of Indian labour market, the need for a skill based employment guarantee scheme and thus, propose a national urban guarantee programme for women. In a dynamic market-economy, such as India, where workers will lose jobs with more technological changes, not only require a social safety net for women but also a skill-based employment guarantee scheme to keep them employed.

Tridisha Bhardwaj
Ramjas College, University of Delhi, India
Anuj Kapoor
College of Vocational Studies, University of Delhi, India

[1] All India Report of Sixth Economic Census | Ministry of Statistics and Program Implementation | Government Of India. (n.d.). Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation.

[2] Andrabi, T., Das, J., & Khwaja, A. I. (2012). What Did You Do All Day?: Maternal Education and Child Outcomes. Journal of Human Resources, 47(4), 873–912. 

[3] AOSIS. (2018, February 20). The Expanded Public Works Programme: perspectives of direct beneficiaries.[4] Ministry of Law and Justice. (2009). The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act. The Gazette of India.

[5] Baird, S., Mcintosh, C., & Özler, B. (2016). When the Money Runs Out: Do Cash Transfers Have Sustained Effects on Human Capital Accumulation? Policy Research Working Papers.

[6] Bhardwaj, N. (2018, March 10). A Discourse on Women and Workforce in India. Entrepreneur.

[7] Chaudhuri, R. (2019, May). Women Empowerment through Skill Development.

[8] Das, S. (2019, March 23). Kerala Model of Urban Employment Guarantee.

[9] Deloitte. (2019). Empowering Women & Girls in India for the Fourth Industrial Revolution.

[10] Desai, S. (2019, June 12). Squandering the gender dividend. The Hindu

[11] Dutta, P., Murgai, R., Ravallion, M., & van de Walle, D. (2012). Does India‘s Employment Guarantee Scheme Guarantee Employment? Economic and Political Weekly, 2–18.

[12] EMPOWERMENT OF RURAL WOMEN THROUGH MGNREGA-A STUDY OF MGNREGA IMPLEMENTATION IN BARPETA DEVELOPMENT BLOCK OF BARPETA DISTRICT OF ASSAM. (2020). Journal of Critical Reviews, 7(07),

[13] Fletcher, E., Pande, R., & Moore, C. M. T. (2017). Women and Work in India: Descriptive Evidence and a Review of Potential Policies. SSRN Electronic Journal, 2–3.

[14] Gangrade, K.D. and Gathia, Joseph A. (1983). Women and child workers in the unorganised sector. Concept Publishers.

[15] GHOSH, J.( 2013). Women’s work in the India in the early 21st Century. India Today: Looking back, looking forward. India

[16] Gist, N. P., & Srinivas, M. N. (1966). Social Change in Modern India. American Sociological Review, 31(6), 884.

[17] Heath, R., & Jayachandran, S. (2016). The Causes and Consequences of Increased Female Education and Labor Force Participation in Developing Countries.

[19] Himanshu, Mukhopadhyay, A., and Sharan, M. R. (2015). The National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme in Rajasthan: Rationed funds and their allocation across villages. Economic and Political Weekly, Vol.50(6): 52-62.

[20] Idiculla, M. (2020, June 24). Reviving urban livelihoods post-lockdown through job scheme. Deccan Herald.

[21] INTERNATIONAL LABOUR OFFICE. (2010, November). A Skilled Workforce for Strong, Sustainable and Balanced Growth.

[22] IW News Service. (2020, April 18). Odisha CM launches Rs 100 crore UWEI for urban workers. India Whispers. 

[23] Jadhav, R. (2019, April 11). Why many women in Maharashtra’s Beed district have no wombs. Business Line. 

[24] Jebaraj, P. (2020, July 6). Amid demand surge, 1.4 lakh families have reached annual MGNREGA work limit. The Hindu.

[25] Jha, S. (2019, February 6). Unemployment rate at four-decade high of 6.1% in 2017-18: NSSO survey. 

[26] Khera, R. (2014, November 4). The Whys and Whats of India’s Rural Jobs Scheme.IndiaSpend-Journalism India |Data Journalism India|Investigative Journalism-IndiaSpend.

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[28] Lahoti, H. S. A. R. (2020, April 15). The COVID-19 Lockdown Will Ravage Prospects for India’s Female Workforce. The Wire.

[29] Liu, Y., & Barrett, C. B. (2012). Heterogeneous Pro-Poor Targeting in India’s Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme. SSRN Electronic Journal, 14–16.

[30] Mathew, E. T. (2006). Employment and Unemployment in India: Emerging Tendencies During the Post-Reform Period. Sage Publications Pvt. Ltd. 

[31] Mehrotra, S., & Sinha, S. (2019). Towards higher female work participation in India: what can be done? Centre For Sustainable Employment, 4–20. 

[32] Ministry of Commerce and Industry. (n.d.). Support to Training and Employment Programme for Women.

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[34] Mishra, N. (2019, April 24). Feminisation Of Employment: A Process Which Exploits Women’s Labour. Youth Ki Awaaz.

[35] Mohan, D., & Manivannan, S. (2019, August 22). To reform, ‘feminise’ India’s growth. Fortune India.

[36] Mohapatra, D. D. (2015). Female Workers in the Unorganised Sector in India. International Conference on Studies in Humanities and Social Sciences, Phuket, Thailand.

[37] Mukhopadhay, Swapna and Tendulkar, Suresh D. (2006). Gender Differences in Labour Force Participation in India: An Analysis of NSS data. New Delhi: Institute of Social Studies Trust. Mukhopadhyay, A. (2012). Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme: Falling demand or funds crunch? Ideas For India.

[38] Nandy, D. (2020). COVID-19 rural crisis: Why MGNREGA needs a harder push. DownToEarth.

[39] Narayanan, S., Das, U., Liu, Y., & Barrett, C. B. (2017). The “Discouraged Worker Effect” in Public Works Programs: Evidence from the MGNREGA in India. World Development, 100, 31–44.

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[42] Reuters. (2020, July 1). Indias unemployment rate fell to 11% in June from 23.5% in May: CMIE.

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[44] Sanghi, S., Srija, A., & Vijay, S. S. (2015). Decline in Rural Female Labour Force Participation in India: A Relook into the Causes. Vikalpa: The Journal for Decision Makers, 40(3), 255–268.

[45] Sen, S. (2008). Gender and Class: Women in Indian Industry, 1890–1990. Modern Asian Studies, 42(1), 75–116.

[46] Sharma, H. (2020, March 26). Double-digit MGNREGA hike for all states, UTs. The Indian Express.

[47] Singh, M. (1989,January). Women and Development Process in India, KHADI GRAMODYOG, .XXXV, No.4. 

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[49] Sundaram, S. K. G. (2000). Organisations working for the unorganised labour- the case of Mumbai. Friedrich-Ebert-Stifung. 

[50] Tcherneva, P. R. (2005, August 1). Is Jefes De Hogar an Employer of Last Resort Program? An Assessment of Argentina’s Ability to Deliver the Promise of Full Employment and Price Stability by Pavlina R. Tcherneva, L. Randall Wray :: SSRN.

[51] Tcherneva, P. R. (2020, July 23). Beyond Full Employment: What Argentina’s Plan Jefes Can Teach Us about. SpringerLink.

[52] Terri Chapman and Vidisha Mishra, “Rewriting the Rules: Women and Work in India”, ORF Special Report No. 80, January 2019, Observer Research Foundation.

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[55] World Economic Forum. (2020). Insight Report Global Gender Gap Report 2020. Global Gender Gap Report 2020.

Bhardwaj, T., & Kapoor, A. (2020). Strengthening Women, Strengthening India: Need for an Employment Guarantee Programme for Women in Urban India. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law1(1), 203. http://ijpsl.in/wp-content/uploads/2020/09/Employment-Women_Tridisha-Anuj.pdf

Impacts of COVID-19 in the lives of Urban Poor

Ishika Chauhan and Simran Arora
Volume I, Issue I
19 September 2020
Page No.: 232-246

COVID-19 has taken the world by a storm and a substantive lot of our country has suffered the greatest hits. Often health is looked at as wealth but not so often does it mean the same and in the case of the Urban Poor, health isn’t wealth if they have to travel miles amidst a global pandemic. Topping their list of priorities is the financial crisis leading to food insecurity which has resulted in an increase in mental health-related problems coupled with a significant rise in domestic violence cases. The study aims at understanding the reasons behind the repercussions faced by the Urban Poor, comprehending their under-preparedness and conclusively looking at the aftermath of the pandemic in their lives. After reviewing certain initiatives by the government and analysing the case study of Dharavi, Mumbai, it is apparent that to re-examine the issues faced by this population, it is of paramount importance to promote social and economic resilience and ensuring inclusivity at all levels of the society, something that extends beyond the immediate crisis. Keeping in mind the substantive lack of data available on this agenda, this study seeks to act as a standpoint for further research on the same.

Ishika Chauhan
Project uP Research Team
Simran Arora
Gokhale Institute of Politics and Economics, Pune, India

[1] Aatma Nirbhar Bharat Package: Progress So Far | DD News. (2020, July 12). DD News.

[2] Afridi, F. A. D. A. S. R. (2020, April 23). A Phone Survey Reveals How the COVID-19 Crisis Has Affected the Urban Poor. The Wire.

[3] Buheji, Cunha, Beka, Mavrić, Souza, Silva, Hanafi, & Yein. (2020). The Extent of COVID-19 Pandemic Socio-Economic Impact on Global Poverty. A Global Integrative Multidisciplinary Review. American Journal of Economics, 10(4), 213–224.

[4] Chotiner, I. (2020, April 1). How COVID-19 Will Hit India. The New Yorker.

[5] Corburn, J., Vlahov, D., Mberu, B., Riley, L., Caiaffa, W. T., Rashid, S. F., Ko, A., Patel, S., Jukur, S., Martínez-Herrera, E., Jayasinghe, S., Agarwal, S., Nguendo-Yongsi, B., Weru, J., Ouma, S., Edmundo, K., Oni, T., & Ayad, H. (2020). Slum Health: Arresting COVID-19 and Improving Well-Being in Urban Informal Settlements. Journal of Urban Health, 97(3), 348–357.

[6] ET Government. (2020, April 16). COVID-19 Pandemic: Impact and strategies for education sector in India

[7] India Times. (2020, July 18). Trending stories on Indian Lifestyle, Culture, Relationships, Food, Travel, Entertainment, News and New Technology News – Indiatimes.com. IndiaTimes.

[8] Ministry of Finance. (2020, June 20). Prime Minister Garib Kalyan Package-Progress So Far More than 42 crore poor people received financial assistance of Rs 65,454 crore under the Pradhan Mantri Garib Kalyan Package [Press release].

[10] Patel. (2020, June 20). The Indian migration crisis: The hidden majority. Routed Magazine

[11] Peterman, Potts, O’Donnell, Thompson, Shah, Oertelt-Prigione, & van Gelder. (2020). Pandemics and Violence Against Women and Children. Center For Global Development.

[12] Sharma, P. (2020, March 26). What is inside the 1.7 lakh crore Pradhan Mantri Garib Kalyan package? The Week.

[13] Summary of announcements : Aatma Nirbhar Bharat Abhiyaan. (2020, May 20). PRS LEGISLATIVE RESEARCH.

[14] TIMESOFINDIA.COM. (2020, July 11). Explained: How Mumbai’s Dharavi flattened the Covid-19 curve. The Times of India.

[15] van Doremalen, N., Bushmaker, T., Morris, D. H., Holbrook, M. G., Gamble, A., Williamson, B. N., Tamin, A., Harcourt, J. L., Thornburg, N. J., Gerber, S. I., Lloyd-Smith, J. O., de Wit, E., & Munster, V. J. (2020). Aerosol and Surface Stability of SARS-CoV-2 as Compared with SARS-CoV-1. New England Journal of Medicine, 382(16), 1564–1567.

[16] Wasdani, K. P., & Prasad, A. (2020). The impossibility of social distancing among the urban poor: the case of an Indian slum in the times of COVID-19. Local Environment, 25(5), 414–418.

[17] World Bank Group. (2020). COVID-19 and the Urban Poor Addressing those in slums.

[18] World Health Organisation. (2020). Mental health and psychosocial considerations during the COVID-19 outbreak (WHO/2019-nCoV/MentalHealth/2020.1).

Chauhan, I., & Arora, S. (2020). Impacts of COVID-19 in the lives of Urban Poor. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law1(1), 232. http://ijpsl.in/wp-content/uploads/2020/09/Impacts-Of-COVID_Ishika-Simran.pdf

Assessing the scope of Ownership Rights in Urban Slums through the lens Of Forced Evictions and Rehabilitation schemes

Priyal Goel and Palak Maheshwari
Volume I, Issue I
19 September 2020
Page No.: 247-274

The paper aims to bring forth the harsh reality of slum demolitions through the perceptive analysis of the data available and strengthen the understanding by examining a case study. The course of the paper will assess the reasons leading to slum demolitions and how the lack of a legal framework to safeguard against forceful eviction has contributed to the deterioration of physical and mental health of the dwellers. Systematic scrutiny into three global case studies assisted in laying the foundation for the need for ownership rights, improved housing avenues to rehabilitate the evicted and a need for building a more inclusive society.

Priyal Goel
Hansraj College, University of Delhi, India
Palak Maheshwari
FORE School of Management, New Delhi, India

Dhingra, A. (2019, June 15). Olga Tellis v. Bombay Municipal Corporation. IPleaders.

Field, E. (n.d.). Property Rights and Investment in Urban Slums.
https://academic.oup.com/jeea/article-abstract/3/2-3/279/2280908?redirectedFrom=fulltext

Ghar Bachao Ghar BAnao Andolan. (n.d.). Ghar Bachao Ghar Banao Andolan.
http://gbgb.in/index.html

Gupta, V. (2019, December 7). Invisible urban poor: The pavement dwellers of India.COUNTERVIEW.ORG. https://counterview.org/2019/12/07/invisible-urban-poor-pavementdwellers-of-india/

Gupte, J., Lintelo, D. . t. e., & Patel, S. (n.d.). Global report on internal displacement.

IDMC
https://www.internal-displacement.org/globalreport/grid2019/downloads/background_papers/Jaideep_FinalPaper.pdf

Housing and Land Rights Network India. (2017). Forced Evictions in India in 2017: An

Alarming National Crisis. HLRN.
https://www.hlrn.org.in/documents/Forced_Evictions_2017.pdf

Housing and Land Rights Network India. (2018). FORCED EVICTIONS IN INDIA IN

2018 An Unabating National Crisis. HLRN.
https://www.hlrn.org.in/documents/Forced_Evictions_2018.pdf

Jagdale, R. H. (2014, May). An Overview of Slum Rehabilitation Schemes in Mumbai, India
Https://Repositories.Lib.Utexas.Edu.

International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law
https://repositories.lib.utexas.edu/bitstream/handle/2152/26620/JAGDALEMASTERSREPORT-2014.pdf?sequence=1

Maher, S. (2017). Dealing with slums in Egypt: Learning from the success factors of international experiences. AUC Knowledge Fountain.
https://fount.aucegypt.edu/etds/604/

NAPM. (n.d.). IDEOLOGY | NAPM.
http://napm-india.org/ideology/

Nolan, L. B. (2015, March 1). Slum Definitions in Urban India: Implications for the

Measurement of Health Inequalities. PubMed Central (PMC).
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4746497/#:%7E:text=The%20UN%20operationally%20defines%20a,area%20

Olga Tellis & Ors v Bombay Municipal Council [1985] 2 Supp SCR 51. (n.d.). ESCRNet.
https://www.escr-net.org/caselaw/2006/olga-tellis-ors-v-bombay-municipal-council-1985-2-supp-scr-51

PUCL. (n.d.). About PUCL | PUCL.
http://www.pucl.org/about-pucl

ShodhGanag. (n.d.). CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF THE SCENARIO OF EXPLICIT

RIGHT TO HOUSING: CONSTITUTIONS OF SOUTH AFRICA & INDIA.
Shodhganga.Inflibnet.Ac.In
https://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/10603/214534/8/chapter%205.pdf

The Indian Express. (2011, January 15). Government’s slum resettlement slammed. New Indian Express.
https://www.newindianexpress.com/cities/chennai/2011/jan/15/governmentsslum-resettlement-slammed-219405.html

TNN. (2009, June 11). PUCL demands justice for slum. The Times of India.
https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/bengaluru/PUCL-demands-justice-forslum/articleshow/4641787.cms

United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. (1997, May 20). Refworld | General

Comment No. 7: The right to adequate housing (Art.11.1): forced evictions. Refworld.
https://www.refworld.org/docid/47a70799d.html

Vincent, P. L. (2018, August 23). Toddler dies in Delhi slum eviction drive. Telegraph India.
https://www.telegraphindia.com/india/toddler-dies-in-delhi-slum-evictiondrive/cid/1325985

Wikipedia contributors. (2020a, March 8). Ghar Bachao Ghar Banao Andolan. Wikipedia.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ghar_Bachao_Ghar_Banao_Andolan

Wikipedia contributors. (2020b, July 19). People’s Union for Civil Liberties. Wikipedia.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/People’s_Union_for_Civil_Liberties

Goel P. & Maheshwari P. (2020). Assessing the scope of Ownership Rights in Urban Slums through the lens Of Forced
Evictions and Rehabilitation schemes. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law1(1), 247.
http://ijpsl.in/wp-content/uploads/2021/09/Ownership-Rights_Priyal-Palak.pdf

Online Education in Urban Slums of India

Dewangi Sharma and Ipsita Pati
Volume 1, Issue 1
19th September 2020
Page No.: 275-291

The paper aims to bring forth the harsh reality of slum demolitions through the perceptive analysis of the data available and strengthen the understanding by examining a case study. The course of the paper will assess the reasons leading to slum demolitions and how the lack of a legal framework to safeguard against forceful eviction has contributed to the deterioration of physical and mental health of the dwellers. Systematic scrutiny into three global case studies assisted in laying the foundation for the need for ownership rights, improved housing avenues to rehabilitate the evicted and a need for building a more inclusive society.

Dewangi Sharma 
ILS Law College, Pune, India
Ipsita Pati
Ravenshaw University, Odisha, India 

Dhingra, A. (2019, June 15). Olga Tellis v. Bombay Municipal Corporation. IPleaders.

Field, E. (n.d.). Property Rights and Investment in Urban Slums.
https://academic.oup.com/jeea/article-abstract/3/2-3/279/2280908?redirectedFrom=fulltext

Ghar Bachao Ghar BAnao Andolan. (n.d.). Ghar Bachao Ghar Banao Andolan.
http://gbgb.in/index.html

Gupta, V. (2019, December 7). Invisible urban poor: The pavement dwellers of India.COUNTERVIEW.ORG. https://counterview.org/2019/12/07/invisible-urban-poor-pavementdwellers-of-india/

Gupte, J., Lintelo, D. . t. e., & Patel, S. (n.d.). Global report on internal displacement.

IDMC
https://www.internal-displacement.org/globalreport/grid2019/downloads/background_papers/Jaideep_FinalPaper.pdf

Housing and Land Rights Network India. (2017). Forced Evictions in India in 2017: An

Alarming National Crisis. HLRN.
https://www.hlrn.org.in/documents/Forced_Evictions_2017.pdf

Housing and Land Rights Network India. (2018). FORCED EVICTIONS IN INDIA IN

2018 An Unabating National Crisis. HLRN.
https://www.hlrn.org.in/documents/Forced_Evictions_2018.pdf

Jagdale, R. H. (2014, May). An Overview of Slum Rehabilitation Schemes in Mumbai, India
Https://Repositories.Lib.Utexas.Edu.

International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law
https://repositories.lib.utexas.edu/bitstream/handle/2152/26620/JAGDALEMASTERSREPORT-2014.pdf?sequence=1

Maher, S. (2017). Dealing with slums in Egypt: Learning from the success factors of international experiences. AUC Knowledge Fountain.
https://fount.aucegypt.edu/etds/604/

NAPM. (n.d.). IDEOLOGY | NAPM.
http://napm-india.org/ideology/

Nolan, L. B. (2015, March 1). Slum Definitions in Urban India: Implications for the

Measurement of Health Inequalities. PubMed Central (PMC).
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4746497/#:%7E:text=The%20UN%20operationally%20defines%20a,area%20

Olga Tellis & Ors v Bombay Municipal Council [1985] 2 Supp SCR 51. (n.d.). ESCRNet.
https://www.escr-net.org/caselaw/2006/olga-tellis-ors-v-bombay-municipal-council-1985-2-supp-scr-51

PUCL. (n.d.). About PUCL | PUCL.
http://www.pucl.org/about-pucl

ShodhGanag. (n.d.). CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF THE SCENARIO OF EXPLICIT

RIGHT TO HOUSING: CONSTITUTIONS OF SOUTH AFRICA & INDIA.
Shodhganga.Inflibnet.Ac.In
https://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/10603/214534/8/chapter%205.pdf

The Indian Express. (2011, January 15). Government’s slum resettlement slammed. New Indian Express.
https://www.newindianexpress.com/cities/chennai/2011/jan/15/governmentsslum-resettlement-slammed-219405.html

TNN. (2009, June 11). PUCL demands justice for slum. The Times of India.
https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/bengaluru/PUCL-demands-justice-forslum/articleshow/4641787.cms

United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. (1997, May 20). Refworld | General

Comment No. 7: The right to adequate housing (Art.11.1): forced evictions. Refworld.
https://www.refworld.org/docid/47a70799d.html

Vincent, P. L. (2018, August 23). Toddler dies in Delhi slum eviction drive. Telegraph India.
https://www.telegraphindia.com/india/toddler-dies-in-delhi-slum-evictiondrive/cid/1325985

Wikipedia contributors. (2020a, March 8). Ghar Bachao Ghar Banao Andolan. Wikipedia.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ghar_Bachao_Ghar_Banao_Andolan

Wikipedia contributors. (2020b, July 19). People’s Union for Civil Liberties. Wikipedia.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/People’s_Union_for_Civil_Liberties

Sharma D. & Pati I. (2020). Online Education in Urban Slums of India. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law1(1), 275. http://ijpsl.in/wp-content/uploads/2021/09/Online-Education_Dewangi-Ipsita.pdf

Period Poverty

Sachika Khurana and Preetkiran Kaur
Volume I, Issue I
24 September 2020
Page No.: 292-316

Menstruation has long been a topic of neglect. A woman menstruates for almost 40 years and yet she is denied the basic sanitation facilities during her period. There exist various policies which directly and indirectly focus on menstrual hygiene management, but all of them focus on how the physical products are provided to the women and not whether the woman is educated to use them or not. Hence, as always, figures of sales and productions are given more importance than busting the taboos and myths which stand in the way of educating a woman in her basic rights. In this paper, the general situation with an aspect on the coronavirus, and some selected policies will be reviewed. Some policy recommendations which can be adopted are made accordingly.

Sachika Khurana
Sri Venkateshwar College, University of Delhi, India
Preetkiran Kaur 
Rajiv Gandhi National University of Law, Patiala, India

[1]  Ramesh, D. (2020, July 08). Breaking the Silence: Taboos and Social Stigma Surrounding Menstruation in Rural India. Retrieved September 15, 2020.

[2]  G., Writer, G., -, G., & -, K. (2017, May 20). The Journey Of Menstrual Hygiene Management In India: #ThePadEffect. Retrieved September 15, 2020.

[3] Upadhyay, A. (2019, May 29). Menstrual Hygiene Day Facts: Only 36 Percent Of The Women In India Use Sanitary Pads During Periods: Menstrual Hygiene. Retrieved September 15, 2020.

[4] Anand, T., & Garg, S. (2015). Menstruation related myths in India: Strategies for combating it. Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care, 4(2), 184. doi:10.4103/2249-4863.154627

[5] Kapoor, C. (2020). India faces ‘sanitary napkin shortage’ amid COVID-19. Retrieved September 15, 2020

[6] Prof. Karin, U. (2018). A Report on Menstrual Inequity in the United StatesMay 2018. Retrieved 2020

[7] -, G., Writer, G., -, G., & -, K. (2017, May 20). The Journey Of Menstrual Hygiene Management In India: #ThePadEffect. Retrieved September 15, 2020

[8] 2019, D. (2019). Access to Menstrual Products is a Constitutional Right. Period. Retrieved September 15, 2020

[9] -, G., Writer, G., -, G., & -, K. (2019, December 11). Let’s Talk About Period Leave For Dalit And Tribal Women. Retrieved September 15, 2020

[10] Babbar, K., Saluja, D., & Parmar, S. S. (2020). Menstrual Hygiene Day: Why Menstrual Health Belongs on India’s Political Agenda. Retrieved September 15, 2020

[11] Shah, S. P., Nair, R., Shah, P. P., Modi, D. K., Desai, S. A., & Desai, L. (2013). Improving quality of life with new menstrual hygiene practices among adolescent tribal girls in rural Gujarat, India. Reproductive Health Matters, 21(41), 205-213. doi:10.1016/s0968-8080(13)41691-9 

[12] House, S. (2013). Bookshelf: Menstrual Hygiene Matters: A resource for improving menstrual hygiene around the world by Sarah House, Thérèse Mahon, Sue Cavill Co-published by WaterAid and 17 other organisations, 2012 www.wateraid.org/mhm.Reproductive Health Matters, 21(41), 257-259. doi:10.1016/s0968-8080(13)41712-3 

[13] Guest, W. (2020, September 09). Entry of women to Sabarimala. Retrieved September 15, 2020.

[14] Jain, A. (2013). Menstrual Hygiene Management: A taboo that must be broken! Retrieved September 15, 2020.

[15] Wilbur, J., Torondel, B., Hameed, S., Mahon, T., & Kuper, H. (2019). Systematic review of menstrual hygiene management requirements, its barriers and strategies for disabled people. Plos One, 14(2). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0210974 .

[16] Kaur, R., Kaur, K., & Kaur, R. (2018). Menstrual Hygiene, Management, and Waste Disposal: Practices and Challenges Faced by Girls/Women of Developing Countries. Journal of Environmental and Public Health, 2018, 1-9. doi:10.1155/2018/1730964

[17] Mitra, A. (2015). Awareness and practices on menstrual hygiene amongst adolescent girls in Rajkot district of Gujarat. Indian Association of Preventive and Social Medicine, Gujarat Chapter, 6(2). Retrieved July 14, 2020

[18] Mehta, K. (2020, March 12). Sanitary Napkins & the Environmental impact -Disposal of sanitary napkins. Retrieved September 15, 2020.

[19] Aidara, R. (2017). Labour Day 2017: Working Without WASH. Retrieved January, 2020.

[20] Woldetsadik, M. (2014, August 22). Women’s Menstrual Hygiene in India: The Health and Environmental Implications. Retrieved September 15, 2020.

[21] Desk, I. (2019, June 20). No access to menstrual hygiene is the fifth biggest killer of women in the world. Retrieved September 15, 2020.

[22] Verma, R., & Sambhyal, S. S. (2018, March 8). Menstrual cycle is normal; our attitude towards it is not. Retrieved September 15, 2020.

[23] Montgomery, R. E. (1974). A Cross-Cultural Study of Menstruation, Menstrual Taboos, and Related Social Variables. Ethos, 2(2), 137-170. doi:10.1525/eth.1974.2.2.02a00030.

[24] Writer, G. (2019, March). OTHER MODULES IN THIS COMPANION SERIES: CFS … – unicef.org. Retrieved September 15, 2020.

[25] Writer, G. (2015). Clean India: Clean Schools A Handbook. Retrieved 2020.

[26] Writer, G. (2014). Swachh Bharat Swachh Vidyalaya. Retrieved September 15, 2020.

[27] Borthakur, M. (2019). Swachh Vidyalaya Abhiyan: Findings from an Empirical Analysis. Retrieved September 15, 2020.

[28] Government of India, M. (2020). Index1 :: National Health Mission. Retrieved September 15, 2020.

[29] Rao, S. (2015). Promotion of Menstrual Hygiene among Adolescent Girls (10-19 Years) in Rural Areas. Retrieved 2020.

[30] ., D. (2017). Review of Menstrual Hygiene Management in Schools in India. Retrieved 2020.

[31] Sharma, N. (2018, February 04). Use of sanitary pads sparse despite govt schemes: Studies. Retrieved September 15, 2020.

[32] Writer, G. (2015). Menstrual Health Management. Retrieved 2020.

[33] Kumar, R. (2016). Vikaspedia Domains. Retrieved September 15, 2020

[34] Muralidharan, A., Patil, H., & Patnaik, S. (2015). Unpacking the policy landscape for menstrual hygiene management: Implications for school WASH programmes in India. Waterlines, 34(1), 79-91. doi:10.3362/1756-3488.2015.008.

[35] Jain, A. (2019, November 28). The Journey from Just a Piece of Cloth to ‘MY Pad’. Retrieved September 15, 2020.

[36] Rao, V. (2013). Menstrupedia aims to spread awareness about menstrual periods via comic strips. Retrieved September 15, 2020.

[37] Singh, R. (2020). Friendly guide to healthy periods. Retrieved September 15, 2020.

[38] Gowthaman, N. (2020, May 01). Project Baala is taking reusable pads and menstrual hygiene to women and girls in rural areas. Retrieved September 15, 2020.

[39] Sahyog, T. (2020, May 28). List of NGOs providing relief during Covid-19. Retrieved September 15, 2020.

[40] Kabir, Y., Chandrasekar, R., & Tahiliani, B. (2016). A reason to smile: The five ‘A’s approach to promote menstrual hygiene management in adolescent girls. Waterlines, 35(3), 324-333. doi:10.3362/1756-3488.2016.023 .

[41] Writer, G. (2020). Imperfection Quotes (321 quotes). Retrieved September 15, 2020.

[42] Ibid

Khurana, S., & Kaur, P. (2020). Period Poverty. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law1(1), 292. https://ijpsl.in/wp-content/uploads/2020/09/Period-Poverty_Sachika-Preetkiran.pdf

Online Education and its Ramification on Teachers

Nimisha Pathak and Stuti Agrawal
Volume I, Issue I
25 September 2020
Page No.: 317-331

The Coronavirus pandemic has brought to surface a new phenomenon which was otherwise underexplored for young children– ‘Online Education’. The enabling and equalising effects of technology are well known but it also produces numerable challenges in areas underprivileged and underdeveloped like the Urban Slums in India. Technology can be used to bridge the gap between children from low-income backgrounds and children from well-off families. The Indian public -sector education system has failed in making quality and holistic education accessible to children living in slums. This article explores the opportunities and challenges posed by the implementation of Online education for primary and secondary education in Urban Slums. Few models of already existing examples are analysed to gain practical insights which could be helpful in overcoming the challenges and making the Internet-learning model a success. The fruition of this model of education is not possible without the collaboration and support of government and educational institutions, therefore their important role is also identified.

Nimisha Pathak
Miranda House, University of Delhi, India
Stuti Agrawal
Lakshmibai College, New Delhi, India
[1] Sarin S. (2020). Tackling the Impact of COVID-19 on the Indian Banking Systems based on an Analysis of Non-Performing Assets. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law1(1), 370.
http://ijpsl.in/wp-content/uploads/2021/09/Tackling-the-Impact-of-COVID-19-on-Indian-Banking-Systems-based-on-Analysis-of-NPA_Spanda-Sarin.pdf

[2] Abbas, J. A. F. F. A. R., aman, J. A. F. F. A. R., & bano, S. H. A. H. E. R. (2019, March 20). The Impact of Social Media on Learning Behavior for Sustainable Education: Evidence of Students from Selected Universities in Pakistan. MDPI. 
https://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/11/6/1683/pdf

[3] Barseghian, T. I. N. A. (2011, July 22). Ignore the Potential of Mobile Learning, Risk Widening theDigitalDivide.KQED 
https://www.kqed.org/mindshift/13943/ignore-the-potentialof-mobile-learning-risk-widening-the-digital-divide

[4] Bedi, A. (2020, April 22). No gadgets, no studies: What online classes mean for 16 lakh poor students in Delhi schools. ThePrint.
https://theprint.in/india/education/no-gadgets-no-studies-what-online-classes-mean-for-16-lakhpoor-students-in-delhi-schools/406837/

[5] gupta, N. E. E. L. A. M. (2020, June 9). Help Educate Poor Slum Children In India.GlobalGiving.
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[6] india today. (n.d.). Recipients of Akhilesh’s laptop scheme find machines faulty, choose to sell not repair them. Indiatoday.In. Retrieved July 26, 2020, from
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[7] india today web desk. (2020, April 24). Govt needs to frame policy for online courses and certification: 5 points to make e-learning mainstream. Indiatoday.In.
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[8] Jebaraj, P. (2020, April 6). Online learning out of reach for many. The Hindu.
https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/online-learning-out-of-reach-formany/article31273886.ece

[9] lupieri, S. I. G. R. I. D. (n.d.). Skype in the classroom: Digital learning helps children in India escape poverty. UNESCO MGIEP. Retrieved July 25, 2020, from
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[10] mahabir, R. O. N., crooks, A. N. D. R. E. W., & agouris, P. E. G. G. Y. (2016, September

22). The study of slums as social and physical constructs: challenges and emerging research opportunities.Taylor&Francis.
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/21681376.2016.1229130

[11] Nath, I. (2020, July 27). Elementary Education of Slum Children : An Attempt to Reach the Unreached. Semanticscholar.Org. 
https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/ElementaryEducation-of-Slum-Children-%3A-An-Attempt-NathMaiti/90e18ff496eb8e082478bd4a560a5eda6bf2eed1

[12] pareek, S. H. R. E. Y. A. (2015, December 2). No Electricity? No Teachers? No Problem. Students in India’s Slums Are Learning from the Internet. Thebetterindia.Com.
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[13] rana, K. U. M. A. R., & banerjee, T. A. P. A. T. I. (2006, December). Public Delivery of Primary Education In Kolkata. Pratichi.Org.
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[14] Rosenfeld, H. (2017, March 27). Internet Solutions for Girls’ Education in Indian Slums. Medium.Com. 
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[15] Sahuliyar, A. S. (2018, August 23). Smart learning for slum kids. Telegraph India.
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[16] Schwartz, K. A. T. R. I. N. A. (2013, March 21). Internet Access for All: A New Program Targets Low-Income Students. KQED. 
https://www.kqed.org/mindshift/27841/internet-accessfor-everyone-a-new-program-targets-low-income-students

[17] Teaching the Teachers Through Mobile Learning | Archive – U.S. Agency for International Development. (2015, April). Usaid.Gov. 
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[18] tsujita, Y. U. K. O. (2009, April). Deprivation of Education: A Study of Slum Children in Delhi, IndiaYuko Tsujita2009. Unesdoc.Unesco.Org.
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[19] UN Habitat. (n.d.). Drm.Cenn.Org. Retrieved July 22, 2020, from
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[20] What is online education? (n.d.). Indiaeducation.Net. Retrieved July 24, 2020, from
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Pathak, N., & Agrawal, S. (2020). Online Education and its Ramification on Teachers. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law1(1), 317. https://ijpsl.in/wp-content/uploads/2020/09/Online-Education-Teachers_Nimishaa-Stuti.pdf

Analysing the Working Conditions of Sanitation Workers with Special Reference to Urban Slum Dwellers in a Post COVID-19 Reality

Abhishri Swarup and Agrim Gupta
Volume I, Issue I
28 September 2020
Page No.: 332-351

In this research paper, the researchers aim to construct, deconstruct and ultimately reconstruct the existing sanitation framework of India, with special emphasis on sanitation workers from urban slums and the working conditions in which the sanitation sector- public, private, informal operates. The entirety of this research paper is deliberately set in the social context of the coronavirus pandemic, with an eye to review the existing socio-economic norms and legislation, identify the vacuums- both institutional and non-institutional- in the prevailing sanitation paradigm and accordingly suggest modifications and corrections in the same to ensure a smooth, inclusive transition to the COVID-19-appropriate sanitation conventions that must be undertaken at all levels of national governance. The paper draws considerable attention to the nuances of manual scavenging. This research paper is structured such that after examining the formal relevant legislation, we develop the contextual layout- political, economic, social, technological, environmental, legal- of the working conditions of Indian sanitation workers. We then proceed to assessing the landscape of urban slum dwellings in similar parameters and consequently, aim to understand the complexities that the pandemic adds to the prevailing normative model. Using this fundamental information, this research paper seeks to make policy recommendations accordingly. The spirit of emancipation remains the driving force throughout.

Abhishri Swarup
St. Stephen’s College, University of Delhi, India
Agrim Gupta
Project uP Research Team

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[2] Bisht, R. A. M. M. S. (2020). The Coronapocalypse and Sanitation Workers in India. The Wire.

[3] Correspondent, S. (2018, October 6). Swachh Bharat Mission a failure: Jairam. The Hindu.

[4] Correspondent, S. (2019, February 25). Sanitation workers slam Modi govt. The Hindu.

[5] Dixit, K. (2019, February 25). PM Narendra Modi washes feet of sanitary workers. The Times of India.

[6] Gatade, S. (2015). Understanding the connect between caste and sanitation. India Water Portal.

[7] Ghose, D. (2017, February 17). Money for toilets they built never came, now they are trapped. The Indian Express.

[8] India’s Sanitation Workers Seek Immediate Help From The Government. (2020, May 21). Amnesty International India.

[9] Kokra, S. (2017). Your Wages Are In My Pants: Bengaluru Contractor Allegedly Told Women Sanitation Workers. Huffington Post.

[10] Lalwani, V. (2019, September 29). Ground report: Killing of two Dalit children exposes failure of India’s Swachh Bharat Abhiyan. Scroll.In.

[11] Loopholes in the Prohibition of Employment as Manual Scavengers & their Rehabilitation Act, 2013. (2016, March 5). [Video]. YouTube.

[12] Oxford Economics, LIXIL, & WaterAid. (2016). THE TRUE COST OF POOR SANITATION.

[13] Sanitation Value Chain. (2017). [Photograph].

[14] The Hindu. (2020, February 16). Watch | India’s manual scavenging problem.

[15] THE PROHIBITION OF EMPLOYMENT AS MANUAL SCAVENGERS AND THEIR REHABILITATION ACT, 2013. (2013).

[16] WaterAid. (2019, November). The hidden world of sanitation workers in India.

[17] WHAT DOES INTERSECTIONAL FEMINISM ACTUALLY MEAN? (2018). International Women’s Development Agency.

[18] World Bank, ILO, WaterAid, & WHO. (2019). Health, Safety and Dignity of Sanitation Workers: An Initial Assessment

Swarup, A., & Gupta, A. (2020). Analysing the Working Conditions of Sanitation Workers with Special Reference to Urban Slum Dwellers in a Post COVID-19 Reality. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law1(1), 332. https://ijpsl.in/wp-content/uploads/2020/09/Working-Conditions-Sanitation-Workers_Abhishri-Agrim.pdf

Sex Education in Urban Slums in India

Shivangi Parihar and Surbhi Tyagi
Volume I, Issue I
29 September 2020
Page No.: 352-369

That sex is a taboo topic in India is no breaking news. Talking about sex or sexuality can earn glances and frowns even in well-educated, liberal, urban circles. With India being the second most populated country in the world and on its way to beat China to top the population chart, the need for sex education is urgent and yet remains unacted upon.

However, in the day and age of the Internet, social media, and unlimited access to information people, especially adolescents are getting information about issues related to sex and sexuality. The lack of comprehensive sex education curriculum or public awareness program has affected the population in various aspects and especially the ones who don’t have any other legitimate resources to fall back on to know about sex and sexuality like the slum dwellers. There exists an overarching need for a concerted policy-driven initiative that aims to provide the basic information related to sexual relationships, consensual and non-consensual sexual experiences, safe sex practices and the paradigms of sexual violence for people to make healthy and informed sexual choices.

The paper seeks to explore the absence of sex education in urban slums. The lack of sex education in India violates the human rights of the Indian population. The paper attempts to assess the various reasons that contribute to a lack of awareness about sex and sexuality-related issues among slum dwellers in India. The research focuses on understanding the multifaceted consequences and challenges that urban slum dwellers face due to lack of sex education. In an attempt to reinforce the importance of sex education the paper also put forwards suggestive measures that can be adopted for improving the dilapidated situation of sexuality awareness in India.

Shivangi Parihar
Lady Shri Ram College, University of Delhi, India
Surbhi Tyagi
Lady Shri Ram College, University of Delhi, India

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[3] CHANDRASHEKHAR, V. A. I. S. H. N. A. V. I. (2019, December 12). Why India Is Making Progress in Slowing Its Population Growth. Yale E360. 

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[5] Das, M. (2018, January 16). Patterns of illness disclosure among Indian slum dwellers: a qualitative study. BMC International Health and Human Rights.

[6] Kumar, S. (1999, January 2). India has the largest number of people infected with HIV. PubMed

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[8] Raja, V. (2018, October 10). Can Drinking Tea Teach Kids About Sex & Consent? Delhi NGO Shows You How! Betterindia.

[9] Salunke, P. (2015, January 23). Slums rise in the east Mumbai, so does crime graph – Mumbai. Hindustan Times.

[10] Shajahan, I., Shajahan, A., Rao, T. S. S., & Wylie, K. (2015, October). Adolescent sex education in India: Current perspectives. PubMed Central (PMC).

[11] Sharma, K. (2020a, February 19). Sex education, breaking gender stereotypes in Modi govt’s new school curriculum. ThePrint.

[12] Sharma, N. C. (2019, September 13). Will increasing supply of contraceptives help government stabilize population? Livemint.

[13] Sharma, R. (2020, February 11). Vital Need for Sex Education in Indian Youth and Adolescents. The Indian Journal of Pediatrics

[14] Simran, B. (2018, November 16). It’s time we focused on sex education in India. Qrius.

[15] Sood, N., & Suman, P. (n.d.). REPORT TO THE UNITED NATIONS HUMAN RIGHTS COUNCIL FOR THE UNIVERSAL PERIODIC REVIEW OF THE REPUBLIC OF INDIA On the Lack of Comprehensive Sexuality Education in India. Lib.Ohchr.Org.

[16] World Health Organization. (2018, February 5). Defining sexual health.

Parihar, S., & Tyagi, S. (2020). Analysing the Working Conditions of Sanitation Workers with Special Reference to Urban Slum Dwellers in a Post COVID-19 Reality. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law1(1), 352.
 https://ijpsl.in/wp-content/uploads/2020/09/Sex-Education_Shivangi-Surbhi.pdf

Tackling the Impact of COVID-19 on the Indian Banking Systems based on an Analysis of Non-Performing Assets

Spandan Sarin
Volume 1, Issue 1
29th September 2020
Page No.: 370-388

The Indian Banking Sector has had its ups and downs in the past decade. This paper tries to understand the history of the sector in terms of Non-Performing Assets (NPAs) followed by the establishment of how the sector is going to react to the impact of COVID – 19. There is an analysis of the sectors which are worst hit by the pandemic and have high NPA ratios thus, having an unstable financial background. The policy measures recommended focus on improving liquidity and aggregate demand in the sectors which have been affected to great lengths by the pandemic. This paper recommends ways to prevent the banking sector from deterioration in the foreseeable future and wither the storm created by the pandemic with minimum negative aftermath. 

Spandan Sarin
Economics Honours, Hindu College, University of Delhi

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[12] Online, E. T. (2020, August 6). RBI extends EMI moratorium for another three months on term loans. Here’s what it means for borrowers. The Economic Times.
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[14] Our Bureau. (2019, December 24). Banks’ asset quality improves, gross NPAs decline to 9.1%: RBI. @businessline. 
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[15] P. (2020b, May 1). Weak demand, oversupply to hurt steel industry post-lockdown: Ind-Ra. The Economic Times. 
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[24] The Impact of COVID-19 on the Power Sector. (n.d.). International Finance Corporation. Retrieved August 15, 2020, from
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[26] World Bank. (2008). India Trade Summary 2008.
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Sarin S. (2020). Tackling the Impact of COVID-19 on the Indian Banking Systems based on an Analysis of Non-Performing Assets. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law1(1), 370.
http://ijpsl.in/wp-content/uploads/2021/09/Tackling-the-Impact-of-COVID-19-on-Indian-Banking-Systems-based-on-Analysis-of-NPA_Spanda-Sarin.pdf

Irony of Gender Employment

Ayushi Roy
Volume 1, Issue 1
29th September 2020
Page No.: 389-393

That sex is a taboo topic in India is no breaking news. Talking about sex or sexuality can earn glances and frowns even in well-educated, liberal, urban circles. With India being the second most populated country in the world and on its way to beat China to top the population chart, the need for sex education is urgent and yet remains unacted upon.

However, in the day and age of the Internet, social media, and unlimited access to information people, especially adolescents are getting information about issues related to sex and sexuality. The lack of comprehensive sex education curriculum or public awareness program has affected the population in various aspects and especially the ones who don’t have any other legitimate resources to fall back on to know about sex and sexuality like the slum dwellers. There exists an overarching need for a concerted policy-driven initiative that aims to provide the basic information related to sexual relationships, consensual and non-consensual sexual experiences, safe sex practices and the paradigms of sexual violence for people to make healthy and informed sexual choices.

The paper seeks to explore the absence of sex education in urban slums. The lack of sex education in India violates the human rights of the Indian population. The paper attempts to assess the various reasons that contribute to a lack of awareness about sex and sexuality-related issues among slum dwellers in India. The research focuses on understanding the multifaceted consequences and challenges that urban slum dwellers face due to lack of sex education. In an attempt to reinforce the importance of sex education the paper also put forwards suggestive measures that can be adopted for improving the dilapidated situation of sexuality awareness in India.

Ayushi Roy
B. A. (Hons) English, PDM University

[1] A. (2018, May 1). When The Goods Get Together Summary By Irigaray. English Summary. 
https://englishsummary.com/goods-gettogether-irigaray/#Sigmund_Freud

[2] Bhattacharyya, R. (2019, March 7). Gender pay gap high in India: Men get paid Rs 242 every hour, women earn Rs 46 less. The Economic Times.
https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/magazines/panache/gender-pay-gap-still-high-women-inindia-earn-19-pc-less-than-men-report/articleshow/68302223.cms?from=mdr

[3]  Irigaray, L. (n.d.). When the Goods Get Together — Luce Irigaray. When Goods Get Together. Retrieved October 8, 2020, from
http://www.oocities.org/saidyoungman/irriga01.htm?201621

[4]  Mikkola, M. (2017, October 25). Feminist Perspectives on Sex and Gender (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy/Fall 2019 Edition). Feminist Perspectives on Sex and Gender.
https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2019/entries/feminism-gender/#BioDet

[5]  Smile foundation. (n.d.). Child Labour Policy | Child Labour Causes | Child Education in India. Child Literacy Rate. Retrieved October 8, 2020, from
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[6] Wikipedia contributors. (2020, September 28). Gender pay gap in India. Wikipedia.
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Roy A. (2020). Irony of Gender Employment. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law1(1), 389.
http://ijpsl.in/wp-content/uploads/2021/09/Irony-of-Gender-Employment_Ayushi-Roy.pdf

Urban Slums: An Economic Asset Waiting to be Discovered

Avantika Thareja
Volume 1, Issue 1
29th September 2020
Page No.: 394-398

That sex is a taboo topic in India is no breaking news. Talking about sex or sexuality can earn glances and frowns even in well-educated, liberal, urban circles. With India being the second most populated country in the world and on its way to beat China to top the population chart, the need for sex education is urgent and yet remains unacted upon.

However, in the day and age of the Internet, social media, and unlimited access to information people, especially adolescents are getting information about issues related to sex and sexuality. The lack of comprehensive sex education curriculum or public awareness program has affected the population in various aspects and especially the ones who don’t have any other legitimate resources to fall back on to know about sex and sexuality like the slum dwellers. There exists an overarching need for a concerted policy-driven initiative that aims to provide the basic information related to sexual relationships, consensual and non-consensual sexual experiences, safe sex practices and the paradigms of sexual violence for people to make healthy and informed sexual choices.

The paper seeks to explore the absence of sex education in urban slums. The lack of sex education in India violates the human rights of the Indian population. The paper attempts to assess the various reasons that contribute to a lack of awareness about sex and sexuality-related issues among slum dwellers in India. The research focuses on understanding the multifaceted consequences and challenges that urban slum dwellers face due to lack of sex education. In an attempt to reinforce the importance of sex education the paper also put forwards suggestive measures that can be adopted for improving the dilapidated situation of sexuality awareness in India.

Avantika Thareja
Lady Irwin College, University of Delhi, India

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[2] Kanwar, S. (2019, May). How the PM’s Affordable Housing Scheme Went From Promising to Dysfunctional. The Wire.
https://thewire.in/urban/housing-urban-policy-scheme

[3] Ranade, S. (2019, June 12). Indian elites holding back wealth tied in slums. And here’s what Modi govt can do. The Print. 
https://theprint.in/opinion/indian-elites-holding-back-wealthtied-in-slums-and-heres-what-modi-govt-can-do/248824/

[4] Rashid, A. (2020, October 9). As they wait for a delayed PMAY subsidy, thousands of beneficiaries are forced to live in shanties or half-finished houses. The Indian Express
https://indianexpress.com/article/india/as-they-wait-for-delayed-pmay-subsidy-thousands-ofbeneficiaries-forced-to-live-in-shanties-or-half-finished-houses-6718581/

[5] When does a slum stop being a slum? (2018). India Development Review.
https://idronline.org/when-does-a-slum-stop-being-a-slum/
Thareja A. (2020). Urban Slums: An Economic Asset Waiting to be Discovered. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law1(1), 394.
http://ijpsl.in/wp-content/uploads/2021/09/Urban-Slums-An-Economic-Asset-Waiting-to-be-Discovered_Avantika-Thareja.pdf

Menstruation in Incarceration. 

Muskan Sumbaly
Volume 1, Issue 1
29th September 2020
Page No.: 399-406

That sex is a taboo topic in India is no breaking news. Talking about sex or sexuality can earn glances and frowns even in well-educated, liberal, urban circles. With India being the second most populated country in the world and on its way to beat China to top the population chart, the need for sex education is urgent and yet remains unacted upon.

However, in the day and age of the Internet, social media, and unlimited access to information people, especially adolescents are getting information about issues related to sex and sexuality. The lack of comprehensive sex education curriculum or public awareness program has affected the population in various aspects and especially the ones who don’t have any other legitimate resources to fall back on to know about sex and sexuality like the slum dwellers. There exists an overarching need for a concerted policy-driven initiative that aims to provide the basic information related to sexual relationships, consensual and non-consensual sexual experiences, safe sex practices and the paradigms of sexual violence for people to make healthy and informed sexual choices.

The paper seeks to explore the absence of sex education in urban slums. The lack of sex education in India violates the human rights of the Indian population. The paper attempts to assess the various reasons that contribute to a lack of awareness about sex and sexuality-related issues among slum dwellers in India. The research focuses on understanding the multifaceted consequences and challenges that urban slum dwellers face due to lack of sex education. In an attempt to reinforce the importance of sex education the paper also put forwards suggestive measures that can be adopted for improving the dilapidated situation of sexuality awareness in India.

Muskan Sumbaly
English Literature Graduate, Sri Guru Tegh Bahadur Khalsa College, University of Delhi

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[2] GARPH Publication. (2012). RIGHTS OF WOMEN PRISONERS IN INDIA: AN EVALUATION. Www.Garph.Co.Uk. 
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[3] Menstrual Hygiene among Prison Women in Kathmandu. (2014). 
https://www.ijhsr.org/IJHSR_Vol.4_Issue.10_Oct2014/27.pdf 

[4] Prisoners’ Educational Reforms in India: An Institutionalised Insufficiency. (2020). Social and Political Research Foundation. 
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[5] WOMEN IN PRISONS INDIA. (2018).
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http://www.ijrar.org/papers/IJRAR1AXP008.pdf
Sumbaly M. (2020). Menstruation in Incarceration. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law1(1), 389.
http://ijpsl.in/wp-content/uploads/2021/09/Menstruation-in-Incarceration_Muskan-Sumbaly.pdf

The Need for a National Food-Aid Program in India.

Meera Nazer
Volume 1, Issue 1
29th September 2020
Page No.: 407-413

In the light of the Nobel Peace Prize being awarded to the World Food Programme, the author seeks to clarify the void created by a lack of a food-aid program to ensure an increase in the food availability index and thereby food security of the country. This paper has taken into account the supply wise data used to compute consumption in India and talks about the need to publish and use consumption side data to analyse food availability indices. Finally, the need for more paternalistic interventions by the government and other stakeholders than reducing government intervention as was suggested in the Economic Survey, 2019-2020 is the essence of this paper. 

Meera Nazer
Erasmus Scholar, M.A in Economics, LLM in Economic Analysis of Public and International Law, LLM in Markets, Corporations and Regulators

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[2] Bansal, V. (2020, August 24). More evidence of India’s food insecurity. The Hindu. 
https://www.thehindu.com/opinion/lead/more-evidence-of-indias-foodinsecurity/article32424037.ece

[3] D. (n.d.). Every system is perfectly designed to get the results it gets. The W. Edwards Deming Institute. Retrieved October 13, 2020, from 
https://deming.org/quotes/10141/

[4] ET Bureau. (2019, November 16). Consumer spend survey won’t be released: Ministry. The Economic Times. 
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[5] Feeding the world. (2018). FAO. 
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[6] India | World Food Programme. (2020, August 26). United Nations World Food Programme. 
https://www.wfp.org/countries/india

[7] Hunger Map 2020. (2020). United Nations World Food Programme. 
https://docs.wfp.org/api/documents/WFP0000118395/download/?_ga=2.147868532.2108182584.1602405690-951033816.1602405690

[8] International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law Volume 1, Issue 1 413 Kurmanath, K. V. (2020, September 28). Helping the young develop a taste for millets. @businessline. 
https://www.thehindubusinessline.com/economy/agri-business/helping-theyoung-develop-a-taste-for-millets/article32718013.ece

[9] Ministry of Finance, Government of India. (2020, January). Economic Survey 2019-2020 Volume I. India Budget.
https://www.indiabudget.gov.in/economicsurvey/doc/echapter.pdf

[10] Sustainable Development Solutions Network (SDSN). (2017, July 6). 2.1 By 2030 end hunger and ensure access by all people, in particular the poor and people in vulnerable situations including infants, to safe, nutritious and sufficient food all year round – Indicators and a Monitoring Framework. 
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Nazer M. (2020). The Need for a National Food-Aid Program in India. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law1(1), 407.
http://ijpsl.in/wp-content/uploads/2021/09/The-Need-for-a-National-Food-aid-Program-in-India_Meera-Nazer.pdf

Colonialism, Imperialism and White Supremacy. 

Hema Georgina Biswas
Volume 1, Issue 1
29th September 2020
Page No.: 414-423

The nexus between colonialism, imperialism, and white supremacy is parasitic and eschews abrogation of thought or law. With historical evidence of an intimate, interdependent and intermediate relationship between these beliefs, the West has caused rampant destruction and formation to the now “third-world” countries. This research exposes the impunity of Western intervention with an emphasis on historical propaganda through communication channels and media’s role in disseminating it to the masses. By acknowledging the corrupt manifestation of these ideologies in contemporary American society, this research aims to interrogate the capitalist ethic of a “democratic first-world” order that justifies hate and war crimes in domestic and foreign soil. 

Hema Georgina Biswas

English Hons graduate, Jesus & Mary College, University of Delhi

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[2] Cathey, L. (2020, July 9). Trump declares US in “culture war,” calls flying Confederate
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[3] Choi, S.-W., & James, P. (2016). Why Does the United States Intervene Abroad?
Democracy, Human Rights Violations, and Terrorism. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 60(5), 899–926. 

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[4] Chomsky, N. (2002). Media Control, Second Edition: The Spectacular Achievements of Propaganda (Open Media Series) (2nd ed.). Seven Stories Press.

[5] Chrisman, R. (1983). The Role of Mass Media in U.S. Imperialism. The Black Scholar,
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[7] El-Geressi, B. Y. (2019, August 16). Egypt Wants its Treasures Back. Majalla.

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[8] G. Jones, S., Doxsee, C., & Harrington, N. (2020, June 17). The Escalating Terrorism
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[9] Gerbner, G. (1988). Symbolic Functions of Violence and Terror. Emerson College.
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[11] Lasswell, H. D. (1927). The Theory of Political Propaganda. American Political Science Review, 3, 627–631. 

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[13] Margaret, (2017, August 29). Colonialism (Stanford Encyclopaedia of Philosophy). Stanford Encyclopaedia of Philosophy. 

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Strategy Magazine. 

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[16] Seigal, I. (2017). The Economic, Health, and Psychological Effects of the IsraeliPalestinian Conflict. Syracuse University.

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[17] Smith, A (2012). Indigeneity, Settler Colonialism, White Supremacy.Racial Formation in
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[18] Stevenson, R. L. (1992). Defining International Communication as a Field. Journalism
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[19] Tahhan, Z. (2018, November 2). More than a century on: The Balfour Declaration explained. Middle East News | Al Jazeera. 

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[20] Vincent, R. C. (2006, January 1). (PDF) Global Communication, and Propaganda. ResearchGate; unknown.

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Biswas H. G. (2020). Colonialism, Imperialism and White Supremacy. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law1(1), 414.
http://ijpsl.in/wp-content/uploads/2021/09/Colonialism-Imperialism-White-Supremacy_Hema-Georgina-Biswas.pdf