The Ramifications of Covid-19 on the Mental Health of the Indian Elderly

Vatsla Srivastava and Bhavneesh Kaur
Volume I, Issue IV
20th May 2021
Page No.: 1839-1870

At a time when an average of about 17.13 million older adults in India is suffering from mental health problems. The lack of awareness clubbed with the stigma around mental health has made it a taboo topic of discussion in the complex Indian society. The ongoing pandemic has revealed its crippling after-effects on the emotional well being of the already vulnerable population of senior citizens of India. This paper, ‘The Ramifications of the Covid-19 pandemic on the Mental Health of the Indian Elderly’, aims to study the existing literature on the effect of Coronavirus Disease (Covid-19) on the mental health of India’s ageing population through different research methodologies such as a Political, Economic, Social, Technological, Environmental and Legal (PESTLE) Analysis and a Critique. Efforts have been made by the researchers to bridge the existing literature gap on this issue as there is a substantial lack of India specific empirical data and assessment on the same. Critique of the immediate policy actions undertaken by the government during the lockdown has also been done, revealing the need for a large-scale critical overhaul in the existing mental healthcare infrastructure of India. The paper also provides some future policy recommendations that may be adopted as best practices by the state.

Vatsla Srivastava 
B.A. Hons. History, Maitreyi College, University of Delhi, India

Bhavneesh Kaur
B.Com Programme, Sri Guru Tegh Bahadur Khalsa, University of Delhi, India


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Sood, S. (2020, August 6). Mental Healthcare Act: A Legislation For The People. Food, Drugs, Healthcare, Life Sciences – India.  

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Verma, A., & Fernandes, T. (2020, December 10). Public Mental Health in India Is an Issue of Rights and Accessibility. The Wire Science. 

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Srivastava V. & Kaur B. (2021). The Ramifications of Covid-19 on the Mental Health of the Indian Elderly. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law, 1(4), 1839-1870.

Lack of Sex Education in India and its Growing Importance in the Digital Era

Palak Chakraborty and Avantika Mishra
Volume I, Issue IV
20th May 2021
Page No.: 1871-1888

Sex education plays a critical role in developing an individual’s personality and shapes them to become the person they are. It helps them make better decisions adopting a rational frame of mind instead of relying on their impulse. Lack of sex education and healthy discussion around sexual activities is one of India’s main concerns that we are still failing to take adequate actions for. An advanced sex education program would bring about various positive changes and directly result in a decrease in the number of sexual assault cases. This paper analyses how various factors in India have shaped its almost non-existent sex education program. It also focuses on how the digital era brings an increasing need to make the youth aware of their activities online. The paper uses PESTLE analysis to comprehend the political, social, technological, and legal aspects affecting the various subjects related to the study. It discusses India’s socio-cultural beliefs and how it has shaped the sex education curriculum within the country. Many political factors and players also come into the scenario when implementing policies related to sex education. A vast majority of political leaders are still not entirely convinced by the idea of providing such information through the formal education system. On the other hand, digital media is constantly on the rise, and we cannot neglect its popularity amongst the youth of this generation. Hence, we must focus on making it safe and comfortable for all its users. The paper also discusses the legal repercussions a person might face upon indulging in unethical and non-consensual sexual activity, primarily focusing on the digital space.

Palak Chakraborty
B.A. Hons. Economics, Maitreyi College, University of Delhi, India

Avantika Mishra
BMM, Thakur College of Science and Commerce, Mumbai, India

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Krishna, S. (2019, December 31). Sexting: The Technological Evolution of the Sexual Revolution. Psychiatric Times.

O’Flaherty, A. (2021, February 8). Surge in teens seeking online help over sexting, cyberbullying during COVID lockdown. ABC News.

Apte, K. (2019, June 27). Sexual health largely neglected, reproductive health not a priority in policy discourse. YourStory.Com.

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Chakraborty P. & Mishra A. (2021). Lack of Sex Education in India and its Growing Importance in the Digital Era. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law, 1(4), 1871-1888.

Asianization of the World

Chitra Anand and Nitika Bansal
Volume I, Issue IV
20th May 2021
Page No.: 1912-1934

The legacy of 19th century Europeanization and 20th century Americanization is that the world has been shaped according to the west. In the 21st century, Asianization is emerging as Asian consciousness and identity have come to life. Western nations are getting impressed with Asian nations’ economic and political gravity. This paper explores the rise of Asian countries concerning cultural, economic, technological, social and psychological regards through the descriptive methodology and qualitative and quantitative data. Further, an attempt to study the comparison between the four different Asian countries namely, China, India, Japan, South Korea; in different aspects of their influence on the world has been made. The paper analyses the potential of these countries in reforming the world and how the world perceived this change. Although the world acknowledges and celebrates this rise of Asian nations, racism and stereotypes about Asians are still prevalent in this world. But getting Asianized doesn’t mean losing global identity, it is like adding more colour to an already beautiful painting.

Chitra Anand
B.A. Hons. Psychology, Zakir Husain College, University of Delhi, India

Nitika Bansal
B.A.Hons. Economics, Sri Guru Tegh Bahadur Khalsa College, University of Delhi, India

Allchin, F. R. (2021, March 17). India | History, Map, Population, Economy, & Facts. Encyclopedia Britannica.

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Green City: A Case-Study of Chennai

Harshitha Satish and Ksheeraja Satish
Volume I, Issue IV
20th May 2021
Page No.: 1957-1974

The most compelling issue of the 21st century, in light of the climate crisis and the Sustainable Development Goals of 2030 is the challenge of optimal growth in urban areas that strikes a balance between environmental degradation and economic development. Rapid urbanisation calls for engineers, architects and planners to look for sustainable urban living. Chennai, belonging to the state of Tamil Nadu is a city in the south-eastern region of India, which has undergone rapid expansion and economic growth since the economic liberalisation of the 1990s. As a consequence, the city has witnessed the loss of essential green infrastructure leading to loss of biodiversity and ecology. Nevertheless, to address the growing loss of environment in the city, Governments at the Centre, State and local levels resorted to schemes, policies and programmes to restore and preserve the environment. Against this backdrop, this paper seeks to analyse the transition and progression of Chennai to a greener city by looking at sustainable projects adopted by both private and public entities. The paper seeks to throw light on the responsiveness of the city with respect to the initiation and implementation of sustainable programmes. To achieve the objectives of the research, a qualitative study of the green spaces in Chennai was undertaken in the following aspects – Green and Blue oxygen-producing belts, urban forests, green buildings, vertical and roof gardens, street network, public transport and other eco-friendly practices. The paper successfully brings out the various perspectives that make Chennai a ‘Green City’.

Harshitha Satish
Economics, Stella Maris College (Autonomous), Chennai, India


Ksheeraja Satish
Economics, Stella Maris College (Autonomous), Chennai, India

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Baraasu, R. (2020, March 10). Breathe easy, Corpn’s mini Miyawaki jungles tocome up in every zone soon. DT Next. Retrieved March 24, 2021, from

Bhalla, G. (2020, December 19). Chennai To Develop 1,000 Miyawaki Forests That’ll Make The City Cooler And Improve Green Cover. India Times. Retrieved March 24, 2021, from

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Kumar, K. K. S., Anneboina, L. R., Pattanayak, A., Balasubramanian, A., Sheshadri, S., Nath, M., & Sharan, A. (2017). State of Environment Report for Tamil Nadu. Government of Tamil Nadu, 198.

Kumar, P. (2017, April 24). Chennai: Concrete adorns city parks, takes sheen off green cover. The Times of India.

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Natarajan, A. (2019, September 14). Where and how can you ride a ‘smart bike’ in Chennai? Citizen Matters.

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Ramakrishnan, T. (2018, October 22). Madhavaram gets a new lung space. The Hindu.

Ramanathan, S. (2020, July 22). A garden on every roof: Help the Patchai Madi project turn Chennai into India’s urban farming capital. Citizen Matters.

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Sukumar, V. (2019). Sustainability needs a people-centric approach; is smart city Chennai geared to that? Citizen Matters.

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Satish H. & Satish K. (2021). Green City: A Case-Study of Chennai. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law 1(4), 1957-1974.

Deploying Artificial Intelligence for Circular Economy and its Link with Sustainable Development Goals

Abhiraj Singh Rathore and Paarul Malawalia
Volume I, Issue IV
20th May 2021
Page No.: 1975-2003

This paper explores three alternative concepts- Circular economy (CE), Sustainable development, and Artificial intelligence (AI) and outlines some of the key features that each one poses. In addition to that, the focus will be on the link between the three concepts and how each one of them facilitates the other. Transforming linear business models to circular economies globally is more important than ever. This is to sustain the rate of production and consumption to meet the ever-increasing consumer demand that is overloading the environment and society (here comes the concept of sustainable development). Adopting CE practices is an initial step towards achieving a sizable number of SDG targets. There is a clear correlation between the targets of SDG 6 (Clean Water and Sanitation), SDG 7 (Affordable and Clean Energy), SDG 8 (Decent Work and Economic Growth), SDG 12 (Responsible Consumption and Production), and SDG 15 (Life on Land). In this context, Digital technologies are seen as the driving force for attaining the goal. Further, the paper explores the potentials of Artificial intelligence in the transition to a circular economy. It includes machine learning, deep learning which further have algorithms like classification algorithms (SVMs, neural networks), clustering, computer vision, object detection, NLP, etc. This paper offers an insight into the economic, social, technological, and environmental factors through an in-depth pestle analysis.

Abhiraj Singh Rathore
B.Tech, Computer Science, Delhi Technological University, India 


Paarul Malawalia
B.A Hons, Political Science, Kamala Nehru College, University of Delhi, India

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Contributor, P. (2020, December 10). PESTLE Analysis of Artificial Intelligence: The 6 Factors that Affect AI. PESTLE Analysis.

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Kalmykova, Y., Sadagopan, M., & Rosado, L. (2018). Circular economy – From review of theories and practices to development of implementation tools. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 135, 190–201.

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youmatter. (2020, February 21). Circular Economy – Definition, Principles, Benefits and Barriers.

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Anggraeni, K. (2018, February 13). The Relevance of Circular Economy Practices to the Sustainable Development Goals. Wiley Online Library.

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Wang, I. (2018, October 26). How AI can help us clean up our land, air, and water. Recode.

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Rathore A.S. & Malawalia P. (2021). Deploying Artificial Intelligence for Circular Economy and its Link with Sustainable Development Goals. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law 1(4), 1975-2003.

“Lockdown and Intimate Terrorism”: The Role of COVID-19 as a Facilitator of an Increase in Domestic Violence in India

Annie Anand
Volume I, Issue IV
20th May 2021
Page No.: 2004-2048

This research focuses on looking at the factors responsible for an increase in domestic violence during a pandemic emergency with close reference to the COVID-19 lockdown situation in India. The value of this research lies in understanding the key reasons that are accountable for domestic abuse on women during a lockdown and subsequently suggest policy solutions for dealing with this social problem. The research approach adopted is a combined qualitative methodology of Qualitative Content Analysis and Narrative Analysis on a myriad of secondary data collected from online sources. The key findings from the research provide evidence that socioeconomic factors such as job loss & increase in stress, cultural patriarchal set-up and associated toxic masculinity of men in Indian households and victim-blaming are responsible for increasing the problem of domestic abuse. The dissertation concludes that the measures being adopted currently by India are rather inefficient and require a multi-disciplinary framework of stakeholders to solve the domestic violence situation in the country. Finally, the dissertation recommends changes in key policies around domestic abuse combined with community awareness and better resource allocation for a brighter future for the women of India

Annie Anand
MSc. in Social Policy and Social Research from University College London, United Kingdom

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Inflationary Trends in India (1969-2019)

Sanya Saxena
Volume I, Issue IV
20th May 2021
Page No.: 2049-2072

Exploring inflationary fluctuations in India across the past five decades and determining what factors contributed to extremely high and low rates. Indian scenario has experienced vast differences with significant twists given the pre-reform period (also, post-independence period) and the post-reform period. The paper analyzes the measures taken by the government; developing fiscal and monetary tools in the face of such fluctuations within this time frame i.e. 1969-2019. Additionally, the paper observes the impact of inflation across different sectors of people. And finally, the paper aims to provide solutions to remedy these volatile inflationary fluctuations; for a developing country like India.

Sanya Saxena
B.A. Hons. Economics, Kirori Mal College, University of Delhi, India

A.N. (2018, September 11). Global financial crisis: Lessons for India from the 2008 crisis and beyond. Business Standard.,into%20double%2Ddigits%20beyond%202010.

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Saxena S. (2021). Inflationary Trends in India. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law 1(4), 2049-2072.

Impact of Exchange Rate, Interest Rate and Inflation on Indian Stock Market

Mahima Jejani and Tushar Jejani
Volume I, Issue IV
20th May 2021
Page No.: 2073-2089

This paper will analyse the impacts of macroeconomic variables such as foreign exchange rates (Dollar, Euro, Pound), Inflation rate and the Interest rate on India stock Indices such as Sensex and Nifty 50. Here we have considered data of the last 29 years from 1991-2019 from various sources. The focus will be on finding the relationship between macroeconomic variables such as foreign exchange rates, inflation rates, and interest rates on India Stock Indices through coefficient, regression and ANOVA analysis.

Mahima Jejani
B.A. Hons. Economics, Kirori Mal College, University of Delhi, India

Tushar Jejani

BMS, Shaheed Sukhdev College of Business Studies, University of Delhi, India

AP. (2018). How inflation impacts Sensex, Nifty. Financial Express, 1.

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Jejani M. & Jejani T. (2021). Impact of Exchange Rate, Interest Rate and Inflation on Indian Stock Market. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law 1(4), 2073-2089.

Reflections on the Commons

Ateen Das
Volume I, Issue IV
20th May 2021
Page No.: 2101-2107

There exists a lot of bias against the very idea of Common Property Resource (CPR) in the policy world. It is looked at as an unviable, utopian, and fantastical notion incapable of ever working out in the ‘real’ world. However, there are several empirical instances of this form of resource management doing very well in several places around the world. This paper attempts to reflect on the very essence of what it means for a resource to be ‘common property’, as well as discusses the criticism made against, and myths concocted around it.

Ateen Das
B.A. Hons. Economics, Kirori Mal College, University of Delhi, India

Bromley, D. W. (1992). The commons, common property, and environmental policy. Environmental and Resource Economics, 1–17.

McKean, M. M. (1992). Success on the Commons: A Comparative Examination of Institutions for Common Property Resource Management. Journal of Theoretical Politics, 247–281.

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Das A. (2021). Reflections on the Commons. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law 1(4), 2101-2107.

Outlook of Demand in India

Sanya Saxena
Volume I, Issue IV
20th May 2021
Page No.: 2108-2113

Indian economy faced its gloomy days; depleting growth, crushed consumption demand, and low investment levels in 2019. Mostly as a result of the implementation of new policies (like demonetization), the unemployment rates grew and the major sectors like pharmaceuticals, automobile, etc. were badly hit. The framers faced troubles due to hikes in their costs of production which further pushed the prices up and increased the burden on the ultimate consumers. This slowdown was encouraged further by the outbreak of the coronavirus in December of 2019. Thus, following 2020, it contributed to the squashing of the economy with human miseries (illnesses and deaths), business uncertainties, employee layoffs, lower dividends, migrant crisis, and cash crunch in the entire nation. The government’s approach to managing this condition via introducing economic packages and announcing national lockdown is studied. And finally, we inquire; what the big picture is?

Sanya Saxena
B.A. Hons. Economics, Kirori Mal College, University of Delhi, India

Saxena S. (2021). Outlook of Demand in India. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law 1(4), 2108-2113.

Adolescent Friendly Health Clinics in India— Are They Friendly Enough?

Neha Kapoor
Volume I, Issue IV
20th May 2021
Page No.: 2114-2134

Almost 60% of premature deaths among adults are traced back to an individual’s lifestyle during their adolescence. A rapid phase of development coupled with sexual maturity, adolescence requires special attention by healthcare providers and communities. Access to Sexual and Reproductive Health (SRH) services by adolescents is met with barriers of awareness, acceptability and distance in India and globally. Recognising this challenge, the Government of India, in 2014, launched the Rashtriya Kishor Swasthaya Karyakram (RKSK) program to ensure the holistic development of adolescents. Adolescent Friendly Health Clinics (AFHCs) were launched as a part of the RKSK program to provide counselling and curative services to adolescents on SRH issues among others and bridge the problem of accessing SRH services. This paper aims to evaluate if and to what extent AFHCs’ claim to be ‘friendly’ is accurate. Based on the review of the existing literature, a list of indicators is prepared to further evaluate and analyse these AFHCs. The paper finds that healthcare providers are not purpose-trained to adequately deal with adolescent SRH needs. Further, privacy is a major concern for adolescents as their consultations are not conducted in fully private areas. It is also seen that adolescents do not have enough knowledge about their own SRH needs, leading to not having enough or any conversations about the same. The paper argues that adequate training for healthcare providers, including soft skills and reiterating the importance of privacy would make AFHCs more accessible to adolescents. Thus, increasing the utilisation of the same along with destigmatisation of conversations surrounding SRH needs. 

Neha Kapoor
B.A. Hons. Sociology, Lady Shri Ram College for Women, University of Delhi

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Dixit, G. T., Jain, S., Mansuri, F., & Jakasania, A. (2017). Adolescent friendly health services: where are we actually standing? International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health, 4(3), 820.

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Kumar, T., Pal, P., & Kaur, P. (2017). Health seeking behaviour and health awareness among rural and urban adolescents in Dehradun District, Uttarakhand, India. International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health, 29(2), 1.

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Mahalakshmy, T., Premarajan, K. C., Soundappan, K., Rajarethinam, K., Krishnamoorthy, Y., Rajalatchumi, A., Mathavaswami, V., Chandar, D., Chinnakali, P., & Dongre, A. R. (2018). A Mixed Methods Evaluation of Adolescent Friendly Health Clinic Under National Adolescent Health Program, Puducherry, India. The Indian Journal of Pediatrics, 86(2), 132–139.

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Nair, M. K. C., Leena, M. L., George, B., Thankachi, Y., & Russell, P. S. S. (2013). ARSH 5: Reproductive Health Needs Assessment of Adolescents and Young People (15–24 y): A Qualitative Study on ‘Perceptions of Community Stakeholders.’ The Indian Journal of Pediatrics, 80(S2), 214–221.

Nath, A., & Garg, S. (2008). Adolescent friendly health services in India: A need of the hour. Indian Journal of Medical Sciences, 62(11), 465.

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Kapoor N. (2021). Adolescent Friendly Health Clinics in India- Are They Friendly Enough?. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law 1(4), 2114-2134.

Tracing the Root Sources behind the Negative Narratives on Refugees with a Case Study on the Rohingya Crisis

Shravi Gupta and Vanshita Suryavanshi
Volume I, Issue IV
16th June 2021
Page No.: 2221-2249

The barriers and boundaries are intensifying all across the world. Presently, a major agenda in front of humanity demanding substantial efforts on the global stage is the refugee crisis. More and more people are being forcefully displaced from their homes; they are fleeing persecution, war, violence, and human rights abuses- crossing international borders to seek safety somewhere else. Moreover, there are powerful voices all across the globe that are adamant to disparage refugees. They have been denigrated as a ‘threat to security, ‘illegal’, and faced resentment and received antipathy. This paper aims to trace the root sources backing the adverse disposition of refugees with a thorough analysis of a case study on the Rohingya refugees. Furthermore, the study explores the social and psychological impacts of negative narratives on refugees and host citizens. Host citizens are unable to empathize with refugees and countries are reluctant to provide them with aid which is leading to poor living conditions for the refugee population. The study moves forward to scrutinize how adverse narratives lead to problems in fundraising and lobbying. With this research, recommendations are provided to counter unfavourable dispositions on refugees and potentially resolve the refugee crisis itself.

Shravi Gupta
B.A. Political Science, Kalindi College, University of Delhi, India


Vanshita Suryavanshi
B.A. Political Science, Kamala Nehru College, University of Delhi, India


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Edroos. F. (2017, September 13). ARSA: Who are the Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army?. Al Jazeera.

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Goel. V. & Rahman. S.A. (2019, June 14). When Rohingya Refugees Fled to India, Hate on Facebook Followed.

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Hainmueller. J. & Hopkins. D.j. (2014, May 21). Public Attitudes Towards Immigration.

Heisbourg. F. (2015, November 23). The Strategic Implications of the Syrian Refugee Crisis.

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Jacobs. J. (2018, September 24). Does online hate drive anti-migrant violence?. Financial Times.

Kapoor. C. (2020, August 24). Hate campaign haunts Rohingya refugees in India.

Kinseth. A.K. (2019, January 29). India’s Rohingya shame.


Meixler. E. (2018, January 23). James Mattis Says Myanmar’s Rohingya Crisis is Even Worse Than it Looks in the Media. Time.

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Shishir. Q. (2019, September 18). In Bangladesh, Rohingya refugees face risk from a xenophobic media onslaught.

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Gupta S. & Suryavanshi V. (2021). Tracing the Root Sources behind the Negative Narratives on Refugees with a case Study on the Rohingya Crisis. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law 1(4), 2221-2247.

Corruption and Economic Growth: A Correlation Study for India

Nirikta Mukherjee and Rajsi Sah
Volume I, Issue IV
17th June 2021
Page No.: 2250-2265

Economic growth is an essential phenomenon for a nation as the economic growth level determines the standard of living of the people of that country and is considered a fair proxy for the human development indicators. One of the ideologies known to affect the degree of economic growth in a nation is corruption. The paper analyses the link between corruption and economic growth and reviews academic literature focusing on different effects of corruption on economic performance. Following this, we have taken India’s example as a case study. To support the arguments regarding the negative impact of corruption on economic growth, we have conducted empirical research by implementing a correlation study. We have employed the statistics of the Corruption Perception Index (CPI), Gross Domestic Product (GDP), GDP Growth Rate and Foreign Direct Investments (FDI) for the investigation. Hence, the paper is an attempt to examine the empirical relation between corruption and economic growth.

Nirikta Mukherjee
B.A. Hons. Economics, Shri Ram College of Commerce, University of Delhi, India

Rajsi Sah
B.A. Hons. Economics, Shri Ram College of Commerce, University of Delhi, India

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Mukherjee N. & Sah R. (2021). Corruption and Economic Growth: A Correlation Study for India. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law 1(4), 2248-2263.

Delving into India's Abysmal Menstrual Health Management

Avika Singh and Pratishtha Budhiraja
Volume I, Issue IV
24th June 2021
Page No.: 2301-2321

Given the fact that the menstrual cycle is a recurring occurrence for the majority of the reproductive ages, menstrual hygiene is of utmost importance as it is a basic human right of all menstruating individuals. However, globally and specifically in India, the stigma that clouds the minds of society, complemented by a myriad of other factors, hinders achieving adequate menstrual hygiene management. Through this paper, the authors attempt to provide an in-depth analysis of the different obstructions in the menstrual hygiene system in the country by delving into the multifaceted reasons for the same. Further, the paper seeks to bring into cognizance the maligning consequences of the most conventionally used commercial sanitary products: disposable sanitary napkins. Consequently, information on the different alternatives to sanitary napkins such as menstrual cups and cotton pads is disseminated. Adding on to that, the paper additionally aims to highlight the shortcomings of the existing institutional framework and policies regarding menstrual health management; providing a workable course of actions that can be incorporated into the existing policies. The paper deduces that there is a pressing need for a multidimensional and holistic approach to tackle the problem of period poverty.

Avika Singh
B.A. Hons. Political Science, Lady Shri Ram College for Women, University of Delhi, India

Pratishtha Budhiraja
B.Sc. Hons. Computer Science, Keshav Mahavidyalaya College, University of Delhi, India


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Kapoor, M. (2020, October 6). “Period” talk: Are synthetic sanitary pads used during menstruation a health, environmental hazard? Find out. DNA India.

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Ram, U., Pradhan, M., Patel, S., & Ram, F. (2020). Factors Associated with Disposable Menstrual Absorbent Use Among Young Women in India. International Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, 46.

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Sivakami, M., Maria van Eijk, A., & Thakur, H., Kakade, N., Patil, C., Shinde, S., Surani, N., Bauman, A., Zulaika, G., Kabir, Y., Dobhal, A., Singh, P., Tahiliani, B., Mason, L., Alexander, K. T., Thakkar, M. B., Laserson, K. F., & Phillips-Howard, P. A. (2019). Effect of menstruation on girls and their schooling, and facilitators of menstrual hygiene management in schools: surveys in government schools in three states in India, 2015. Journal of global health, 9(1), 010408.

Van Eijk, A. M., Zulaika, G., Lenchner, M., Mason, L., Sivakami, M., Nyothach, E., … & Phillips-Howard, P. A. (2019). Menstrual cup use, leakage, acceptability, safety, and availability: a systematic review and meta-analysis. The Lancet Public Health, 4(8), e376-e393

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Urbanization and Transmission of Covid-19 with a Focus on Developing Countries: India as a Case Study

Sushmitta Renganathan and Abhivyakti Mishra
Volume I, Issue IV
29th July 2021
Page No.: 2378-2421

Around the world, global cities played an important role in the transmission of the COVID-19 disease at its early stages. But the impact of the spread was much severely felt by the cities of the developing world, than by those in the developed countries. The unique aspects attributed to rapid urbanization and high population growth in the developing countries, make the cities of this part of the world distinct from those of the developed countries. Therefore the COVID-19 protocols propagated by the high-income countries not only were a challenge to implement in these cities but were also effective only for a segment of the society. In this paper, we explore the distinct features of cities in the developing world against the challenges posed by the COVID-19 pandemic and the importance of context-based solutions to help the cities of developing countries successfully handle a pandemic like the COVID-19.

Sushmitta Renganathan
Masters of Regional Planning Program, Cornell University, New York, United States of America

Abhivyakti Mishra
B.A. Hons. Economics, Daulat Ram College, University of Delhi, India


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Renganathan S. & Mishra A. (2021). Urbanization and Transmission of Covid-19 with a Focus on Developing Countries: India as a Case Study. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law 1(4), 2378-4211.

Cow Protection sans Minority Welfare: Why the Beef Ban only Succeeds Where it Shouldn't

Sreekara Adwaith and Jishnu Verma
Volume I, Issue IV
29th July 2021
Page No.: 2422-2431

The Beef Ban laws have acted as a vehicle of marginalisation for Indian minorities. The paper argues against the core argument – the utility of the Beef Ban for animal welfare – that is made by proponents of the law. The paper uses PESTLE analysis to posit that the only way to improve the well-being of cows is to ameliorate the material reality of the workers in the livestock industry. Animal welfare can help farmers improve the quality of their end product, access welfare-conscious western markets, and reduce medication costs. Methods like stunning and shielding can provide animals with a painless death and can also prove to be cost-effective. However, the first step towards meaningful and inclusive animal welfare policies is the depoliticisation of the issue.

Sreekara Adwaith
Bachelor’s in History and Politics, KREA University, Sricity, Andhra Pradesh, India

Jishnu Verma
B.Com. Hons, University of Delhi, India


Ambedkar, B. R. (1948). Untouchables: Who were they and why they became untouchables. Amrit Book Company, New Delhi.

Lall, J. M. (1948). Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. The Indian medical gazette, 83(7), 314.

Nomani, A., & Salman, M. (2016). Impact of the beef ban on economy and meat processing industry of India: A complete value chain analysis. Management Studies and Economic Systems, 2(4), 325-334.

Parikh, A., & Miller, C. (2019). Holy cow! Beef ban, political technologies, and Brahmanical supremacy in Modi’s India. ACME: An International Journal for Critical Geographies, 18(4), 835-874.

Sarkar, R., & Sarkar, A. (2016). Sacred slaughter: An analysis of historical, communal, and constitutional aspects of beef bans in India. Politics, Religion & Ideology, 17(4), 329-351.

Sinclair, M., Fryer, C., & Phillips, C. J. (2019). The benefits of improving animal welfare from the perspective of livestock stakeholders across Asia. Animals, 9(4), 123.

Singay, K. A. (2020). Social Marginalisation and Scapegoating: A Study of Mob Lynching in Pakistan and India. Pakistan Social Sciences Review, 526-536.

Staples, J. (2018). Appropriating the cow: Beef and identity politics in contemporary India.

Adwaith S. & Verma J. (2021). Cow Protection sans Minority Welfare: Why the Beef Ban only Succeeds Where it Shouldn’t. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law 1(4), 2422-4231.

How does America Perceive Abortion?: A Comprehensive Literature Review of Abortion Attitudes in the Twentieth and Twenty-First Centuries American Societies

Sanah Malik
Volume I, Issue IV
29th July 2021
Page No.: 2432-2436

Women have been forced to extreme discrimination in the past few decades because of the ‘issue’ of abortion. Czarnecki et al. (2019), have indicated that attitudes towards abortion have changed significantly in American societies and are now in favour of women’s reproductive rights, unlike popular beliefs. In addition, Hertel et al. (1974), in “Religion and Attitudes Toward Abortion: A Study of Nurses and Social Workers” hypothesize that religion is the main factor that influences decisions regarding the practice of abortion and liberal Christian denominations have more chances of approving it, as compared to their conservative counterparts. Whereas Czarnecki et al. (2019) reveal how people’s approaches towards sensitive topics like abortion have changed massively, and today people’s decisions are guided by an array of factors and religion- despite being a key variable is not the most important- both contributions circle around the common premise of abortion and had similar subjects, such as healthcare providers like nurses and welfare caseworkers. Given the 43 years difference between the studies, it is discovered that decision-making at work, especially in medical care, has evolved, and although the underlying similarity is religion, factors such as foetus’ gestational age and reasons for terminating pregnancy are the primary concerns.

Sanah Malik
HBA, University of Toronto Scarborough, Toronto, Canada


Czarnecki, D., Anspach, R. R., De Vries, R. G., Dunn, M. D., Hauschildt, K., & Harris, L. H. (2019). Conscience reconsidered: The moral work of navigating participation in abortion care on labor and delivery. Social Science & Medicine, 232, 181–189.

Hertel, B., Hendershot, G. E., & Grimm, J. W. (1974). Religion and Attitudes toward Abortion: A Study of Nurses and Social Workers. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 13(1), 23–34.

Malik S. (2021). How does America Perceive Abortion?: A Comprehensive Literature Review of Abortion Attitudes in the Twentieth and Twenty-First Centuries American Societies. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law 1(4), 2432-2436.

Role of Literacy in Ensuring a Clean and Sustainable Environment

Krithi Bajaj and Oscar Chibueze Amaechi
Volume I, Issue IV
29th July 2021
Page No.: 2437-2451

The concept of a sustainable environment, environmental education, its implications and the necessity of a clean environment has been discussed in this paper. Ecological Education imparts information about the current circumstance and future possibilities of nature. It instructs individuals to investigate every one of the issues identified with climate and take part in wise methods of saving it. It is also tied with learning the manner in which we ought to live and how we can create practical methodologies to protect the environment. It assists people with building up a comprehension of living and actual climate and how to determine testing physical aspects of the environment influencing nature. As well as considering the actual parts of the environment, it additionally underscores the need to monitor biodiversity and receive a more economical way of life and use assets in a dependable manner. The paper also talks about plastic pollution and ways to tackle it. It focuses on the rudimentary ways of reusing and recycling plastic as well as reducing the use of the same. India and Nigeria are the two countries that have been paid attention to in the paper as the situation in both of these countries is worrisome when it comes to plastic pollution. The study of the environment helps us gain imperative knowledge about the current scenario of the surroundings we live in and how we can make it better.

Krithi Bajaj
B.A. Mass Communication, Symbiosis Centre of Media and Communication, Pune, India

Oscar Chibueze Amaechi
Department of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria


Cayla R. Cook, C.R. & Halden, R.U. (2020). Ecological and health issues of plastic waste. In T.M.Letcher (Ed.), Plastic waste and recycling (pp.513-527). Academic Press.

Chopra, R.(2016). Environmental degradation in India: Causes and consequences. International Journal of Applied Environmental of Applied Environmental Sciences, 11(6), 1593-1601. Retrieved from

Choudhary, M.P. (2015). Environmental degradation: Causes, impacts and mitigation. Retrieved from

CLARO ENERGY PRIVATE LIMTED. (2018, January 9). Environment Education: 5 reasons why it is important.,wise%20ways%20of%20preserving%20it 

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Li, W.C., Tse, H.F., & Fok, L.(2016). Plastic waste in the marine environment: A review of sources, occurrence and effects. Science of the Total Environment, 566-577, 333-349. doi: 10.1016/j.resconrec.2010.03.009

Mbuligwe, S.E. (2011). Prioritizing community environmental and health needs: novel approaches and methods. In J. Nriagu (Ed.), Encyclopedia of environmental health (2nd ed., pp.372-381). Elsevier.

McMahon, M. (2021). What is environmental degradation? Retrieved from

Parker, L. (2019, July 5). A Whopping 91 Percent of Plastic Isn’t Recycled.

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Bajaj K. & Chibueze Amaechi O. (2021). Role of Literacy in Ensuring a Clean and Sustainable Environment. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law 1(4), 2437-2451.

Evolution of Start-Up Ecosystem in India

Nikki Arora
Volume I, Issue IV
29th July 2021
Page No.: 2452-2466

The Great Depression 2008 crisis led to the evolution of the startup ecosystem in India. Although, the evolution has been going on from the late 90s in a way it was mainly confined to setting up small-scale businesses. The government in the late 1900s was offering incentives and encouraging people to come up and set up any kind of business on their own which would ultimately provide employment to the lower class and give a boost to Gross Domestic Product (GDP). At the beginning of 2000, we saw the rise of the internet in developed countries and slowly taking the pace within a decade in developing countries as well. As there is a saying, every dark phase in your life extracts the best out of you; interpreting this term in terms of business- every crisis often brings disruptive ideas into the industry like Flipkart, OYO, Ola to name a few in India. Earlier, the world’s startup was mainly in the USA but now India is at number 3 in terms of the number of startups in the country. The COVID-19 pandemic accelerated the growth of startups in India, the unicorns have been rising like never before and also offering everyone regardless of their age the opportunity to start something on their own.

Nikki Arora
B.A Hons. Economics, Hansraj College, University of Delhi, India


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Donatekart by TOI. (2021, February 1). Union Budget: Govt allocates Rs 830 cr for Fund of Funds for Startups. The Times of India.

Edtech, logistics and gig-economy to drive jobs as startups step up hiring. (2021).

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Government allocates Rs 830 crore for Fund of Funds for Startups Read more at: (2021).


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Mukherjee, D. (2020, November 6). Government Schemes In India For Startups And MSME. MyHQ Digest.

Rakheja, H. (2021, April 1). As Tech Platforms Expand, India’s Gig Economy Can Provide 90 Mn Jobs, Generate $250 Bn In Volume Of Work. Inc42 Media.

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Arora N. (2021). Evolution of Start-Up Ecosystem in India. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law 1(4), 2452-2466.

Analysis of Rural-Urban Migration in India and Impact of COVID-19

Abhay Garg and Priyanshu Agarwal
Volume I, Issue IV
29th July 2021
Page No.: 2467-2493

This paper examines the Rural-Urban Migration in India and the Impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on the Migrants and the governmental stance and policies on migration during the global pandemic. A major determinant of migration is the higher expected wages offered in the Urban Sector along with better employment opportunities as depicted by the theoretical framework in Harris-Todaro Model. A Case Study of Uttarakhand State is also presented to depict the migrants’ situation in the view of this model. Further, the paper examines the trends and patterns of Migration for the Census Year 2001 and 2011 and analyses the reasons behind inter-state migration through an econometric viewpoint. The results correspond to the HarrisTodaro Model depicting an inverse relation between In-Migration Rate and Unemployment rate in contrast to positive relation with poverty rate and State’s Net Domestic Product. While there has been a significant jump in all the streams of migration except Urban to Rural from 2001 to 2011, a close analysis of the data reflects that employment is not a major factor responsible for migration in developing countries rather sociological factors also influence a substantial flow of migration.

Abhay Garg
B.A. Hons. Economics, Shri Ram College of Commerce, University of Delhi, India

Priyanshu Agarwal
B.A. Hons. Economics, Shri Ram College of Commerce, University of Delhi, India


Ajay Dandekar and Rahul Ghai (2020). Migration and Reverse Migration in the Age of Covid-19. Economic and Political Weekly Vol 9.

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Bhati, Rakesh. (2015). A study of Rural to Urban Migration in India.

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Harpreet Singh (2016). Increasing Rural to urban migration in India: A Challenge or an opportunity. International Journal of Applied Research.

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Madhu G. R. and H.R. Uma (2014). Rural to Urban Migration – Opportunities and Challenges. International Journal of Advance Research, Volume 2, Issue 6.

Mishra and Panwar (2017). Migration and Public Policy in India: Revisiting the HarrisTodaro Model. Indian Journal of Economics and Development, Vol 5 (11), 2017.

Mitra, Arup & Murayama, Mayumi. (2008). Rural to Urban Migration: A District Level Analysis for India. Institute of Developing Economies, Japan External Trade Organization (JETRO), IDE Discussion Papers. 5. 10.1108/17479894200900011.

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Sahni, Sakshi & Aulakh, Rawal. (2020). Impact of COVID 19 on Rural Migrants in India.

Sikdar and Mishra (2020). Reverse Migration during Lockdown: A Snapshot of Public Policies. National Institute of Public Finance and Policy, New Delhi.

S. Madheswaran and Jajati Keshari Panda (2010). Spatial Heterogeneity and Population Mobility in India. Institute for Social and Economic Change, Bengaluru.

S. Chandrasekhar, Ajay Sharma (2014). Urbanization and Spatial Patterns of Internal Migration in India. Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai. 

The COVID-19 Pandemic and Internal Labour Migration in India: A ‘Crisis of Mobility’ by S. Irudaya Rajan, P. Sivakumar & Aditya Srinivasan

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Garg A. & Agarwal P. (2021). Analysis of Rural-Urban Migration in India and Impact of COVID-19. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law 1(4), 2467-2493.

Behavioural Insights on Poverty and Developmental Policy

Padmini Prasad
Volume I, Issue IV
29th July 2021
Page No.: 2494-2511

Successful development interventions rely on people to behave and choose in a certain way, and insights from behavioural economics help us understand why people behave and choose as they do. This paper aims to investigate the emergence and relevance of behavioural economics in development and study the interlinkages between preferences, cultures, biases and institutions and their policies. The issues of poverty and development urge us to further study topics of savings, contracts and technology uptake, with a particular focus on human behaviour. The paper then focuses on how to design development programs that are cognizant of and informed by behavioural insights across health, education, agriculture, finance and other public services. Finally, it reviews some ways in which behavioural insights and design principles can be incorporated into existing and planned policy interventions to improve their reach and effectiveness.

Padmini Prasad
B.A. (Hons) Economics, Shri Ram College of Commerce, University of Delhi, India


Anderson C.L., Stamoulis K. (2007) Applying Behavioural Economics to International Development Policy. Studies in Development Economics and Policy.

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Berndt, Christian. (2019). Behavioral economics and development policy. University of Zurich.

Bertrand, M., S. Mullainathan, & E. Shafir. (2004). A Behavioral Economics View of Poverty. American Economic Review, 94(2). 419–23.

Brune, L., X. Gine, J. Goldberg, & D. Yang. (2011) Commitments to Save: A Field Experiment in Rural Malawi. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper No.5748.

Camerer, C., Issacharoff, S., Loewenstein, G., O’Donoghue, T. & Rabin, M. (2003). Regulation for conservatives: Behavioral economics and the case for ‘asymmetric paternalism’. University of Pennsylvania Law Review, 151. 1211-54.

Chibba, M. (2012). Behavioural Economics and International Development. Global Policy.

Datta, S. & Mullainathan, S. (2014). Behavioural Design: A New Approach to Development Policy. Review of Income and Wealth, 60(1). 7-35.

Demeritt, A., & Hoff, K. (2018). The Making of Behavioral Development Economics. Policy Research Working Paper; No. 8317. World Bank.

Duflo, E. (2005). Field Experiments in Development Economics. BREAD Policy Paper No. 012, December 2005, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Duflo, E. (2006). Poor but rational? Understanding Poverty, Oxford University Press. 367-78.

Duflo, E., M. Kremer, & J. Robinson. (2011). Nudging Farmers to Use Fertilizer: Evidence from Kenya. American Economic Review, 101(6). 2350–90.

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Haushofer, J. & E. Fehr (2014). On the psychology of poverty. Science, 344 (6186). 862-67.

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Top of Mind: How Reminders Increase Savings. NBER Working Paper No. 16205.

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Mullainathan, S. & R. H. Thale. (2000). Behavioral Economics. NBER Working Paper No. 7948.

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Vohs, K., R. F. Baumeister, B. J. Schmeichel, J. M. Twenge, N. M. Nelson, & D. M. Tice. (2008) Making Choices Impairs Subsequent Self-Control: A Limited-Resource Account of Decision Making, Self-Regulation, and Active Initiative. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 94(5). 883–98.

World Bank (2015). World Development Report 2015: Mind, Society and Behavior. The World Bank.

Prasad P. (2021). Behavioural Insights on Poverty and Development Policy. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law 1(4), 2494-2511.

International Law, State Sovereignty and Responsibility: A Non-Western Perspective

Hari Godara
Volume I, Issue IV
29th July 2021
Page No.: 2512-2534

The inception of the Westphalian state system introduced a legal framework on an international basis, but the intrinsic superiority given to developed western countries seems to be continuously contested by emerging nations fueled with the advent of multipolarity. The current balance of sovereignty and responsibility poses a complicated scenario in which developed countries are supposed to bear a burden for the sake of civilization as a whole, but developing countries appear to find this situation discriminatory. The Mekong River Basin project and the Amazon Rainforest quandary bring us to the intricate and deeply complicated area of state accountability that stems from state sovereignty in International Relations. Just as state responsibility cannot be bound by its territorial boundaries, the timeframe of any event should not bind any state to take positive initiative for any event of great contemporary significance. Just like the example of Affirmative action in Municipal law of many countries.

Hari Godara
Kurukshetra University, Haryana, India


Baldwin, S. E. (1916). The Relation of International Law to the Law of England and of the United States of America. By Cyril M. Picciotto, with an Introduction by L. Oppenheim LL.D. , New York: McBride, Nast & Co. 1915. pp. 128. American Journal of International Law, 10(1).

Basist, A., & Williams, C. (2020). Monitoring the Quantity of Water Flowing Through the Upper Mekong Basin Under Natural (Unimpeded) Conditions.

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Bratman, E. Z. (2019). Governing the Rainforest: Sustainable Development Politics in the Brazilian Amazon. Oxford University Press, USA. 

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KLABBERS, J. (1998). Clinching the Concept of Sovereignty: Wimhledon Redux. Austrian Review of International and European Law Online, 3(1).×00186

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Osborne, M. (2009). The Mekong River Under Threat. Lowy Institute Paper, 27.

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Phan L. (2019). The Sambor Dam: How China’s Breach of Customary International Law Will Affect the Future of the Mekong River Basin, The Georgetown Environmental Law Review, 32(1).

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Pillsbury, M. (2015). The Hundred-Year Marathon: China’s Secret Strategy to Replace America as the Global Superpower. Henry Holt and Co.

Robinson J.B. (2004). Squaring the Circle? Some Thoughts on the Idea of Sustainable Development, Ecological Economy, 48(4).

Stewart, M. P. R. (2020, July 30). An Analysis of Amazonian Forest Fires – Towards Data Science. Medium.

Taulbee, J. L., & Glahn, G. V. (2017). Law Among Nations: An Introduction to Public International Law (11th ed.). Routledge.

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Yoshida, Y., Lee, H. S., Trung, B. H., Tran, H. D., Lall, M. K., Kakar, K., & Xuan, T. D. (2020). Impacts of Mainstream Hydropower Dams on Fisheries and Agriculture in Lower Mekong Basin. Sustainability, 12(6), 2408. 

Zhong, X., & Wang, B. (2016). Debating the Socialist Legacy and Capitalist Globalization in China. Palgrave Macmillan.

Godara H. (2021). International Law, State Sovereignty and Responsibility: A Non-Western Perspective. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law 1(4), 2512-2534.

Conflict and Conflict Resolution Research Plan: Uncovering the Dynamics of the US-Iran Conflict

Gracy Singh
Volume I, Issue IV
29th July 2021
Page No.: 2535-2547

The US-Iran confrontation is one of the most hot-headed conflicts at present and has been quite dynamic over the course of time. The reasons for the conflict are varied and range from issues surrounding Iran’s natural resources, the bigger question of nuclear weapons, ideological differences, etc. However, the unfortunate reality showcases that both the countries, despite numerous efforts, have not been able to establish sustained diplomatic channels. Consequently, the conflict has escalated over the years. The tensions reached their peak during the tenure of the Trump administration with the employment of the “maximum pressure” doctrine, the reasoning behind which was to create uncomfortable conditions for the economically fragile Iran, in order to bring it to the negotiation table. However, the doctrine had quite the opposite effect and led to the worsening of the relations between the two countries. Therefore, making conflict resolution a far-fetched dream. The coming of the Biden administration provides hope for a better future, but this needs to be analyzed by acknowledging the impact of various other players in the bilateral relations of the two countries.

Gracy Singh
B.A. Hons. Political Science, Lady Shri Ram College for Women, University of Delhi, India


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Cooper, H. (2019, July 18). What We Know About Iran Shooting Down a U.S. Drone. The New York Times.

Dewan, A. C. (2017, February 5). How Iran-US relations plummeted in a week – CNNPolitics. CNN.

Gaouette, K. C. L. A. N. (2018, May 9). Iran deal: Trump announces withdrawal, will re-institute sanctions – CNNPolitics. CNN.

Gilsinan, K. (2019, June 27). Why Does the U.S. Protect the Strait of Hormuz? The Atlantic.

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Meredith, S. (2019, June 22). Oil tanker attacks in the Strait of Hormuz require an “international response,” US envoy to Iran says. CNBC.

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Ramkumar, A., & Iosebashvili, I. (2019, September 17). Oil’s Swings Reinforce Saudi Arabia’s Key Role in Energy Markets. WSJ.

Shear, M. D., Schmitt, E., Crowley, M., & Haberman, M. (2019, July 19). Strikes on Iran Approved by Trump, Then Abruptly Pulled Back. The New York Times.

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64 Years Later, CIA Finally Releases Details of Iranian Coup. (2017).

Singh G. (2021). Conflict and Conflict Resolution Research Plan: Uncovering the Dynamics of the US-Iran Conflict. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law 1(4), 2535-2547.

Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on Visually Impaired People with Public Media Alliance and Accessibility to Persons with Disability in India

Laiba Qamar
Volume I, Issue IV
29th July 2021
Page No.: 2548-2565

It was only last year when Prime Minister Narendra Modi laid out National Disaster Management Guidelines on Disability Inclusive Disaster Risk Reduction (DIDRR) and earlier this year in March, the Department of Empowerment of Persons with Disabilities issued comprehensive disability-inclusive guidelines to States/UTs for protection and safety of persons with Disabilities (Divyangjan) in light of COVID-19 Pandemic. The steps undertaken were upright in ensuring thorough inclusivity of persons with disabilities but sadly when it came down to the implementation of the guidelines issued earlier, both the Centre and the State machinery failed people with disabilities bringing their life to a halt. “The only thing worse than living in a world of darkness is not being able to touch it.” The visually impaired persons in India faced unique and critical challenges during the lockdown and with subsequent relaxations. The directive and guidelines of ‘social distancing’, refraining from touching the surroundings or wearing gloves came in as a two-edged sword for them. Where infected surfaces are a continuous threat, wearing gloves reduced the sense of touch and perception of people living with disabilities. For those who relied heavily on touch and tactile perception to navigate through life, the guidelines, to say the least, were not inclusive. The inclusivity towards people with disabilities has always been a challenge and the pandemic has further exacerbated it.

Laiba Qamar
B.A. Journalism and Mass Communication, Vivekanand Institute of Professional Studies, New Delhi, India


Akbar, S., Kukreti, D., Sagarika, S., Pal, J. “Temporal Patterns in COVID-19 misinformation in India.” Joyojeet Pal, University of Michigan(2020).

Chandani, Alim. “How can Deaf Indians call up Covid-19 helplines? Modi govt must take these steps immediately.” The Print, July 2, 2020.

Choudhary, Pritha Roy. “Coronavirus: Why online learning is even harder for the disabled.” Careers 360, April 20, 2020.

David, Shantanu. “Sight-impaired in India are more affected by COVID-19 pandemic: RN Mohanty.” The New Indian Express, May 7, 2020.–sight-impaired-in-india-are-more-affected-by-covid-19-pandemic-rn-mohanty-2140206.html

India Today. “Disabled students at risk of dropping out as they are unable to cope with online learning: Report.” Accessed by December 10, 2020.

India Tv Tech Desk. “Khabri podcasts app introduces COVID-19 helpline for the visually-impaired.” India TV, April 20, 2020.

L Dandona, R Dandona, M Srinivas, P Giridhar, K Vilas, M N Prasad, R K John, C A McCarty, and G N Rao. “Blindness in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh.” Invest Ophthalmol Visc Sci 42 no. 5 (April 2001): 908-916.

Mascarenhas, Anuradha. “8.8 million blind in India in 2015, says study in Lancet.” The Indian Express, August 4, 2017.

Menon, Shruti. “Coronavirus: The human cost of fake news in India.” BBC, June 30, 2020.

Newz Hook. “Changing Attitude towards Disability.” Accessed on December 15, 2020.

OHCHR. “Covid-19 And The Rights Of Persons With Disabilities.” Accessed December 25, 2020.

Pandey, Akhilesh. “COVID-19 exposes failure of the government’s Accessible India Campaign.” The Caravan, October 2, 2020.

Rahman, Saba. “Aarogya Setu remains inaccessible for disabled despite push from activists.” The Indian Express, May 27, 2020.

Rohit Khanna, Usha Raman, and Gullapalli N Rao. “Blindness and poverty in India: the way forward.” Optometry 90, no. 6 (November 2007): 399-491.

Sinha, Kounteya. “India has largest blind population.” The Times of India, October 11, 2007.

Thomas, Rosamma. “Bombay HC to Hear PIL on Visually Impaired Students’ Access to Education.” News Click, October 5, 2020.

Uber. “Uber Partners with National Association for the Blind to support the blind and people with disabilities.” Accessed on December 25, 2020.

United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs. “Global Forum on the COVID-19 crisis and persons with disabilities.” Accessed on December 15, 2020.

World Health Organisation. “Blindness and Vision Impairment.” AccessedDecember 15, 2020.

Qamar L. (2021). Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on Visually Impaired People with Public Media Alliance and Accessibility to Persons with Disability in India. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law 1(4), 2548-2565.

Determinants of Social Mobility in India and Policy Recommendations

Amitoj Singh Kalsi and Harsh Kapoor
Volume I, Issue IV
29th July 2021
Page No.: 2566-2581

The objective of this paper is to assess the determinants of social mobility in Indian society and provide nuanced policy recommendations to improve mobility for the immobile sections. This paper is both review-oriented and recommendatory. Using secondary data, this study analysed the complex interplay between caste, migration, and education as determinants of social mobility. Furthermore, the paper studies intersectionality as an approach for assessing social mobility, focusing on secondary determinants such as gender, religion, marriage, and geography. Does access to education undermine the origin-destination association? Why do some religious groups experience a decreasing relative social mobility? Have linkages between caste and outcomes weakened post-economic liberalisation? Does merit take precedence over caste in determining opportunities available to individuals in modern India? How is the rural women’s experience different from urban women with regards to social mobility? How do migration patterns influence mobility trends? The study unravelled myriad correlations between multiple determinants and stark sectional variations in the social mobility for different sub-groups. Using insights from these interplays between different determinants, the paper puts forth several policy recommendations which will improve mobility for the lesser ‘opportune’ classes, thereby undermining intergenerational socio-economic inequalities which continue to plague the Indian society.

Amitoj Singh Kalsi
B.A. Hons. History, Hindu College, University of Delhi, India

Harsh Kapoor
All India Secondary School Examination, Bhatnagar International School, New Delhi, India



Anikeeva, E. N. (2020). Cultural Anthropology, Cast Hierarchy and Religious Values in Modern India. Atlantis Press, 416(4), 493–496.

Asher, S., Novosad, P., & Rafkin, C. (2020). Intergenerational Mobility in India: New Methods and Estimates Across Time, Space, and Communities.

Dhawan, B. (2020, December 23). India ranks 131 on Human Development Index 2020: All you need to know. THE FINANCIAL EXPRESS.

Iyer, M. (2020, June 10). Migration in India and the impact of the lockdown on migrants. PRS Legislative Research.

Kumar, S., Heath, A., & Heath, O. (2002). Determinants of Social Mobility in India. Economic and Political Weekly, 37(29), 2983–2987.

Press Trust of India. (2020, January 20). India ranks low at 76th place on global Social Mobility Index. ex/article30607184.ece

Sankhe, S., Madgavkar, A., Kumra, G., Woetzel, J., Smit, S., & Chockalingam, K. (2020, November 12). India’s turning point: An economic agenda to spur growth and jobs. McKinsey & Company.

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Vaid, D. V. (2018). Uneven Odds: Social Mobility in Contemporary India. Oxford University Press.

Singh Kalsi A. & aKapoor H. (2021). Determinants of Social Mobility in India and Policy Recommendations. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law 1(4), 2566-2581.

Rethinking Motherhood: A Feminist Exploration of Social Construction of Motherhood in India

Tanvi Kapoor
Volume I, Issue IV
29th July 2021
Page No.: 2582-2591

Motherhood is a social construction that rejects any assumption that involves practices of mothering, characteristics of mothers, and the multitudes of meanings of motherhood that are in any way biological, natural or essential. It implies that the ways of experiencing and perceiving motherhood in society are the result of social construction. Social Construction of reality or social constructionism is a theory of knowledge of sociology that examines the jointly constructed understanding of the world. Social constructionism is defined as a perspective that believes that human life exists the way it does due to social and interpersonal influences (Gergen, 1985). Social Constructionism has been instrumental in trying to make sense of the social world, by viewing knowledge as constructed as opposed to created. Motherhood is seen as a status that adheres to the social norms and expectations of society. It is a normative status that a woman achieves after childbirth. The importance of offspring and the continuous need for reproduction to uphold in society is manifested in the idea of motherhood. Societies lay down few expectations from their members and in an ideal society, such expectations are fulfilled by its members. Motherhood is one such expectation from women. Societal expectations are channelized through socialisation, where the family, as agents of socialisation, has the most important role to play. The hypothesis of the paper is that motherhood is not natural, but is a binary social construct. It is, therefore, ‘normal’ for a woman to seek motherhood as the course of life. Any conventionalist woman looks forward to getting married and achieve the status of motherhood. She aspires for this status not only for individual gratification but for the happiness of her husband and her family. This status that a woman achieves by becoming a mother is framed by society. Where does that leave mothers who are trans women, queer mothers, adoptive mothers, mothers who are single & unmarried? Motherhood is by no means uniform & toppling of the ideal of the perfect mother deconstructs the inherent meaning, the glory that the term holds and the respect that is related to the concept of motherhood as a mere social product.

Tanvi Kapoor
B.A. Multi-Media and Mass Communication, Indraprastha College for Women, University of Delhi, India



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Kapoor T. (2021). Rethinking Motherhood: A Feminist Exploration of Social Construction of Motherhood in India. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law 1(4), 2582-2591.

COVID-19 from Game Theory’s Perspective: Lockdown and Vaccine Rollouts

Namya Manchanda, Sanjana Kumari, Oishika Kar, Lubna Malhotra and Taruni Bhardwaj
Volume I, Issue IV
29th July 2021
Page No.: 2592-2624

The novel Covid-19 pandemic has wreaked havoc across the world. It has infected almost 195 million people globally, and 4 million people have succumbed to its deadly effects (WHO Coronavirus Dashboard). This paper tries to analyse the responses of variables of different scenarios to prevent the spread of the virus, based on game theory. The three games formulated in this paper talk about the different aspects of the lockdown. The first one is a payoff between countries that wish to opt for a lockdown and those that don’t. The second game is a modern take on the original “Battle of the Sexes”, reflecting a couple’s choices on going out during the pandemic. The last one illustrates the vaccinated and unvaccinated people along with their utilities. While these games look at different variables individually, on a whole, they look at various aspects of the pandemic in relation to the lockdown. Equilibriums like Mixed Strategy, Nash Equilibrium, and Game Tree have been reflected in these three games. The way forward to tackling the pandemic is through the means of lockdown, vaccines, as well as social distancing. The paper tries to highlight and analyse measures to prevent the spread of the virus. The decision to incorporate changes is a big toll on countries, communities, as well as individuals. It also takes control of spread as an important area of focus. While for the lockdown, we analyse the different utilities based on the economy and saving lives. For vaccines, we analyse the responses of different groups involved. Furthermore, the paper also maps the response of individual and joint choices of couples to the Covid-19 lockdown and their strategies in case of going out.

Namya Manchanda
B.A. (Hons) Economics, Lady Shri Ram College for Women, University of Delhi, India

Sanjana Kumari
B.A. (Hons) Economics, Lady Shri Ram College for Women, University of Delhi, India

Oishika Kar
B.A. (Hons) Economics, Lady Shri Ram College for Women, University of Delhi, India

Lubna Malhotra
B.A. (Hons) Economics, Lady Shri Ram College for Women, University of Delhi, India

Taruni Bhardwaj
B.A. (Hons) Economics, Lady Shri Ram College for Women, University of Delhi, India

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Outbreak”, medRxiv,

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Manchanda N., Kumari S., Kar O., Malhotra L. & Bhardwaj T. (2021). COVID-19 from Game Theory’s Perspective: Lockdown and Vaccine Rollouts. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law 1(4), 2591-2624.

COVID-19 and its Economic Toll on Women Informal Sector Workers in India: The Story Behind the Numbers

Archi Gupta and Bhavya Gupta
Volume I, Issue IV
29th July 2021
Page No.: 2625-2643

This study aims to highlight how women informal workers were disproportionately affected due to Covid-19 and how the pre-existing gender inequalities have been strengthened. Though the government has adopted policies, the gender dimensions are not clear. Using qualitative and quantitative secondary sources we found that women are overrepresented in the sectors which are hardest hit by covid-19 like domestic and care work, waste pickers and absence of social protection, inadequate access to capital, public services, lack of capacity for collective bargaining lower their capacity to absorb economic shock. Hand-washing, self-isolation and wearing masks or other personal protective equipment are unrealistic options. Covid-19 has led to an increase in unpaid care which is a contributing factor that leads to a permanent exit from the labour market (WIEGO 2020a). Domestic violence against women informal workers has also increased due to lockdown and curfews. Women migrants, especially domestic workers may be hesitant to comply with covid-19 screening, testing and treatment procedures due to fear of documentation checks by authorities and potential fines, arrest, detention or deportation. Women informal workers in the gig economy have also been affected due to no minimum wage guarantees. Women homeworkers who produce for global supply chains are particularly affected by Covid-19, as their incomes depend heavily on now-suspended orders from high-income countries.

Archi Gupta
 B.A. (Hons) Economics, Maitreyi College, University of Delhi, India

Bhavya Gupta
 B.A. (Hons) Economics, Maitreyi College, University of Delhi, India


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Gupta A. & Gupta B. (2021).COVID-19 and its Economic Toll on Women Informal Sector Workers in India: The Story Behind the Numbers. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law 1(4), 2625-2642.