ISSUE 3 (2)

Role of Misinformation in Migration

Alron Chittedam
Volume I, Issue III
31st March, 2021
Page No.: 1693-1711

While there is a large literature on misinformation, disinformation and its harmful effects, and also a separate set of literature on migration and anti-migrant groups, this research paper exhibits a roadmap combining the two sets of literature. Using research papers, news articles, correlation is explored between misinformation and migration, the paper analyzes two significant migration crises – The Rohingya Crisis and The Central American Migrant Caravan. The analysis is further bifurcated into Pre-migration Misinformation and Post-migration Misinformation to plot the instrumentalization of misinformation. Additionally, special focus is done on the migration due to misinformation in the context of Covid-19. Decoding the traits from the analysis, sustainable, feasible, and justifiable solutions are sought out to tackle the issue. Keywords: Misinformation, Migration, Covid-19, Migrant Protection Protocol, Rohingya Refugee Crisis, Central American Migrant Caravans

Alron Chittedam
B.A. Economics, University of Mumbai, India

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American Immigration Council. (2021, January 22). The “Migrant Protection Protocols.”

Ayón, C. (2018, October 9). Immigrants in the U.S.: Detention, Discrimination, and Intervention. Race and Social Problems. 

Banerjee, D., & Rao, T. S. S. (2020, October 2). Psychology of misinformation and the media: Insights from the COVID-19 pandemic Banerjee D, Sathyanarayana Rao T S – Indian J Soc Psychiatry. Indian Journal of Social Psychiatry.;year=2020;volume=36;issue=5;spage=131;epage=137;aulast=Banerjee 

Bauomy, J. (2020, March 6). COVID-19 and xenophobia: Why outbreaks are often accompanied by racism. Euronews. 

Beech, H. (2018, August 25). Year After Rohingya Massacres, Top Generals Unrepentant and Unpunished. The New York Times. 

Bouie, J. (2020, September 18). Facebook Has Been a Disaster for the World. The New York Times. 

Cook, J., & McGonigal, C. (2017, December 26). 2017’s Rohingya Crisis In Photos. HuffPost. 

Dempster, H., Leach, A., & Hargrave, K. (2020, September). Public attitudes towards immigration and immigrants: what people think, why, and how to influence them. ODI. 

Esses, V. (2020, September 11). Prejudice and Discrimination Toward Immigrants. Annual Review.  

Gaucher, D., Friesen, J., Neufeld, K., & Esses, V. (2017, December 27). Changes in the Positivity of Migrant Stereotype Content: How System-Sanctioned Pro-Migrant Ideology Can Affect Public Opinions of Migrants. SAGE Journals. 

Gruer, L., Agyemang, C., Bhopal, R., Chiarenza, A., Krasnik, A., & Kumare, B. (2021, February 10). Migration, ethnicity, racism and the COVID-19 pandemic: A conference marking the launch of a new Global Society. ScienceDirect. 

Harding, P. (2009, September 9). SAGE Journals: Your gateway to world-class research journals. SAGE Journals. 

Human Rights First. (2021, February 19). Delivered to Danger. 

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International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies. (2020, September 10). Least Protected, Most Affected: Migrants and refugees facing extraordinary risks during the COVID-19 pandemic. 

Misago, J., Freemantle, I., & Landau, L. (2015, February). Protection from Xenophobia: An Evaluation of UNHCR’s Regional Office for Southern Africa’s Xenophobia Related Programmes. UNHCR. 

Pathak, R. (2020, September 15). Govt Says Over 1 Crore Migrants Went Home Due to Covid-19 Lockdown, but Actual Figure Higher.News18.

Posetti, J., & Matthews, A. (2018, July 23). A Short Guide to the History of ‘Fake News’ and Disinformation: A New ICFJ Learning Module. International Center for Journalists. 

Rohingya crisis. (n.d.). UNICEF. 

Roose, K. (2018, November 4). We Asked for Examples of Election Misinformation. You Delivered. The New York Times. 

Roose, K. (2018a, October 24). Debunking 5 Viral Images of the Migrant Caravan. The New York Times. 

Rubio, M., Byrne, S., & Manzanero, A. (2020, December). Violence and torture against migrants and refugees attempting to reach the European Union through Western Balkans. 

SIMMONS, D. E. B. R. A. (n.d.). See what it’s like walking with the migrant caravan in Central America. National Geographic. 

Swain, A. (2019, June). Increasing Migration Pressure and Rising Nationalism: Implications for Multilateralism and SDG Implementation. ResearchGate.

Wikipedia contributors. (n.d.). List of fact-checking websites.Wikipedia. 

Winnie, L. (2020, June). Freedom of Speech and a Decentralized Approach to Tackling Misinformation.


Chittedam A. (2021). Role of Misinformation in Migration. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law, 1(3), 1693-1711.

Decluttering the Future: An Analysis of Indian Minimalism

Aastha Rathour and Gunita Mankame
Volume I, Issue III
31st March, 2021
Page No.: 1744-1765

Minimalism is a tool to rid yourself of life’s excesses and to focus on what’s important, to find happiness, fulfilment, and freedom. India has not been left behind in the wave of minimalism, whether it was back in the sustainable era of Mahatma Gandhi or the 21st century where Indian minimalists are embracing the traditional “less is more” lifestyle. The wave of minimalism rose vividly post the COVID-19 outbreak. Indian minimalists are palpable in every discipline and are mindful of their environment and lifestyle choices. The previous works have not rigorously examined the future of minimalism in India. Our paper aims to focus solely on Indian minimalism and its progress in Indian society. The current paper has analyzed secondary data imparting valuable information that adds meaning and structure to the aim of the paper. The paper highlights insightful corners of Indian minimalism and its acceptance as a lifestyle, with the help of secondary data. It focuses on the essence of certain mindful behaviours such as thrifting, recycling, upcycling, and cautious consumerism. It explores the plausible future of minimalism along with practical alternatives that can be adopted by contemporary Indian minimalists.

Aastha Rathour
Amity University Noida, India

Gunita Mankame
Bachelor of Management Studies, V. G Vaze Kelkar College, Mumbai, India

Adhia, V. (2021, February 25). SDG 12: Sustainable Consumption and Production – what does it imply for India. ETEnergyworld. 

Arundel, L. (n.d.). An Ancient Philosophy –. Minimalism Life. Retrieved March 20, 2021. 

Aschwanden, B. (n.d.). Online course: Minimalist writing. Retrieved from

Bruwer, G. (2018, May 13). Scandinavian vs. Minimalism: Knowing Lagom from Less is More [Blog post]. Retrieved from 

Chowdhary, C. (2020). Can You Be a Minimalist While Being a Mum of Two? This 33-YO Has The Answer. The Better India.
Retrieved from

Cortina, K.S., Arel, S. & Darden, J.P.S. (2017, Nov 1). School Belonging in Different

Cultures: The Effects of Individualism and Power Distance. Frontiers In education.

Crew, C. (2017, February 16). Understanding Indian Minimalism. Design Pataki.

ET Bureau. (2019, Mar 28). 82% Indians bogged down by stress: Cigna 360 Well-being study. The Economic Times. 

Goyal, M. (2018, Oct 07). Less is more: Why affluent Indians are going minimalist. The Economic Times. 

Green Hat Studio. (2018, Dec 16). Review: Top 10 Architects in India [Blog post].
Retrieved from

Gulmohar Lane. (2020,Sep 26). The Beauty of Indian Minimalism [Blog post].
Retrieved from

Gurung, S. (2021, Jan 17). Online thrift stores proliferated in 2020, but questions remain about how such businesses can be sustained. Firstpost. 

Homegrown. (n.d.). 8 Contemporary Indian Fashion Labels That Celebrate Minimalism
[Blog post]. Retrieved from 

Kalra, S. (2017, Sep 23). A Calmer You by Sonal Kalra: Do you own a lot of stuff? Try minimalism. Hindustan Times. 

Kang, J. , Martinez, C.M.J. & Johnson, C. (2021). Minimalism as a sustainable lifestyle:
Its behavioral representations and contributions to emotional well-being. Sustainable Production and Consumption, 27, 802-813.

Kapoor, K. (2020, Feb 12). Lagom: The Swedish Art Of Striking A Balance. Times of India.

Khokhar, R. (2021, February 19). Bringing a touch of minimalism to work. Mint. 

Kiran & Deepak. (2020, Jul 18). Why we need to think about digital minimalism. The Indian Express. 

Kumar, S. (2020, Oct 20). Simple and natural – minimalism in design the Gandhi way. Beautiful Homes. 

Leake,G., Toole, K., Divis, P. & Torres-Sánchez,C.(2010, Feb 19). Bamboo as a solution for low-cost housing and storage in Pabal (India) [Paper presentation]. ‘From Small Steps to Giant Leaps putting research into practice’, UK. 

Lloyd, K. & Pennington, W. (2020).Towards a Theory of Minimalism and Wellbeing. International Journal of Applied Positive Psychology, 5, (121-136).

Lobo, J., Behrawala, K. Roy, R., Sanghvi, R.B. & Sundaram, S. (2020, Feb 10). 40 under 40: India’s most exciting young chefs. Condé nast traveller india. Retrieved from 

Minimalism –. (n.d.). Svenklas. Retrieved March 20, 2021, from 

Millburn, J.F. & Nicodemus, R. (n.d.). What Is Minimalism? [Blog post]. Retrieved from 

Minimalist architecture. (2020, September 25). Designing Buildings Wiki.

Morais, I. (2019, December 15). The Origin of Minimalism •. Minimalist Road. 

Mukherjee, A. (2019, Nov 17). Less is more. The Asian Age.

Mukhtar, S. (2020). Pakistanis’ mental health during the COVID-19. Asian Journal of Psychiatry, 51, 102-127.Norris, L. (2008). Recycling and Reincarnation: the journeys of Indian Saris. Mobilities, 3(3), 415-436.

Padmavathya, C., Swapanaa, M. & Paul, J. (2019). Online second-hand shopping motivation –Conceptualization, scale development, and validation. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 51, 19-32.

Palafox, C.L. (2019). When Less Is More: Minimalism And The Environment. Environmental and Earth Law Journal (EELJ), 9(1), 5.

Pierre. (2019, Nov 12). Frugal Innovation: Definition and Practical Examples. ideXlab. Retrieved from

Pillai, S.V., Vipin H.& Jayachandran, N. (2020). Managing Mental Health During COVID- 19 Pandemic and Beyond. AIJR Preprints, 249, 1-8.

Rodricks, W. (2016, Jun 10). New minimalism: Why it needs a redefinition by Indian designers. Mint. 

Saha, P.K. (2017, Jul 29). How upcycling can help make our homes and hearts lighter. Mint. 

SDG 12: Responsible Consumption and Production. (2019, October 15). UN India. 

Shah,V. (2020,sep 07). India and Minimalism. Times of India.\ 

Shashikant, U. (2017, May 22). Be Frugal, but not stingy. Times of India 

Sheth, M. (2019, Mar 07). Minimalism in architecture. Times of India. 

Sinha, J.B.P. (2014). Collectivism and Individualism. Psycho-social analysis of the Indian mindset, 27-51.

Statista Research Department. (2021, Mar 19). Consumer spending in India 2016-2020. Statista. 

Voice, M. (2020, August 21). Minimalism is a religion – The Unveiling Box. Medium. 

Vora, H. & Sanjiv, D. (2021, Feb 02). What it takes to create a green, minimalist lifestyle. Times of India. 

WhatPackaging?. (2020, Nov 28). Vyas: Minimalism is here to stay, it has certainly influenced product packaging. PrintWeek.,


Rathour A. & Mankame G. (2021). Decluttering the Future: An Analysis of Indian Minimalism. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law, 1(3), 1744-1765.

Is India Ready to Adopt Sweden’s Waste Management System

Aashna Baweja and Soudamini Desai
Volume I, Issue III
31st March, 2021
Page No.: 1766-1780

The authors of this paper were inspired by the announcement of the India-Sweden partnership in the virtual joint summit 2021. Sweden has received worldwide recognition for its Waste Management System (WMS), and the successful implementation of public-private partnership is the essence of its success. The study carefully analyses the Indian Waste Management System (WMS). The authors aim is to know whether a public-private partnership for waste management will be effective in a country like India, which is 7 times larger than Sweden. It is observed that policy drivers & citizen engagement play a crucial role in the successful execution of a system. This paper also studies the willingness of the residents of India to work in harmony with the government in reforming the WMS. The authors have conducted a primary survey to know the opinions and beliefs of the respondents on the privatisation of WMS, organizational holdings, and the role of government. The authors have highlighted recommendations, potential opportunities and obstacles based on the results of the survey and secondary research.

Aashna Baweja
M.Sc. Mathematics, Department of Mathematics, (NCWEB) University of Delhi, India

Soudamini Desai
M.Sc Economics (Development studies), Symbiosis School of Economics, Symbiosis International Deemed University, Maharashtra, India

Anderson, B. (2011, June). Privatization A Formula for Provision or Perversion of Municipal Solid Waste Management? WordPress.  

Bolton,PHD, K., & Rousta,PHD, K. (2019). Solid Waste Management Toward Zero Landfill: A Swedish Model. ScienceDirect.  

Chan Kim, W., & Mauborgne, R. (2018, July 11). From Trash to Treasure: Sweden’s Recycling Revolution. Blue Ocean Strategy. 

Civilsdaily. (2017). Solid waste management rules, 2016 – Civilsdaily. Civilsdaily.Com. 

Cointreau-Levine, S. (1994). Private Sector Participation in Municipal Solid Waste Services in Developing Countries: The Formal Sector (Urban Management Programme, 13) (Vol. 1). World Bank.

Corvellec, H., Bramryd, T., & Hultman, J. (2011). The business model of solid waste management in Sweden – a case study of two municipally-owned companies. The Business Model of Swedish Municipal Waste Management Companies, 30(5), 512–518.×11427944 

csestore. (2019). Solid waste in India.

Kumar, S., Smith, S. R., Fowler, G., Velis, C., Kumar, S. J., Arya, S., Rena, Kumar, R., & Cheeseman, C. (2017). Challenges and opportunities associated with waste management in India. Challenges and Opportunities Associated with Waste Management in India, 4(3), 160764. 

Martin, B. (2001, August). Privatization of municipal services: Potential, limitations and challenges for the social partners. SECTORAL ACTIVITIES PROGRAMME, Geneva.

Miliute-Plepiene, J., & Plepys, A. (2009). Driving Forces for High Household Waste Recycling. Lessons from Sweden. Researchgate.Net. 

Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) PPPs | Public Private Partnership. (2021, January 25). PPPLRC.

Ohri, A., & Singh, P. K. (2009, January). Private Sector Participation in Municipal Solid Waste Management in India: Observation and Options. Recent Advances in Waste Management 2009, Varnasi, India. 

Rogoff, M. J., Moyers, K., Leonard, M., & Gardner, R. (2015, October 15). Six Major Factors to Consider in Privatization of Waste Management Services. MSW. 

Rosana, D. D. (2013, April). Privatisation of Solid Waste Management Service: Practices in Developing Countries MSc Thesis. Edepot.


Singh, S. (2020, December 4). Solid Waste Management in Urban India: Imperatives for Improvement. ORF.,-Waste%20dumping%20and&text=The%20report%20of%20the%20Planning,to%20health%20and%20environmental%20degradation. 

Singh Bisht, R., & Priya Ranjan, K. (2017). Waste Management: Prospects and Challenges in India. 

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Staff, S. X. (2019, October 2). Five things to know about plastic waste and recycling in India. PHYS ORG. 

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Baweja A. & Desai S. (2021). Is India Ready to Adopt Sweden’s Waste Management System. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law, 1(3), 1766-1780.

Global Surge in Civil Unrest: Checks and Balances

Sampriti Das and Simran Kapoor
Volume I, Issue III
31st March, 2021
Page No.: 1781-1800

Civil Unrest has doubled over the past decade raising concerns towards the functioning of ruling authorities, the social environment, and the changing demands of the civilians. Civil Unrest can reveal public insecurities, challenge government incapabilities, and may result in the devastation of resources when dealt with violence. The role of misinformation and interference by external stakeholders highlights the disruption and the execution of a peaceful mass demonstration. Hereby, a comparative analysis has been done to examine the civil unrest undertaken in developed, developing/underdeveloped economies while addressing the diminishing public faith in their administration, and pestle analysis understanding the triggers and trends in the social, economic, political, legal, and natural environments are studied to comprehend the fundamental causes of a civil uprising. The general response by the government with its sustainability for the nation’s stability has been interpreted further suggesting an adequate action plan that has witnessed historical success. In discourse, the authors have also recommended measures that ultimately provide policy recommendations and possible solutions to stabilise institutions of governance to ameliorate public satisfaction levels, reducing injustices, and overall tackle this impending crisis.

Sampriti Das
B.A. Hons. Economics, Sri Guru Tegh Bahadur Khalsa College, University of Delhi, India

Simran Kapoor
PGDBM, International Trade Management, NMIMS, Mumbai, India

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Benjamin Press, & Carothers, T. (2020, December 21). Worldwide Protests in 2020: A Year in Review. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. 

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Chandran, N. (2014, November 12). 10 countries vulnerable to extreme civil unrest. CNBC. 

Chenoweth, E. (n.d.). The Future of Nonviolent Resistance. Www.Journalofdemocracy.Org.

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Farzanegan, M. R. (2017, June 16). Can we predict political uprisings? The Conversation.

Ghosh, I. (2020, January 22). World Leaders at Davos Need to Take Declining Trust in Institutions Seriously—or Else Face More Populism, Protest, and Upheaval. Foreign Policy.

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Hamm, J. A. (2019, May 15). Understanding the psychological nature and mechanisms of political trust. Journals.Plos.Org.

Hribernik, M., & Haynes, S. (2021, January 19). 47 Countries Witness Surge In Civil Unrest. Verisk Maplecroft.

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Krishnan, M. (2020, March 11). WhatsApp in India: Scourge of violence-inciting fake news tough to tackle. Www.Dw.Com.

Lauritsen, E. N. (2016, April 19). Economic under-development leads to civil unrest. Sciencenorway.No.

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Reid, D. (2020, January 16). Almost 40% of the world’s countries will witness civil unrest in 2020, research claims. CNBC. 

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Schwartz, M., & Sánchez, E. (2016, June 30). Social Movements That Changed Our World For The Better. Global Citizen.

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Das S. & Kapoor S. (2021). Global Surge in Civil Unrest: Checks and Balances. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law, 1(3), 1781-1800.

Investigative Study on the Implementation of Education Policies in Secondary Schools: A Review of Bangladesh and Nigeria

Chibuike Ezeanochie and Jafreen Alamgir
Volume I, Issue III
31st March, 2021
Page No.: 1801-1817

Education Policy can be seen as a fuel that propels both the curriculum and extracurricular activities in the education system. This research essay has been developed to investigate the implementation of education policies in secondary schools in Bangladesh and Nigeria. Research has shown that a proper implementation of education policies in both Primary, Secondary and Tertiary institutions will in no doubt enhance the academic prowess of students. As regards this, no matter how good a policy might be, if there is an implementation constraint, it will definitely lead to zero archival of the educational objectives. This expository work also discussed the current system of education and the existing education policies of the countries under study and throws light on its success and faultlines. Furthermore, the paper elucidates upon the shortcomings in the implementation of education policies in secondary schools. The research essay concludes by giving certain proposals and recommendations which will aid Governments and Policymakers on how to ensure an effective and efficient implementation of education policies in secondary schools

Chibuike Ezeanochie
University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria


Jafreen Alamgir
Brac University Dhaka, Bangladesh

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Chowdhury, R., & Sarkar, M. (2018). Education in Bangladesh: Changing contexts and emerging realities. In Engaging in Educational Research (pp. 1-18). Springer, Singapore. Retrieved from 

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Okoroma, N. S. (2006). Educational policies and problems of implementation in Nigeria. Australian Journal of Adult Learning Volume 46, Number 2, 1. 

Plecher, H. (2020). Unemployment rate in Nigeria. Statistita, 1. 

Romane Viennet, B. P. (2017). Education policy implementation: a literature review and proposed framework. Organisation for Economic Co- Operation and Development, 1. 

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Ezeanochie C. & Alamgir J. (2021). Investigate Study on the Implementation of Education Policies in Secondary Schools: A Review of Bangladesh and Nigeria. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law, 1(3), 1801-1817.