ISSUE 2

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Effective Parliamentary Committee Systems and their Impact on the Efficacy of the Institution: A Comparative Analysis

Sithara Sarangan
Volume I, Issue II
01 December 2020
Page No.: 423-435

Parliaments, the world over are apportioned with the arduous task of law-making; in order to efficiently undertake this function, they are assisted by various parliamentary committees with specific expertise. Parliamentary committees often act as mini parliaments, performing the cardinal function of deliberating and reconsidering bills before they are presented before the house. This paper undertakes a comparative theoretical study of legislatures with pre-existing empirical material to substantiate that the efficiency of a parliament is directly attributable to the success or failure of its respective parliamentary committee system. It further analyses the design features associated with committees in different legislatures and attempts to understand how it affects the legitimacy of the institution as a whole.

Sithara Sarangan​
LLM, University College London (UCL)

[1] Baerwald, H.H., 1974. Japan’s Parliament: An Introduction. Cambridge University Press

[2] Baerwald, Hans. H, 1979. Committees in the Japanese Diet. In: Lees, J.D. and Shaw, M., 1979. Committees in legislatures: a comparative analysis. Duke University Press. Ch.9.

[3] Brady, D.W., McCubbins, M.D., 2002. Party, Process, and Political Change in Congress: New Perspectives on the History of Congress. Stanford University Press.

[4] Cox, G. and Mc Cubbins, M. (2007). Legislative leviathan. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

[5] Farm Bills: Opposition Walks Out of RS; House Passes 7 Bills in Under 4 Hours. (n.d.). The Wire. Retrieved November 14, 2020.

[6] Kashyap. S. C., 1979. Committees in the Indian Lok Sabha. In: Lees, J.D. and Shaw, M., 1979. Committees in legislatures: a comparative analysis. Duke University Press. Ch. 8.

[7] Kesavan, K. V. (2003). Parliamentary Committees in Japan & India: Their Functions and Relevance. Manak Publications.

[8] Madron, T.W., 1969. Small group methods and the study of politics. Northwestern University Press, Evanston.

[9] Making an Impact: Effective Parliamentary Committees | Global Partners Governance [WWW Document], 2014.

[10] Martin, S, Depauw. S. 2009, Parliamentary Committees and Multi-Party Government.

[11] Mattson, I., Strom, K. 2004, Committee effects on legislation, in: Döring, H., Hallerberg, M. (Eds.), Patterns of Parliamentary Behaviour: Passage of Legislation across Western Europe. Ashgate, Aldershot, Hants, pp. 91–111. 

[12] Mezey, M.L., n.d. Comparative legislatures – Michael L. Mezey – Google Books

[13] Ochoa. J (ed.), Las Comisiones Parliamentarias. 

[14] PRS legislative research, 2008. Measuring the Effectiveness of Parliament.

[15] PRS legislative research, 2011. Strengthening Parliamentary Committees.

[16] PRS legislative research, 2017. Vital Stats- Budget Session 2017

[17] Parliamentary scrutiny on the back burner—The Hindu. (n.d.). Retrieved October 20, 2020

[18] Pelizzo, R. and S., Frederick, 2012. Legislative oversight tools, in: Pelizzo, R., Stapenhurst, F. (Eds.), Parliamentary Oversight Tools: A Comparative Analysis. Routledge, Abingdon, pp. 28–56. 

[19] Shaw, M.N., Lees, J.D., 1979. Committees in legislatures: a comparative analysis. Duke University Press, [Durham, N.C.]. 

[20] Shaw. M, 1979. ‘Conclusions’, in Lees and Shaw, Committees in legislatures: a comparative analysis. Duke University Press, [Durham, N.C.].

[21] Shaw, M., 1998. Parliamentary committees: a global perspective, in: Davidson, R.H., Longley, L.D. (Eds.), The New Roles of Parliamentary Committees. Frank Cass, London, pp. 225–251. 

[22] The Importance of Parliamentary Committees. (2019, September 19). PRSIndia.

[23] The Legal Subversions That Helped the Centre Undercut J&K’s Powers. (n.d.). The Wire. Retrieved October 20, 2020

[24] Webber, D.J., 1991. Krehbiel, Keith. Information and Legislative Organization. Congress & the Presidency 18, 193–194.

 

Sarangan, S. (2020). Effective Parliamentary Committee Systems and their Impact on the Efficacy of the Institution: A Comparative Analysis. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law, 01(02), 423–435. https://ijpsl.in/wp-content/uploads/2020/11/Effective-Parliamentary-Committee-Systems-and-their-Impact-on-the-Efficacy-of-the-Institution_Sithara-Sarangan.pdf

The Divinity of Politics and Statecraft

Faith Johnson Samuel
Volume I, Issue II
01 December 2020
Page No.: 436-444

The entwinement of morality, religion, and politics is acknowledged widely to be congenital to the very concept of governance. This paper is a critical analysis of the “divine” in the present political arena and a reappraisal of the age-old question of the necessity of religion in politics or lack thereof. A comprehensive understanding of the application of the divine right theory in the modern era is attempted so as to confer the implications of the same. Although the doctrine virtually disappeared from politics after the Glorious Revolution (1688–89), the modern-day leader still reaps the fruits of this ideology. The defence of the theory justifies the divinity as the cradle of every modern theory of the state. The critique, however, questions the very position of such an “outdated” ideology in the cirque of modern times. The paper peruses the pre-existing conflicting ideologies and also attempts to place the concept of divinity within the expanse of the political

Faith Johnson Samuel
Bachelor of Arts from Jesus and Mary College, University of Delhi.

[1] Bellin, E. (2008). Faith in Politics: New Trends in the Study of Religion and Politics. World Politics, 60(2), 315-347. Retrieved November 20, 2020, from http://www.jstor.org/stable/40060198

[2] Berger, P. L. (1990). The Sacred Canopy: Elements of a Sociological Theory of Religion (Illustrated ed.). Anchor. https://www.sunypress.edu/pdf/62898.pdf

[3] CERELLA, A. N. T. O. N. I. O. (2012). Religion and political form: Carl Schmitt’s genealogy of politics as critique of Jürgen Habermas’s post-secular discourse. Review of International Studies, 38(5), 975–994.

https://doi.org/10.1017/s0260210512000435

[4] Cornwell, R. (2011, November 15). Bush: God told me to invade Iraq. The Independent.

https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/americas/bush-god-told-meinvade-iraq-6262644.html

[5] Emmons, R. A., & Paloutzian, R. F. (2003). The Psychology of Religion. Annual Review of Psychology 2003 54:1, 54, 377–402.

https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.54.101601.145024

[6] Firth, R. (1981). Spiritual Aroma: Religion and Politics. American Anthropologist, 83(3), new series, 582-601. Retrieved November 19, 2020, from

http://www.jstor.org/stable/676754

[7] Fox, J. (2018). An Introduction to Religion and Politics: Theory and Practice (Routledge Studies in Religion and Politics) (2nd ed.). Routledge.

https://www.academia.edu/35878277/An_Introduction_to_Religion_and_Politics_Second_Edition

[8] FPJ Bureau. (2019, July 22). ISRO is as superstitious as you and me. Free Press Journal. https://www.freepressjournal.in/india/isro-is-as-superstitious-as-you-and-me

[9] Gill, A. G. (2001). RELIGION AND COMPARATIVE POLITICS (Annu. Rev. Polit. Sci. 2001. 4:117–38). Annual Reviews.>

https://faculty.washington.edu/tgill/Gillcomprelig.pdf

[10] Hamilton, E. (2012). Science The New God?: Synergy: The Cure For All Ills. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform. How has religion played a role in Donald Trump’s presidency? (2020, August 24). America Magazine. https://www.americamagazine.org/politicssociety/2020/08/24/religion-donald-trump-presidency

[11] Inglehart, R. F., Basanez, M., & Moreno, A. (1998). Human Values and Beliefs: A Cross-Cultural Sourcebook (First ed.). University of Michigan Press.

[12] Johnston, D., Sampson, C., & Carter, J. (1995). Religion, The Missing Dimension of Statecraft (1st ed.). Oxford University Press, U.S.A.

[13] Krauss, L. M. (2010, August 1). Faith and Foolishness: When Religious Beliefs Become Dangerous. Scientific American.

https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/faith-andfoolishness/?error=cookies_not_supported&code=23e6e9d5-31f8-4950-8991-a480be0e9c25

[14] Levene, M. (2000). Why Is the Twentieth Century the Century of Genocide? Journal of World History, 11(2), 305–336.

https://www.jstor.org/stable/20078852?readnow=1&seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents

[15] Locke, J. (1988). Locke : Two Treatises of Government. Cambridge University Press.

[16] Marty, M. (2000). Religion and Politics. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 572, 156-156. Retrieved November 19, 2020, from

http://www.jstor.org/stable/1048904

[17] Merchant, M. (2018, October 22). Maharashtra leader calls Modi 11th avatar of Vishnu: Why BJP mustn’t build a cult around the PM. Living Media India Limited. https://www.dailyo.in/politics/narendra-modi-avadhut-wagh-modi-11th-avatar-ofvishnu-congress-rahul-gandhi-dynasty-politics/story/1/27323.html

[18] Mofidi, S. (2013, June). THE POSITIVE ASPECTS OF POLITICAL FUNCTION OF RELIGION: AN OVERVIEW (ISSN 2278–8832 Vol. 3, Issue 2, Jun 2013, 9-20). TJPRC Pvt. Ltd.

http://www.tjprc.org/publishpapers/–1366953342-2.The%20positive%20aspects.full.pdf

[19] News18. (2020, January 3). Religion is “Code of Conduct”, Politics is Meaningless Without it, Says JP Nadda.

https://www.news18.com/news/politics/religion-is-codeof-conduct-politics-is-meaningless-without-it-says-jp-nadda-2444523.html

[20] Ray, T. (2019, December 14). I believe God is Brazilian and he made me president: Jair Bolsonaro. Republic World.

https://www.republicworld.com/world-news/rest-ofthe-world-news/i-believe-god-is-brazilian-and-he-made-me-president-jairbolsonaro.html

[21] Sanderson, D. A. C. (2019, October 5). Ending religion is a bad idea, says Richard Dawkins. News | The Times.

https://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/ending-religion-is-abad-idea-says-richard-dawkins-sqqdbmcpq

[22] Schmitt, C., Schwab, G., & Strong, T. B. (2006). Political Theology: Four Chapters on the Concept of Sovereignty (1st ed.). University of Chicago Press.

[23] Simonetta, J. R. (2006). Religion: An Obstacle to Human Progress. Lulu.com.

[24] Team, T. H. D. (2020, March 4). How many countries allow abortion on request, where is abortion completely prohibited, and more. The Hindu.

https://www.thehindu.com/data/data-how-many-countries-allow-abortion-on-requestwhere-is-abortion-completely-prohibited-and-more/article30981255.ece

[25] The Guardian, & Hobsbawm, E. H. (2002, February 23). War and peace. The Guardian.

https://www.theguardian.com/education/2002/feb/23/artsandhumanities.highereducation#:%7E:text=The%2020th%20century%20was%20the,the%20world’s%20population%20in%201913 

[26] Theobald, U. T. (2019, March 1). tianming 天命 (www.chinaknowledge.de). ChinaKnowledge.De.

http://www.chinaknowledge.de/History/Terms/tianming.html

[27] Times Now Digital. (2018, October 13). PM Modi 11th incarnation of Lord Vishnu, country fortunate to have a god-like leader: Maha BJP spokesperson. Times Now.

https://www.timesnownews.com/india/article/narendra-modi-lord-vishnumaharashtra-bharatiya-janata-party-avadhut-wagh-atul-londhe-jitendra-awhadnationalist-congress-party-surendra-singh-amit/298645

[28] Tinder, G. (1989, December 1). Can We Be Good Without God? The Atlantic.

https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/1989/12/can-we-be-good-withoutgod/306721/?utm_source=share&utm_campaign=share

[29] Thomas, Scott (2000). Religion and international conflict. In Religion and International Relations, edited by K.R. Dark pp 1- 24 Houndmills: Macmillan.

[30] Walzer, M. (1998). Drawing the Line: Religion and Politics. Soziale Welt, 49(3), 295- 307. Retrieved November 19, 2020, from

http://www.jstor.org/stable/40878238

[31] Wuthnow, R. (1991). Understanding Religion and Politics. Daedalus, 120(3), 1-20. Retrieved November 19, 2020, from

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[32] Zacharias, R. (2001). Political Rhetoric and the National Conscience. RZIM.

https://www.rzim.org/read/just-thinking-magazine/political-rhetoric-and-the-nationalconscience

Samuel F. J. (2020). The Divinity of Politics and Statecraft. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law1(2), 436.

http://ijpsl.in/wp-content/uploads/2021/09/The-Divinity-of-Politics-and-Statecraft_Faith-Johnson-Samuel.pdf

Marital Rape: A Glaring Lacuna in India’s Rape Laws

Varada B.
Volume I, Issue II
29 December 2020
Page No.: 445-454

The author briefly traces the history behind the legislative stance for non-criminalisation of marital rape in India and outlines the judicial attitudes over the years towards rape and women’s rights over bodily integrity. The recent judgment of the Supreme
Court of India in Independent Thought v Union of India & Anr. ((2017) 10 SCC 800) and that of the Gujarat High Court in Nimeshbhai Bharatbhai Desai v. State of Gujarat (2018 SCC OnLine Guj 732) are specifically examined to understand the current points of view held by the Indian judiciary on the issue. Through an examination of the common arguments in favour of the continued retention of marital rape as an exception to statutory rape as defined in Section 375 of the Indian Penal Code, the author seeks to demonstrate the lack of logic contained in those arguments and present a succinct argument for the legal recognition of marital rape as an offence.

Varada B.​
B.A. LL.B. (Hons.), National University of Advanced Legal Studies, Kochi

[1] 1S.375, INDIAN PENAL CODE, No.45 of 1860: “A man is said to commit “rape” if he—(a) penetrates his penis, to
any extent, into the vagina, mouth, urethra or anus of a woman or makes her to do so with him or any other
person; or
(b) inserts, to any extent, any object or a part of the body, not being the penis, into the vagina, the urethra or
anus of a woman or makes her to do so with him or any other person; or
(c) manipulates any part of the body of a woman so as to cause penetration into the vagina, urethra, anus or any
part of body of such woman or makes her to do so with him or any other person; or
(d) applies his mouth to the vagina, anus, urethra of a woman or makes her to do so with him or any other
person, under the circumstances falling under any of the following seven descriptions:—
First.—Against her will.
Secondly.—Without her consent.
Thirdly.—With her consent, when her consent has been obtained by putting her or any person in whom she is
interested, in fear of death or of hurt.
Fourthly.—With her consent, when the man knows that he is not her husband and that her consent is given
because she believes that he is another man to whom she is or believes herself to be lawfully married.
Fifthly.—With her consent when, at the time of giving such consent, by reason of unsoundness of mind or
intoxication or the administration by him personally or through another of any stupefying or unwholesome
substance, she is unable to understand the nature and consequences of that to which she gives consent.
Sixthly.—With or without her consent, when she is under eighteen years of age.
Seventhly.—When she is unable to communicate consent.
Explanation 1.—For the purposes of this section, “vagina” shall also include labia majora.
Explanation 2.—Consent means an unequivocal voluntary agreement when the woman by words, gestures or
any form of verbal or non-verbal communication, communicates willingness to participate in the specific sexual
act:
Provided that a woman who does not physically resist to the act of penetration shall not by the reason only of
that fact, be regarded as consenting to the sexual activity.
Exception 1.—A medical procedure or intervention shall not constitute rape.
Exception 2.—Sexual intercourse or sexual acts by a man with his own wife, the wife not being under eighteen
years of age, is not rape.” 2.—Sexual intercourse or sexual acts by a man with his own wife, the wife not being under eighteen years of age, is not rape.”

[2] SIR MATTHEW HALE, HISTORY OF THE PLEAS OF THE CROWN, 1 Hale PC (1736) 629. See also SANDRA FREDMAN, WOMEN AND THE LAW 55-57 (Clarendon Press, 1997).

[3] The Committee on Amendments to Criminal Law headed by Justice J.S. Verma, former Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of India, was constituted by the Government of India in December 2012 to review the existing rape laws in the country and suggest necessary reforms, in the wake of the 2012 Delhi Gang Rape incident which shocked the nation.

[4] COMMITTEE ON AMENDMENTS TO CRIMINAL LAW, REPORT ON AMENDMENTS TO CRIMINAL LAW (2013)

[5] R v. R [1991] 4 All ER 481, 484 (holding that Sir Hale’s proposition of implied or ongoing consent was no longer applicable. Lord Keith, speaking for the Court while rejecting Hale’s theory also declared that “marriage is in modern times regarded as a partnership of equals and no longer one in which the wife must be a subservient chattel of the husband”).

[6] C.R. v. UK, Case no. 48/1994/495/577, European Commission for Human Rights [EHRR], 363 (1995) (holding
that a rapist remains a rapist irrespective of his relationship with the victim).

[7] Supra note 4, pp.113-118.

[8] See Supra note 4, p.62. The Committee in the report specifically drew attention towards the recommendation by the CEDAW that the country should “widen the definition of rape in its Penal Code to reflect the realities of sexual abuse experienced by women and to remove the exception of marital rape from the definition of rape.”

[9] INDIA CONST. art.14:“The State shall not deny to any person equality before the law or the equal protection of the laws within the territory of India”.

[10] INDIA CONST. art.21:“No person shall be deprived of his life or personal liberty except according to procedure
established by law.”

[11] 1See Francis Coralie Mullin v. Administrator, Union Territory of Delhi (1981) 1 SCC 608 (“[A]ny form of torture or cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment would be of ensive to human dignity and constitute an inroad into this right to live and it would, on this view, be prohibited by Article 21 unless it is in accordance with procedure prescribed by law, but no law which authorises and no procedure which leads to such torture or cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment can ever stand the test of reasonableness and non-arbitrariness: it would plainly be unconstitutional and void as being violative of Articles 14 and 21.”).

[12] State of Karnataka v. Krishnappa, (2000) 4 SCC 75, 82 para. 15. See also Vishakha v. State of Rajasthan (AIR 1997 SC 3011) and Apparel Export Promotion Council v. A.K. Chopra (AIR 1999 SC 625) (observing that the Constitution guarantees the right to be protected from sexual harassment and sexual assault).

[13] Independent Thought v. Union of India and Another, (2017) 10 SCC 800.

[14] Exception 2 to Section 375, IPC which previously read as “sexual intercourse or sexual acts by a man with his own wife, the wife not being under fifteen years of age, is not rape” was evidently contrary to the provisions of the Prevention of Children from Sexual Offences Act, 2012 that considers girls aged between 15 and 18, irrespective of their marital status, as children and mandates stringent penalties for penetrative and aggravated penetrative sexual assault committed on children. Since the judgment, the reference to “fifteen years of age” was removed and amended to “eighteen years of age”.

[15] Nimeshbhai Bharatbhai Desai v. State of Gujarat, 2018 SCC OnLine Guj 732.

[16] MINISTRY OF FAMILY AND HEALTH, GOVERNMENT OF INDIA, NATIONAL FAMILY HEALTH SURVEY (NFHS-4), 2015-16.

[17] 7LAW COMMISSION OF INDIA, 172ND REPORT ON REVIEW OF RAPE LAWS (2000), para.3.1.2.1.

[18] See Nitya Bhalla, Men may suf er if marital rape becomes crime: India government, REUTERS (Aug. 30, 2017,
10:20 PM).

[19] Supra note 13.

[20] See SHIVIKA CHOUDHARY, MARITAL RAPE: AN EVALUATION OF THE PATRIARCHAL INJUSTICE IN THE CRIMINAL LAW
(AMENDMENT) ACT, 2013, 3 Christ University L.J. 97, 100 (2014).

[21] Sexual abuse is considered as one of the four forms of domestic violence under the Protection of Women from
Domestic Violence Act, 2005.

[22] Supra note 13.

[23] Justice K. S. Puttuswamy (Retd.) & Anr v. Union of India & Ors. ((2017) 10 SCC 1)

B., V. (2020). Marital Rape: A Glaring Lacuna in India’s Rape Laws. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law, 01(02), 445–454. https://ijpsl.in/wp-content/uploads/2020/12/Marital-Rape-A-Glaring-Lacuna-in-Indias-Rape-Laws_Varada-B.pdf

Discrimination Faced by Urban Women in Educated Societies and its Manifestation

Aanya Bahl
Volume I, Issue II
29 December 2020
Page No.: 455-480

Patriarchal norms are deeply embedded in society in the various forms of discrimination faced by a woman. Some educated women and the other members of society who live in an urban society still face discrimination in their home life, work-life, legal and political structures and economic opportunities. Discrimination against women begins even before they are born as most parents want to have a male child and it follows them throughout their lives, from their early years to their old age. While the government has formulated various schemes for the empowerment and equality of women, they are usually poorly implemented and have various loopholes. This paper seeks to bring forth these more subtle but deadly discriminatory practices that are not overt but very prevalent.

Aanya Bahl​
Indraprastha College for Women, University of Delhi

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[4] Bhattacharyya, R. (2019, March 7). Gender pay gap high in India: Men get paid Rs 242 every hour, women earn Rs 46 less. The Economic Times.

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[8] Chandira, B. R. (2018, November 2). 10 NGOs Working For Women’s Empowerment That You Should Know. SheThePeople TV.

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[10] Digital, K. (2018, May 29). Societal pressures to get married before the age of KAYA FM.

[11] Dixit, A. D. (n.d.). CHILD SEXUAL ABUSE. 

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[17] Joan M. Cook, J. M. C. (2011). Older Women Survivors of Physical and Sexual Violence: A Systematic Review of the Quantitative Literature. National Center for Biotechnology Information.

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[38] White, J. B. (2019, March 8). What Are the Biggest Problems Women Face Today? POLITICO Magazine. 

Bahl, A. (2020). Discrimination faced by Urban Women in Educated Societies and its Manifestation. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law, 01(02), 455–480. https://ijpsl.in/wp-content/uploads/2020/12/Discrimination-Faced-by-Urban-Women-in-Educated-Societies-and-its-Manifestation_Aanya-Bahl.pdf

Mental Health in Academic Settings

Angela Singh
Volume I, Issue II
29 December 2020
Page No.: 481-501

For a country like India, who is the greatest contributor to the absolute number of suicide deaths in East-Asia, (List of Countries by Suicide Rate, 2020) we haven’t asked ourselves enough- what are we doing to improve the Indian mental health system? India, in 2019, reported 381 deaths every single day (2020). So much so, that the most common cause of death in the age groups of 15–29 was of suicide (“Suicide in India,” 2020). This research talks about the integration of education and mental health in academic settings; the role of schools in promoting and adopting programmes to include mental well being, life skills and psycho-education and moving towards a framework that supports a healthier way of living for school-going adolescents. The paper analyses the existing education system in India through comparative analysis, while examining existing mental health policies in different states of India through literature reviews. Recommending a new model framework to improve the on hand situation and towards an education system with integrated health policies that will not only destigmatize the taboo that is mental health, but help solve many intermediate goals.

Angela Singh
The Heritage School, Rohini, New Delhi

[1] Academic Stress, Parental Pressure, Anxiety and Mental Health among Indian High School Students. (2015). International Journal of Psychology and Behavioral Science, 1.

[2] Aviles, A. M., Anderson, T. R., & Davila, E. R. (2006). Child and Adolescent Social-Emotional Development Within the Context of School. Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 11(1), 32–39.

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[5] Education in India. (2018). WENR, 1.

[6] Indian School Education System An Overview. (2014). The British Council, India, 1.

[7] Mahajan, P. B., Rajendran, P. K., Sunderamurthy, B., Keshavan, S., & Bazroy, J. (2019). Analyzing Indian mental health systems: Reflecting, learning, and working towards a better future. Journal of Current Research in Scientific Medicine, 5(1), 4.

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[9] Mental health programs in schools. (1994). WHO, 1.

[10] Nebhinani, N., & Jain, S. (2019). Adolescent mental health: Issues, challenges, and solutions. Annals of Indian Psychiatry, 3(1), 4.

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[12] Online, F. E. (2019, May 6). Key issues that Indian education system is facing. The Financial Express.

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[17] The need for assessing mental health literacy among teachers: an overview. (2019). International Journal of Research in Medical Sciences, 1.

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[19] What is “PsychoEd”? (2020). Dr. Mac’s Amazing Behavior Management Advice Site.

[20] Why Indian Schools Are Providing Mental Health Counselling for Their Students. (2017). The Better India, 1.

Singh, A. (2020). Mental Health in Academic Settings. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law, 01(02), 481–501. https://ijpsl.in/wp-content/uploads/2020/12/Mental-Health-in-Academic-Settings_Angela-Singh.pdf

Nutrition Security: Role of Sustainable Food Systems in Eliminating the Triple-Burden of Malnutrition

Aishwarya Nangia
Volume I, Issue II
29 December 2020
Page No.: 502-523

Some people do not have enough food, while others are eating too much. Malnutrition in all forms, undernutrition, overnutrition and diet-related diseases is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Food produced in one part of the world is being wasted causing grave environmental impacts, while in another part there is lack of food for consumption leading to hunger. Rapid global population growth with an increase in demand for food is straining the health of the planet. These problems coexist and plague the world. An all-encompassing solution to these challenges is to make the food systems sustainable. Food systems have the potential to nurture both planetary and human health, but the present food systems are threatening both. Achieving a universal healthy population from healthy diets and sustainable food production should be the global public health goal. The transition to sustainable food systems requires moving from an agriculture centred food system to policy and research framework. Food and Nutrition Security should spearhead the transition since it is both a precursor as well as an outcome of sustainable food systems. This paper discusses all these linkages in detail and also looks at how the triple burden of malnutrition can be eliminated by sustainable food systems in the Indian context.

Aishwarya Nangia
Lady Irwin College, University of Delhi

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[3] Drewnowski, A., Finley, J., Hess, J. M., Ingram, J., Miller, G., & Peters, C.  (2020). Toward Healthy Diets from Sustainable Food Systems. Current Developments in Nutrition, 4(6), 1–12.

[4] El Bilali, H., Callenius, C., Strassner, C., & Probst, L. (2018). Food and nutrition security and sustainability transitions in food systems. Food and Energy Security, 8(2), e00154.

[5] Erdman, J. (2018, December 2). We produce enough food to feed 10 billion people. So why does hunger still exist? Medium.

[6] FAO, IFAD, UNICEF, WFP and WHO. (2020). The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World 2020. The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World 2020, 1–320.

[7] Food system transformation needed for human and planetary health. (2019, June 5). News.

[8] Ganesan, R. (2019, March 15). Food security is looming large over are heads. Will we be able to digest this? Living Media India Limited.

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[10] Healthy and sustainable food systems are crucial to fight hunger and malnutrition. (2014). Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

[11] Kannan, R. (2019, November 15). India is home to 77 million diabetics, second highest in the world. The Hindu.

[12] Lindgren, E., Harris, F., Dangour, A. D., Gasparatos, A., Hiramatsu, M., Javadi, F., Loken, B., Murakami, T., Scheelbeek, P., & Haines, A. (2018). Sustainable food systems—a health perspective. Sustainability Science, 13(6), 1505–1517.

[13] Mandla, A. (2019, August 18). Food for thought: Our country does not provide nutritious food for all. The ramifications are huge. Living Media India Limited.

[14] Popescu, A. (2019, July 2). First Index Designed to Boost Use of Agrobiodiversity. Food Tank.

[15] Sharma, N. C. (2019, October 31). Almost all adolescents in India are malnourished: UNICEF. Mint.

[16] Sharma, P. (2020, October 12). Why India isn’t a hungry nation but a society of full, yet undernourished bellies. Living Media India Limited.

[17] Sustainability. (2019, September 5). The Nutrition Source.

[18] The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World. (2019). Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

[19] The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World 2020 | FAO | Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. (2018). Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

[20] “Triple burden of malnutrition” slows down progress towards Zero Hunger in Europe and Central Asia. (2019). Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

[21] Vermeulen, S. J., Campbell, B. M., & Ingram, J. S. I. (2012). Climate Change and Food Systems. Annual Review of Environment and Resources, 37(1), 195–222.

[22] Walmsley, T. (2019, July 30). New Report Finds Hunger and Obesity on the Rise Worldwide. Food Tank. 

[23] Willett, W., Rockström, J., Loken, B., Springmann, M., Lang, T., Vermeulen, S., Garnett, T., Tilman, D., DeClerck, F., Wood, A., Jonell, M., Clark, M., Gordon, L. J., Fanzo, J., Hawkes, C., Zurayk, R., Rivera, J. A., De Vries, W., Majele Sibanda, L., et all (2019). Food in the Anthropocene: the EAT–Lancet Commission on healthy diets from sustainable food systems. The Lancet, 393(10170), 447–492.

Nangia, A. (2020). Nutrition Security: Role of Sustainable Food Systems in Eliminating the Triple-Burden of Malnutrition. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law, 01(02), 502–523. https://ijpsl.in/wp-content/uploads/2020/12/Nutrition-Security-Role-of-Sustainable-Food-Systems-in-Eliminating-the-Triple-Burden-of-Malnutrition_Aishwarya-Nangia.pdf

Climate Change and its Risks on Food Security

Tanisha Gulati
Volume I, Issue II
29 December 2020
Page No.: 524-541

Hunger is an issue of justice and not of charity. When we talk about food insecurity, we talk of prices and poverty, and smoothly ignore the other side of the coin. What happened to the monsoon patterns? Why, in an agrarian country, malnutrition roars like a beast? The rise in global temperatures has made humanity witness increased floods, burning forests, weeping glaciers, etc., and it’s the poorest of the poor and the marginalized that bear the weight of the worst implications. This paper attempts at drawing a bridge between the horrors that are climate change and food insecurity, using statistics and comparison of data sets of developing countries. Agriculture is the key that can be used to tackle food insecurity but it is also the sector that is directly impacted by climate change. Light on United Nations Sustainable Development Goals is also thrown while also analyzing some other associated risks of climate change such as biodiversity loss, poverty, climate refugees, etc.

Tanisha Gulati
Daulat Ram College, Delhi University

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[2] Climate Risk Profile: Brazil. (2018). Climatelinks. https://www.climatelinks.org/resources/climate-risk-profile-brazil#:%7E:text=The%20impacts%20of%20climate%20change,the%20people%20that%20rely%20on

[3] Climate Risk Profile: Brazil. (n.d.). Climatelinks. Retrieved November 6, 2020, from https://www.climatelinks.org/resources/climate-risk-profile-brazil#:%7E:text=The%20impacts%20of%20climate%20change,the%20people%20that%20rely%20on  (Climate Risk Profile: Brazil, n.d.)

[4] Climate Risk Profile: India. (2017). Climatelinks. https://www.climatelinks.org/resources/climate-risk-profile-india

[5] Climate Risk Profile: Sri Lanka. (2018). Climatelinks. https://www.climatelinks.org/resources/sri-lanka-climate-risk-profile

[6] Eckstein, D., Künzel, V., Schäfer, L., & Winges, M. (2019). GLOBAL CLIMATE RISK INDEX 2020. GERMANWATCH, 6. https://germanwatch.org/sites/germanwatch.org/files/20-2-01e%20Global%20Climate%20Risk%20Index%202020_10.pdf

[7] FAO. (n.d.). Increasing the resilience of agricultural livelihoods. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. http://www.fao.org/resilience/resources/resources-detail/en/c/414615/#:%7E:text=Worldwide%2C%20the%20livelihood%20of%202.5%20billion%20people%20depend%20on%20agriculture.&text=Disasters%20and%20crises%20don’t,have%20taken%20years%20to%20build  (FAO, n.d.)

[8] Food and Agriculture Organization. (n.d.). Food security and the right to food | www.fao.org. Food and Agriculture Organization by United Nations. Retrieved November 5, 2020, from http://www.fao.org/sustainable-development-goals/overview/fao-and-the-post-2015-development-agenda/food-security-and-the-right-to-food/en/  (Food and Agriculture Organization, n.d.)

[9] Global Food Security Index (GFSI). (2019). Global Food Security Index. https://foodsecurityindex.eiu.com/Index

[10] Global Hunger Index Scores by 2020 GHI Rank. (n.d.). Global Hunger Index (GHI) – Peer-Reviewed Annual Publication Designed to Comprehensively Measure and Track Hunger at the Global, Regional, and Country Levels. https://www.globalhungerindex.org/ranking.html

[11] GOAL 13: Climate action. (n.d.). UNEP – UN Environment Programme. https://www.unenvironment.org/explore-topics/sustainable-development-goals/why-do-sustainable-development-goals-matter/goal-13  (GOAL 13: Climate Action, n.d.)

[12] Hannah Ritchie and Max Roser (2017) – “CO₂ and Greenhouse Gas Emissions”. Published online at OurWorldInData.org. Retrieved from: https://ourworldindata.org/co2-and-other-greenhouse-gas-emissions

[13] How climate change is making record-breaking floods the new normal. (n.d.). UN Environment. Retrieved November 6, 2020, from https://www.unenvironment.org/news-and-stories/story/how-climate-change-making-record-breaking-floods-new-normal#:%7E:text=Floods%20are%20made%20more%20likely,long%2Dterm%20global%20climate%20change.&text=Extreme%20floods%20can%20be%20triggered,or%20a%20combination%20of%20these  (How Climate Change Is Making Record-Breaking Floods the New Normal, n.d.)

[14] Human Development Index (HDI) | Human Development Reports. (n.d.). UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME. http://hdr.undp.org/en/content/human-development-index-hdi

[15] Kumari, S. (2020, June 25). How To Mitigate The Impact of Climate Change On Agriculture. Feminism In India. https://feminisminindia.com/2020/06/26/climate-change-impact-on-agriculture-in-india/  (Kumari, 2020)

[16] Lombrana, L. M. (2020, December 2). Global Temperatures Already 1.2oC Above Pre-Industrial Levels. BloombergQuint. https://www.bloombergquint.com/global-economics/global-temperatures-already-1-2-c-above-pre-industrial-levels  (Lombrana, 2020)

[17] Meher, A. (2019, December 6). How Can We Tackle Malnutrition In India’s Marginalised Communities? Youth Ki Awaaz. https://www.youthkiawaaz.com/2019/12/malnutrition-in-the-marginalize-community/

[18] National Geographic Society. (2019a, March 27). Climate Change. https://www.nationalgeographic.org/encyclopedia/climate-change/  (National Geographic Society, 2019a)

[19] National Geographic Society. (2019b, September 9). Drought. https://www.nationalgeographic.org/encyclopedia/drought/  (National Geographic Society, 2019b)

[20] Oxfam. (2010). Fighting hunger in Brazil MUCH ACHIEVED, MORE TO DO. ‘Fighting Hunger in Brazil’ Oxfam Case Study, June 2010, 2. https://www-cdn.oxfam.org/s3fs-public/file_attachments/cs-fighting-hunger-brazil-090611-en_3.pdf  (Oxfam, 2010, p. 2)

[21] Oxfam India. (2018, November 15). Move over “Sons of the soil”: Why you need to know the female farmers that are revolutionizing agriculture in India. Oxfam India(OIN). https://www.oxfamindia.org/women-empowerment-india-farmers  (Oxfam India, 2018)

[22] Panchauri, S. (2019, February 19). The invisibility of gender in Indian agriculture. Down To Earth. https://www.downtoearth.org.in/blog/agriculture/the-invisibility-of-gender-in-indian-agriculture-63290  (Panchauri, 2019)

[23] Rattani, V., Venkatesh, S., Pandey, K., J., Kukreti, I., Somvanshi, A., & Sangomla, A. (2018, October 18). India’s National Action Plan on Climate Change needs desperate repair. Down To Earth. https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/climate-change/india-s-national-action-plan-on-climate-change-needs-desperate-repair-61884  (Rattani et al., 2018)

[24] Sangomla, A., & Amarnath, G. (2020, September 7). Deluge here, drought there: India’s rainfall conundrum continues. DownToEarth. https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/environment/deluge-here-drought-there-india-s-rainfall-conundrum-continues-73240  (Sangomla & Amarnath, 2020)

[25] Sentlinger, K. (n.d.). Water Scarcity and Agriculture. The Water Project. Retrieved November 8, 2020, from https://thewaterproject.org/water-scarcity/water-scarcity-and-agriculture  (Sentlinger, n.d.)

[26] Shah, A. (2020, October 28). How Are The Recent Farmers’ Protests In India A Feminist Issue? Feminism In India. https://feminisminindia.com/2020/10/29/recent-farmers-protests-india-feminist-issue/  (Shah, 2020)

[27] Statista. (2020, October 20). Distribution of the workforce across economic sectors in India 2020. https://www.statista.com/statistics/271320/distribution-of-the-workforce-across-economic-sectors-in-india/#:%7E:text=In%202020%2C%2041.49%20percent%20of,other%20sectors%2C%20industry%20and%20services

[28] The Economist. (2010, September 23). Putting the smallest first. https://www.economist.com/briefing/2010/09/23/putting-the-smallest-first

[29] The 2020 Global Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) | Human Development Reports. (n.d.). UNDP Human Development Reports. Retrieved November 6, 2020, from http://hdr.undp.org/en/2020-MPI#:%7E:text=Key%20findings-,The%20global%20multidimensional%20poverty%20index,percent%E2%80%94live%20in%20multidimensional%20poverty.&text=Children%20show%20higher%20rates%20of,are%20children%20under%20age%2018 .  (The 2020 Global Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) | Human Development Reports, n.d.)

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[32] UNDP. (2015). Sustainable Development Goals. https://www.undp.org/sustainable-development-goals#:%7E:text=The%20Sustainable%20Development%20Goals%20(SDGs,peace%20and%20prosperity%20by%202030

[33] Union of Concerned Scientists. (2020). Each Country’s Share of CO2 Emissions. https://www.ucsusa.org/resources/each-countrys-share-co2-emissions

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[35] United Nations. (2017, October 16). Climate Change Is A Key Driver of Migration and Food Insecurity. United Nations Climate Change. https://unfccc.int/news/climate-change-is-a-key-driver-of-migration-and-food-insecurity  (United Nations, 2017)

[36] USAID. (n.d.). CLIMATE RISK IN SRI LANKA: COUNTRY RISK PROFILE. Retrieved 2020, from https://www.climatelinks.org/sites/default/files/asset/document/Sri%20Lanka_CRP_Final.pdf

[37] Water and food security | International Decade for Action “Water for Life” 2005-2015. (2014).  https://www.un.org/waterforlifedecade/food_security.shtml  (Water and Food Security | International Decade for Action “Water for Life” 2005-2015, 2014)

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Gulati T. (2020). Climate Change and its Risks on Food Security. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law1(2), 524.

http://ijpsl.in/wp-content/uploads/2021/09/Climate-Change-Food-Security_Tanisha-Gulati.pdf

State of Street Vendors in India: Pre and Post COVID Analysis

Nitya Maniktala and Tanisha Jain
Volume I, Issue II
29 December 2020
Page No.: 542-560

The strong roots of street vending as an occupation are embedded deep in our society. Amongst the plethora of problems which plague them, indifference affects them the most. For most people, it is a mere economic exchange, one that does not evoke concern which was particularly evident during the global pandemic. With surging unemployment and poverty, they migrate in search of a better life. Belonging to the lower rungs of the society, these vendors do not have the opportunity, education or skill to work in the formal sector and thus end up operating in the informal economy with no job security and perpetual uncertainty. Street vendors form a prominent role in the supply chain by providing convenient and inexpensive goods and services to everyone and therefore contributing to India’s economic progress. Undertaking the welfare of the street vendors is integral to the achievement of two UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) namely, SDG 1 that focuses on poverty alleviation and SDG 8 which fulfils the objective of decent work and economic growth.

Efforts by various NGOs and organisations, through the years, have aimed to make the Indian government notice the plight of the street vendors. This has resulted in various policies and acts highlighting the rights and the laws to be implemented in their favour. This paper discusses in detail the policies introduced in the past two decades with an emphasis on the Street Vendors Act 2014 and the PM SVANidhi Scheme 2020. While the street vendors act brings to light the disparity in its execution among the states, the PM SVANidhi scheme 2020 that aims to formalise the street vendor economy faces the challenge of a dismantling health crisis.

Nitya Maniktala
Gargi College, University of Delhi
Tanisha Jain
Sri Guru Gobind Singh College of Commerce, University of Delhi

[1] Balbuena, P., & Skinner, C. (2020, June 7). For World’s Street Vendors, Life May Never be the Same after COVID-19. WIEGO.

[2] Bandyopadhyay, R. (2020, February 24). A Critique of the National Policy on Urban Street Vendors in India, 2009. Retrieved November 3, 2020.

[3] Centre for Civil Society. (2019, January). IMPLEMENTING THE STREET VENDORS ACT 2014 : Judicial Interpretation, Cross-State Compliance, and De Facto City-Level Practices.

[4] Centre for Civil Society. (n.d.). Street Vendors Act, 2014: Matrix of State Rules. Retrieved November 1, 2020.

[5] Correspondent, S. (2020, June 21). COVID-19 leaves street vendors in distress. Retrieved November 7, 2020.

[6]Dastidar, A. (2020, November 03). Explained: How scheme for street vendors will help alleviate poverty. Retrieved November 7, 2020.

[7] Housing and Land Rights Network Habitat International Coalition. (2011, February). Planned Dispossession Forced Evictions and the 2010 Commonwealth Games.

[8] Jha, R. (2018, July). Strengthening Urban India’s Informal Economy: The Case of Street Vending. Observer Research Foundation.

[9] Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs. (2020, June). PM Street Vendor’s AtmaNirbhar Nidhi (PM SVANidhi).

[10] Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs, Government of India. (2020). PM SVANidhi. PM SVANidhi.

[11] Ministry of Law and Justice, Government of India. (2014, March). The Street Vendors (Protection of Livelihood and Regulation of Street Vending) Act, 2014.

[12] Mohan, S. R. A. D. (17-11-01). Gaps in Implementation of Street Vendors Act Are Making Delhi’s Merchants Invisible. The Wire.

[13] National Association of Street Vendors of India. (2019). Annual Report 2018-19:National Association of Street Vendors of India.

[14] National Association of Street Vendors of India. (n.d.-b). Overview of Street Vendors – A Little History | National Association of Street Vendors of India – NASVI. Http://Nasvinet.Org/. Retrieved November 1, 2020.

[15] National Policy on Urban Street Vendors. (2006, May).

[16] Online, F. E. (2020, May 14). Modi govt’s answer to migrant workers, street vendors crisis too little, too late; this issue remains. The Financial Express.

[17] Rattan, P. (2014, December 15). Street Vendors Act 2014: A Forgotten Promise? Centre for Civil Society

[18] Street Vendors | SEWA Delhi. (n.d.). Sewa Delhi. Retrieved November 7, 2020

[19] UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD. (2020). COVID-19: Government Response Stringency Index. Our World in Data.

Maniktala, N., & Jain, T. (2020). State of Street Vendors in India: Pre and Post COVID Analysis. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law, 01(02), 542–560. https://ijpsl.in/wp-content/uploads/2020/12/State-of-Street-Vendors-in-India-Pre-and-Post-COVID-Analysis_Nitya-Maniktala-Tanisha-Jain.pdf

Workplace Distress: Productivity and Stigma

Namrata Chatterjee and Milap Basumatary
Volume I, Issue II
29 December 2020
Page No.: 561-574

The prevalence of mental distress in the workplace is a conveniently neglected reality. Indian workplaces are no exception to this, which leads to employees suffering from mental health issues being stigmatised and ostracised. With added elements of excessive workload, lack of standard mental health policies, and high-stress environments of a rising economy, mental health issues are at the forefront of problems faced by employees. This paper aims to explore the underlying causes of this industry-wide problem by employing both primary and secondary methods of data collection. Findings from the primary study establish that problems pertaining to nature, and quantity of work that employees are expected to perform, paired with the compensation they receive for it and the relationships they have with colleagues and superiors, form the basis of their workplace distress. Secondary literature suggests that nearly half of all Indian employees suffer from workplace distress or neuroses, that can be attributed to the variables studied in the primary research. These findings shed light on a very real and widespread issue which calls for urgent action.

Namrata Chatterjee
B.A. Programme (Psychology and Philosophy) Jesus and Mary College, University of Delhi
Milap Basumatary
B.A. Hons Economics, Kirori Mal College, University of Delhi

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[2] Birla, N. B. (2019). Mental health may hurt India. Economictimes.    https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/magazines/panache/mental-health-may-hurt-india-to-tune-of-1-03-trillion-heres-a-dose-for-cos/articleshow/71045027.cms 

[3] Brohan, E. B., & Thornicroft, G. T. (2010). Stigma and discrimination of mental health problems: workplace implications. Oxford Academic Journals. https://academic.oup.com/occmed/article/60/6/414/1390841

[4] Hampson, M. E. (2020, June 8). Impacts of stigma and discrimination in the workplace on people living with psychosis. BMC Psychiatry. https://bmcpsychiatry.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12888-020-02614-z 

[5] Maulik, P. K. (2017, April 1). Workplace stress: A neglected aspect of mental health wellbeing Maulik PK – Indian J Med Res. Ijmr.Org.n. https://www.ijmr.org.in/article.asp?issn=0971-5916;year=2017;volume=146;issue=4;spage=441;epage=444;aulast=Maulik;type=0

[6] Quain, S. Q. (2018, April 30). What Is the Difference Between Formal and Informal Working? Azcentral. https://yourbusiness.azcentral.com/difference-between-formal-informal-working-25912.html 

[7] Removing Stigma – 5 Rs of workplace mental health. (2014, May 23). Morneau Shepell.

[8] https://www.morneaushepell.com/ca-en/insights/removing-stigma-5-rs-workplace-mental-health

[9] Verma, P. (2019, January 22). Workplace depression taking a toll on India Inc employees. The Economic Times. https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/jobs/workplace-depression-taking-a-toll-on-india-inc-employees/articleshow/67633549.cms 

[10] World Health Organization. (2005). WHO | Mental health policies and programmes in the workplace. WHO. https://www.who.int/mental_health/policy/services/essentialpackage1v13/en/

 

Chatterjee N. & Basumatary M. (2020). Workplace Distress: Productivity and Stigma. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law1(1), 524.

http://ijpsl.in/wp-content/uploads/2021/09/Workplace-Distress-Productivity-and-Stigma_Namrata-Chatterjee-Milap-Basumatary.pdf

Decriminalization of Sex Work

Anshika Sharma and Nihar Ranjan Sahu
Volume I, Issue II
29 December 2020
Page No.: 575-588

Sex Work is considered as a highly disregarded, condemned, disapproved, debossed and humiliating work in the society. In the ancient time, those sex workers who were working in the temple used to be known as ‘devadasi’ or slaves of the divine god but what we see today is if someone chooses sex work as an occupation, the person is treated as impure sand on the shore. They are deprived of their basic needs, there is a lack of clean water, poor living space, rotten food and then reluctance to do work. Those who don’t join the profession by their will live a life in hell. They suffer both physical and mental pain and then comes the demand for the criminalization of sex work. What needs to be understood is that human trafficking and voluntary sex work are two different things. Since a human being has not been able to control his desires yet which are limitless that has ripped off ethics with crimes like rape, cases of which are rising day by day and our government has barely been able to take any action to reduce crimes like this, decriminalization of sex work can be an option to give a thought on. The prostitute sells herself in every possible way; her body, her sexual skills, her self respect, only for the pleasure of the customer. She is objectified, treated not as a human being but as a means to the customer’s sexual goals. Nothing can justify injustice and inhumane behaviour. The social structure of perception about sex workers gives no help, this also needs to be changed. No law can challenge the power of acceptance. A law made and not accepted is a law wasted.

Anshika Sharma
Lady Irwin College, University of Delhi
Nihar Ranjan Sahu Ravenshaw University, Cuttack

[1] Abel, G., Healy, C., Bennachie, C., Reed, A., (May, 2010). ” The Prostitution Reform Act.” Research Gate.

[2] Budhwani, H., Hearld, K.R., Milner, A.N., Charow, R., McGlanghlin, E., Mayra, R., Lauzurique, R., Rosario, S., Ramirez, R.P. (n.d). “Transgender Women’s Experiences with Stigma, Trauma, and Attempted Suicide in the Dominican Republic.” Suicide life Threat Behav, Vol. 48(6), 788-796.

[3] Center for HIV Identification, Prevention and Treatment Services. (n.d). “Collaborative Evaluations with the Sonagachi/Durbar Community-Led Structural Intervention (CLSI) with Sex Workers in India.” Center for HIV Identification, Prevention and Treatment Services.

[4] Farley, M., Cotton, A., Lynne, J., Zumbeck, S., Spiwak, F., Reyes, M.E., Alvarez, D., Sezgin, U. (2004). “Prostitution and Trafficking in Nine Countries”. Journal of Trauma Practice, Vol. 2 (3-4).

[5] Human Rights Watch. (2017). “Rape for Profit: Trafficking of Nepali Girls and Women to India’s Brothels.” Human Rights Watch 12, no. 5(A)

[6] International Labour Organisation. (1996-2018). “Decent Work.” International Labour Organisation.

[7] New Zealand Legislation. (June, 2003).” Prostitution Reform Act”. New Zealand Legislation.

[8] Overall, C. (1992). “What’s Wrong with Prostitution? Evaluating Sex Work.” Signs, 17(4), 705-724.

[9] Pai, A., Seshu, M., Gupte, M. & VAMP. (2014). “Status of Sex Workers in India”. Centre for Advocacy on Stigma and Marginalisation, (CASAM), India, Sampada Grameen Mahila Sanstha (SANGRAM), India, Mahila Sarvangeen Utkarsh Mandal (MASUM), India, Veshya Anyay Mukti Parishad (VAMP), Sex Workers Collective, India.

[10]  Pauw, I. (2007). “Why Do People Become Sex Workers?”. Health24

[11] Snyder, H.N., Cooper, A.D., Mulako-Wangota, J., (n.d). “Arrest Data Analysis Tool.” Bureau of Justice Statistics.

[12] The Hindu. (November,2020). “Maharashtra Government to rovide ₹5,000 per month to Sex Workers”. The Hindu.

[13]  UNAIDS Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS. (2018). “Miles To Go: Closing Gaps Breaking Barriers Righting Injustices”UNAIDS Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS.

[14]  United Nations Development Programme. (2007). “Push to Open: An Appraisal of Sex Workers’ Access to Basic Services.” United Nations Development Programme.

[15]  United Nations Development Programme. (2020). “Goal 8: Decent Work and Economic Growth”. United Nations Development Programme.

[16]  United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. (n.d. ).”Human Trafficking”. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime.

[17]  Watson, L., & Flanigan, J. (n.d.). “Debating Sex Work.” Oxford University Press

 

Sharma, A., & Sahu, N. R. (2020). Decriminalization of Sex Work. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law, 01(02), 575–588. https://ijpsl.in/wp-content/uploads/2020/12/Decriminalization-of-Sex-Work_Anshika-Sharma-Nihar-Ranjan-Sahu.pdf

Effects of Climate Change on Slums with a Special Focus on Mumbai, India

Anjali Mishra and Aindrila Saha
Volume I, Issue II
29 December 2020
Page No.: 589-620

The contribution of the upper classes and lower classes to climate change are extremely contrasting. Those who lack the resources to contribute to climate change also lack the resources to fight it. Through the survey and consequent research conducted, this paper challenges what the general public assumes to be common knowledge in terms of slums being the root of all problems that an urban city like Mumbai faces. Highlighting the actual factors that cause climate change like improper waste management, lack of strong legislation in place for structural demolition and development, it also dives into what the consequences of them lead to climate injustice. The authors recommend several measures ranging from higher resident investment, youth awareness, to the proactive role that authorities should play with regards to identifying and serving the slum dwellers.

Anjali Mishra
SIES Autonomous College of Arts, Sciences and Commerce, Mumbai
Aindrila Saha
Loreto College, Kolkata

[1] A Jewish religious leader.

[2] An ancient Greek philosopher.

[3] 129mph, 96-112kt, 178-208km/h
Devastating damage will occur: Well-built framed homes may incur major damage or removal of roof decking and gable ends. Many trees will be snapped or uprooted, blocking numerous roads. Electricity and water will be unavailable for several days to weeks after the storm passes.

[4] 130-156mph, 113-136kt, 209-251km/h
Catastrophic damage will occur: Well-built framed homes can sustain severe damage with loss of most of the roof structure and/or some exterior walls. Most trees will be snapped or uprooted and power poles downed. Fallen trees and power poles will isolate residential areas. Power outages will last weeks to possibly months. Most of the area will be uninhabitable for weeks or months.

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[6] (2018, August 3). Dharavi: Asia’s Largest Slum Or A Recycling And Circular Economy Goldmine? Green Is The New Black.

[7] C. (2018, April 2). “The only constant in life is change”-Heraclitus. Executive Drug Rehab | Private Drug Rehab.

[8] Chandola, V. (2014, September). Study impacts of Global Climate Change, and Adaptation-Mitigation Strategies for India’s metropolitan city, Mumbai. ResearchGate.

[9] Change, N. G. C. (n.d.). Sea Level | NASA Global Climate Change. Climate Change: Vital Signs of the Planet. Retrieved November 6, 2020.

[10]  Climate Home. (2013, February 21). India’s climate change laws. Climate Home News.

[11] Committee on Extreme Weather Events and Climate Change Attribution; Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate; Division on Earth and Life Studies; National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. (n.d.). “Attribution of Extreme Weather Events in the Context of Climate Change.” 

[12] Das, S. (2012, November). Nutritional status of young children in Mumbai slums: a follow-up anthropometric study. Nutrition Journal, BMC. 

[13]  Davis, B. (n.d.). Solid Waste Management in Mumbai [E-book]. The Bombay Community Public Trust.

[14]  Dey, S. (2019a, September 22). The Climate Change Paradox: Slum Dwellers Contribute Least, But Bear the Maximum Brunt. News18.

[15]  Dey, S. (2019b, September 22). The Climate Change Paradox: Slum Dwellers Contribute Least, But Bear the Maximum Brunt. News18.

[16]  Directorate of Census Operations MAHARASHTRA. (2011). Census of India 2011. 

[17]  European Commission. (2017, June 28). Causes of climate change. Climate Action – European Commission.

[18]  FPJ Bureau. (2018, July 27). Mumbai Slums! An intriguing tale of despair and hope. Free Press Journal.

[19] Government of India. (2019, December 4). Census of India 2021 – Circular no.7.

[20]  Greta Thunberg quotes: 10 famous lines from teen activist – CBBC Newsround. (2019, September 25). BBC News.

[21] Gupta, K. (2007). Urban flood resilience planning and management and lessons for the future: a case study of Mumbai, India. Urban Water Journal, 4(3), 183–194.

[22]  MacMillan, A. (2016, March 11). Global Warming 101. NRDC.

[23] Moynihan, C. (2020, September 21). A New York Clock That Told Time Now Tells the Time Remaining. 

[24] Mumbai (Greater Mumbai) City Population Census 2011-2020 | Maharashtra. (n.d.).

[25]  Osborne, Z. (2020, March 21). For Mumbai’s slum-dwellers, climate change is slicing away the haves from the have-nots. ABC News.

[26] Pandit, S. (2017, December 14). 504 students in Maharashtra have suffered food poisoning from mid-day meals in five years. Hindustan Times.

[27] Pranay, G. (1980). Crowded Earth. W. W. Norton and Company, Inc.

[28] R. (2017, June 8). Stopping Climate Injustice. Resilience.

[29] Rana, A. (2013). Climate Change Effects On Rainfall and Management of Urban Flooding. Lund University.

[30] Swami, S. K. (2017). An Empirical Study of Growth of Slum Population in India. International Journal of Political Science, 3(1), 10–13.

[31]  United Nations Climate Change. (n.d.-a). Kyoto Protocol – Targets for the first commitment period. Retrieved November 6, 2020.

[32] United Nations Climate Change. (n.d.-b). What is Kyoto Protocol. Retrieved November 5, 2020.

[33] 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference. (2020, October 17). In Wikipedia.

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Mishra, A., & Saha, A. (2020). Effects of Climate Change on Slums with a Special Focus on Mumbai, India. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law, 01(02), 589–620. https://ijpsl.in/wp-content/uploads/2020/12/Effects-of-Climate-Change-on-Slums-with-a-Special-Focus-on-Mumbai-India_Anjali-Mishra-Aindrila-Saha.pdf

Justice System: A Comparative Study between India and the U.S.

Pragya Rastogi and Shruti Mandal
Volume I, Issue II
29 December 2020
Page No.: 621-636

Strengthening the rule of law and increasing institutional accountability is the key to reduce conflicts and injustice. In an attempt to promote world peace and conflict-free institutions, the United Nations set up a few goals, to be achieved by 2030, which aim to reduce corruption and bribery, eradicate violence against children, decrease abuse and exploitation, enforce non-discriminatory laws and policies and develop transparent institutions, just to name a few. The paper aims to specifically study how the justice systems in the two countries, India and America have affected the peace in those regions. Also, to see whether India, the world’s largest democracy and America, one of the world’s oldest democracies, have certain flaws and biases in their justice systems that originate from historical oppression of caste and race respectively. It also asks, given the fact that justice is an important component of all democratic republics, does the presence of a biased justice system prove to be a major threat to democracy and development.

Pragya Rastogi
Gargi College, University of Delhi
Shruti Mandal
College of Vocational Studies, University of Delhi

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[2] Adams, M., Bell, L. A., & Griffin, P. (1997). Teaching for Diversity and Social Justice (1st ed.). Routledge

[3] Clear IAS TEAM. (2018, October 12). Criminal Justice System of India – Is it time to implement the Malimath Committee Report? ClearIAS.

[4] Criminal Justice System In India Biased Against The Poor. (2018). LAWYERS GYAN.

[5] Datta, S. (2019, January 5). How Caste Plays Out in the Criminal Justice System. News Click.

[6] Dhingra, S. (2018, May 1). No Dalit judge in the country’s top court that passed order on SC/ST Act. ThePrint.

[7] Griggs, J. C. C. A. B. (2018, September 5). There have been 113 Supreme Court justices in history. Only 6 have been minorities – CNNPolitics. CNN.

[8] History.com Editors. (2020, June 9). 13th Amendment. HISTORY.

[9] Incarceration nation. (2014, October). American Psychological Association.

[10] Indias criminal justice system: An example of justice delayed, justice denied. (2015). Firstpot.

[11] Islamophobia art. (2017)

[12] KAY JOHNSON, Associated Press. (2016, September 4). Census: 1 in 6 India city residents lives in slums – The [Slides]. San Diego Union-Tribune.

[13]  Kelly, W. R. K. (2018, April). Why Punishment Doesn’t Reduce Crime. Psychology Today.

[14]  Khanna, R. (2020, June 5). George Floyd vs Faizan: Many Similarities, One Big Difference. TheQuint.

[15]  King, M. L. (1994). Letter from the Birmingham Jail (1st ed.). Harpercollins.

[16]  Lopez, G. (2016, March 29). Was Nixon’s war on drugs a racially motivated crusade? It’s a bit more complicated. Vox.

[17]  M. (2019, January 18). Report finds entrenched caste discrimination in India’s criminal justice system. International Dalit Solidarity Network. 

[18] McLaughlin, M. M. (2017, September). The Link Between Peace and Sustainable Development. The ADEC Innovations Blog

[19] Mohanty, Y. (2017, January 9). HuffPost is now a part of Verizon Media. HUFFPOST

[20] Narasappa, H. (2019, November 13). Justice delayed is justice denied. Hindustan Times. 

[21] Netflix. (2020a, April 17). 13TH | FULL FEATURE | Netflix. YouTube.

[22] Netflix. (2020b, April 17). 13TH | FULL FEATURE | Netflix. YouTube.

[23] Police executive research forum. (2015). Re-Engineering Training On Police Use of Force (No. 3).

[24] S, A. (2016, July 15). Role of Media in Making Public Policy on Indias Criminal Justice System: A Study of News Reporting on Actor Salman Khans Acquittal in A Murder Case | Open Access Journals. Global Media Journal.

[25]  Shivaram, C. (2018, March 23). Criminal justice system in India skewed against the..ry losing credibility due to repeated legal oversights. Firstpost. 

[26] Shrivastava, J. C. (2020, May 30). Fault Lines Of India’s Criminal Justice System: Warning Bells And The Way Forward.

[27] Shukla, R. (2017, March). To Remove Caste Bias From the Judicial System, Judges Need to Self-Correct. The Wire.

[28] Suttie, J. S. (2015, September 22). How Bias Warps Criminal Justice. Greater Good. 

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[31]  Turan, K. (2016a, October 6). Ava DuVernay’s documentary “13th” simmers with anger and burns with eloquence. Los Angeles Times. 

[32] Turan, K. (2016b, October 6). Ava DuVernay’s documentary “13th” simmers with anger and burns with eloquence. Los Angeles Times.

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[34]  Wikipedia contributors. (2020b, October 31). Education for justice. Wikipedia.

[35] Wikipedia contributors. (2020c, October 31). List of U.S. communities with African-American majority populations in 2000. Wikipedia.

Rastogi, P., & Mandal, S. (2020). Justice System: A Comparative Study between India and the U.S. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law, 01(02), 621–636. https://ijpsl.in/wp-content/uploads/2020/12/Justice-System-A-Comparative-Study-between-India-and-the-US_Pragya-Rastogi-Shruti-Mandal.pdf

India’s Neighbourhood First Policy in the Backdrop of CAA-NRC: Effect on India-Bangladesh ties in a Globalizing World

Guntash Obhan
Volume I, Issue II
29 December 2020
Page No.: 637-647

The proposed study explores the current relationship between Bangladesh and India under the aegis of India’s Neighborhood First Strategy in the contemporary context centring on the National Register of Citizens (NRC) and the Citizenship (Amendment) Act (CAA)-2019. The key point of the analysis is that the proposed domestic policy and changes in citizenship Bill can have unintended consequences for Bangladesh-India relationship in the future. The paper also touches upon the effect of the policy on India’s relation with other neighbouring countries. As C. Raja Mohan once said “without enduring primacy in one’s neighbourhood, no nation can become a credible power on the global stage.”; the same can apply to India’s state in the current scenario. Hence, India needs to be cautious of the direct bearing of its domestic policy on its international policies specifically “The Neighbourhood First Policy”.

Guntash Obhan
Political Science and Economics, Lady Shri Ram College for Women, University of Delhi

[1] Ahmad, O. (2020, October 26). [:en]India-Bangladesh expanded river trade opens up opportunities for locals [:] |. The Third Pole.

[2] Balakrishnan, P. (2019, December 18). India’s neighbours haven’t taken kindly to the Citizenship Act. @businessline.

[3] Balland, S. C. (2020, February 18). How India’s CAA, NRC affect Bangladesh. Asia Times.

[4] Basu, N. (2020, July 31). China takes Bangladesh into its embrace now as Delhi-Dhaka ties go downhill. ThePrint.

[5] Chakravarty, P. R. (2019, December 21). Does India stand to lose Bangladesh’s friendship over CAA & NRC? ORF.

[6] Chaudhury, D. R. (2020, August 18). India, Bangladesh explore expansion of development & eco partnership as Hasina meets Foreign Secy. The Economic Times.

[7] Guha, S. (2020, February 5). CAA, NRC move triggers disquiet in Dhaka. Tribuneindia News Service.

[8] IANS. (2016, July 26). India wants close security coordination with Bangladesh: Envoy. Zee News

[9] Islam, Z. (2019, December 25). The false propaganda about minority persecution in Bangladesh. The Daily Star.

[10] Joshi, A. (2019, December 15). View From The Neighbourhood: India disappoints. The Indian Express.

[11] Khan, S. E. (2020, January 5). Eight points to consider. The Daily Star.

[12] Parthiban, P. (2020, July 31). BJP’s political agenda pushing Bangladesh towards China. The Federal.

[13] Patranobis, S. (2019, November 12). China-Bangladesh to build Dhaka’s mega new town project called Purbachal. Hindustan Times.

[14] Patranobis, S. (2020, October 4). China wants Bangladesh to align strategies, promote Belt and Road projects. Hindustan Times.

[15] S, P. (2020, June 6). PM Narendra Modi’s Speech at 69th UN General Assembly (Full Transcript). The Singju Post. 

[16] Saha, R. (2020, February 3). The ‘anti-neighbour’ rhetoric inherent in CAA will cost India dearly. South Asia Journal.

[17] Scroll. (2019, December 12). Now, Bangladesh home minister cancels India visit amid anti-Citizenship Act protests: Reports. Scroll.In.

[18] Scroll. (2020, January 1). Uncertainty over Citizenship Act and NRC may affect India’s neighbours: Bangladesh foreign minister. Scroll.In.

[19] Srinivasan, M. (2020, January 16). Sri Lankan academics, activists ‘deeply concerned’ by CAA, NRC. The Hindu.

[20] Sufian, A. (2020). Geopolitics of the NRC-CAA in Assam: Impact on Bangladesh–India Relations. Asian Ethnicity, 1-31.

[21] Ullah akash, H. A. N. I. F., N., Sarker, T. A., & N. (2020, March 2). People protest Modi’s upcoming Bangladesh visit. Dhaka Tribune.

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Obhan, G. (2020). India’s Neighbourhood First Policy in the Backdrop of CAA-NRC: Effect on India-Bangladesh ties in a Globalizing World. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law, 01(02), 637–647. https://ijpsl.in/wp-content/uploads/2020/12/Indias-Neighbourhood-First-Policy-in-the-Backdrop-of-CAA-NRC-Effect-on-India-Bangladesh-ties-in-a-Globalising-World_Guntash-Obhan.pdf

Mental Health of the Army Personnel: Impact of Training and Lifestyle

Alankrita Kumar
Volume I, Issue II
29 December 2020
Page No.: 648-661

The armed forces as a profession is a physically and emotionally demanding one and requires an arduous level of resilience and mental robustness. This paper aims to understand the aspects and consequent impact of training and lifestyle, exclusively on defence personnel’s mental health, given their need to deal with situations of unusual nature and requirements. It also aims to explore the level of susceptibility to mental distress and illnesses of the soldiers, owing to their peculiar job profiles. Through a survey of 25 serving and retired soldiers in the tri-service in India, it was found that even though a distinct need for
professional, psychological intervention is considered important, help-seeking behaviour is very low, owing to both stigma and little provision available. SWOT Analysis was done to understand the current structure and which aspects need to be improved upon or amended. Findings also suggested that despite the stress of the academy training and traumatic experiences, there has been more positive impact than negative, including increased resilience, self-reliance, motivation, agility and self-esteem. However, setbacks, losses, sense of alienation from society and the constant pressure of performance does render them vulnerable to mental health issues including depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), burnouts, etc. Therefore, an improved and more efficient structure to cater to the mental health of defence personnel is indeed required, to ensure happy and healthy lives of the servers of our nation, both on and off duty.

Alankrita Kumar
BA Programme, Psychology and Philosophy, Jesus and Mary College, University of Delhi

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[4] Outlook Web Bureau. (2018, January 5). More Than 1,200 Cadets Quit NDA In Last 10 Years, Alumni Blame It On Ragging, Torture, Excessive Punishment.

[5] Sharma, S. S. (2015, September 1). Occupational stress in the armed forces: An Indian army perspective. ScienceDirect.

 

Kumar, A. (2020). Mental Health of the Army Personnel: Impact of Training and Lifestyle. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law, 01(02), 648–661. https://ijpsl.in/wp-content/uploads/2020/12/Mental-Health-of-the-Army-Personnel-Impact-of-Training-and-Lifestyle_Alankrita-Kumar.pdf

Sustainable Businesses: Understanding the Plight of Women Workers in Domestic and Informal Sectors

Sara Sharma and Tara Kalra
Volume I, Issue II
30 December 2020
Page No.: 662-697

The concept of need-centric sustainability has now been around for three decades. The holistic approach towards sustainability as a means of combining environmental protection, economic growth, and social justice, especially gender equality, is relatively unexplored. This paper acknowledges the role women can play in establishing a comprehensive and inclusive sustainability model, especially in order to bring meaningful change at the grass-root level. Further, an attempt to understand the existing trends surrounding the apparel industry and its far-reaching effects on the people living in South Asian countries has also been made. The paper analyses the potential sustainable businesses like online thrift stores hold in reforming and transforming our relatively distressed planet. Real development and progress will not happen solely on the basis of economic gains. Young, innovative and informed entrepreneurs and leaders must work with vulnerable communities in carving the way towards a truly sustainable planet- a thought which reverberates throughout the paper.

Sara Sharma
G.D Goenka School, Vasant Kunj, Delhi
Tara Kalra
BA Hons, English, Lady Shri Ram College, University of Delhi

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[12] Jacobs, E. (n.d.). The fast fashion supply chain. Itsupplychain.Com. Retrieved November 9, 2020.

[13] Jagriti Chanda, J. C. (2020, October 18). Rights of domestic workers in focus post-lockdown. The Hindu.

[14] Kingshuk Sarkar, K. S. (2020, August 8). Why Is It Difficult to Implement Minimum Wages Act in India? Eleventh Column.

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[16] Mahmud, M. S., Rajath, V., Mahmud, R., & Jahan, M. N. (2018). Health Issues of Female Garment Workers: Evidence from Bangladesh. Journal of Population and Social Studies, 186.

[17] Panicker, A. (2018, March 8). The quiet rise of Anita Dongre. Thehindu.Com.

[18] Parisi, D. (2020, July 9). Rise and fall of reformation. Glossy.Co.

[19] Pradeep, R. P., & Ankita Ray, A. R. (2017, June 13). Challenges in Implementation of the Sexual Harassment of Women at Workplace. Society for Human Resource Management.

[20] Rajiv Kumar, R. J., & Pankhuri Dutt, P. D. (2020, April 6). Why women are less likely to start new ventures than men. The Economic Times.

[21] Rao, N. R., & Anita Raj, A. R. (2019, July 1). Women May Be More Vulnerable To Climate Change But Data Absent. India Spend.

[22] Ratcliffe, R. (2019, February 1). Major western brands pay Indian garment workers 11p an hour. The Guardian.Com.

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[26] Stanton, A. (n.d.). What is fast fashion? Thegoodtrade.Com. Retrieved November 8, 2020.

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[29] United Nations Economic and Social Council. (2016, December). Women’s economic empowerment in the changing world of work (E/CN.6/2017/3). united nations.

[30] Wang, T. Y. (2010). Consumer Behaviour Characteristics in Fast Fashion. Consumer Behaviour Characteristics in Fast Fashion, 1.

Sharma Kalra, S. T. (2020). Sustainable Businesses: Understanding the Plight of Women Workers in Domestic and Informal Sectors. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law, 01(02), 662–697. https://ijpsl.in/wp-content/uploads/2020/12/Sustainable-Businesses-Understanding-the-Plight-of-Women-Workers-in-Domestic-and-Informal-Sectors_Sara-Sharma-Tara-Kalra.pdf

Analysing Non-Inclusive New Education Policy 2020 Concerning Children from Marginalised Community and Proposing Solutions

Keshvi Raonka and Tammana Joon
Volume I, Issue II
30 December 2020
Page No.: 698-714

This research paper aims to analyse the new National Education Policy 2020 in the context of marginalised sections of India. The paper limits its research to some marginalised communities namely Scheduled Caste, Scheduled Tribes, children from urban slums and children with special abilities. It concentrates on different problems relating to children belonging to (above stated) marginalised communities separately. The paper includes the shortcomings of NEP 2020 with reference to the inclusivity of marginalised children in India. It defines inclusivity in education along with elaborating on why some communities categorised as marginalised need inclusivity in policies formed by the government. Lastly, the research is concluded by some treatments suggested to the policy in order to make it more inclusive for marginalised children.

Keshvi Raonka
Banasthali University, Rajasthan
Tammana Joon
BA Hons, Political Science, University of Delhi

[1] “75% of children with disability don’t attend school in India; UNESCO.” India Today. July 4,2019.

[2] Agarwal, Khushi. “ Why We must Be Critical Of The New Education Policy 2020.” Feminism in India. August 6, 2020.

[3] Batra, Poonam. “ Is the National Education Policy 2020 designed to deliver equitable quality public education?” Scroll.in. August 17, 2020.

[4] Bhatia, Ruchi. 2018. “Group 2 — Education for Students with Disabilities in India.” Medium. February 27, 2018.

[5] Chetia, Devdarshan. “ Education in India is still exclusive.” Gplus. August 8, 2020.

[6] Desai, Armaity. “Education of the child in urban slums: An overview of factors affecting learning and responsive action through social work.” the indian journal of social work, vol L, no. 4, (October 1989) : 523.

[7] “English as a Second Language ( ESL) for Inclusive Education.” 2017. The Progressive Teacher. March 9, 2017.

[8] “Inclusion in Education.” UNESCO, 23 Nov. 2017.

[9] “Inclusive Education.” n.d. Www.Unicef.org.

[10] “India: Marginalized Children Denied Education.” 2014. Human Rights Watch. April 22, 2014.

[11] “Innovations in Education of Marginalised Children.” Popular Talk

[12] IPC. 2020. “NEP 2020: Challenges, Criticisms, Way Forward.” IndianPolicyC. August 7, 2020.

[13] Jebaraj, Pricilla. “ Fall in percentage of school education funds for SC, ST’s” . “ The Hindu” . March 9, 2020.

[14] Krishnan, Varun B. 2019. “24% of Indians Have a Smartphone, Says Pew Study.” The Hindu, February 8, 2019, sec. National.

[15] Kundu, Protiva. n.d. “Indian Education Can’t Go Online – Only 8% of Homes with Young Members Have Computer with Net Link.” Scroll.In.

[16] “Minority missing; NEP- 2020 is yet another non inclusive policy.” The Siasat Daily. August 10, 2020.

[17] “NEP Will Add to the Existing Rural-Urban Divide That Has Caused Great Damage to the Marginalised.” 2020. The Indian Express. September 6, 2020.

[18] “New Education Policy-2020 What’s in the Plate for Marginal Students?” 2020. Countercurrents. September 16, 2020.

[19] Philips, J. “ Some hits and the many misses of NEP.” Businessline. The Hindu, September 20, 2020.

[20] “Schooling of Scheduled Tribes in India.” n.d. University Practice Connect.

[21] Sharma, Anjali. “National Education Policy 2020; Why Is It Euphoria Around A Grand Vision Need Reflection.” The logical Indian. August 27, 2020.

[22] Singal, Nidhi. “Inclusive Education in India: International Concept National Interpretation.” International Journal of Disability, 2006.

[23] “The right to education.” Savethechildren, November 9, 2020.

[24] Wankhede, G. “Social and Educational Problems of Scheduled Castes: Some Critical Insights…” n.d. Ijsw.Tiss.Edu. Accessed November 12, 2020.

Raonka,Joon, K. T. (2020). Analysing Non-Inclusive New Education Policy 2020 Concerning Children from Marginalised Community and Proposing Solutions. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law, 01(02), 698–714. https://ijpsl.in/wp-content/uploads/2020/12/Analysing-Non-Inclusive-NEP-2020-Concerning-Children-from-Marginalised-Community-and-Proposing-Solutions_Keshvi-Raonka-Tammana-Joon.pdf

An Overview of Community Mental Health and Depression in India

Tina Chawla and Mahi Singh
Volume I, Issue II
30 December 2020
Page No.: 715-728

People fail to realise and understand how important it is to have a serious approach regarding mental health issues. No state other than Gujarat and Kerala has a well developed mental health care policy with defined goals, procedures, or aim. It was hoped that with the inclusion of this component an integrated mental health service model would be established. Most community psychological state services operate from a clinic. There are different types of community psychological state services. This will give way for mental health care to be more affordable by everyone, regardless of their position on the social ladder. They usually have various sorts of psychological state professionals, including case managers, psychiatrists, social workers, occupational therapists, psychologists, and drug and alcohol workers. There is a proper procedure to help someone struggling with mental illnesses and a set course of action. The specific aims of the program initiated were to extend awareness about mental disorders and their treatments. An effective community mental program is required to provide mental health services to people, and it will require a collective effort from state governments, NGOs and mental health practitioners.

Tina Chawla
Daulat Ram College, University of Delhi
Mahi Singh
Daulat Ram College, University of Delhi

[1] CR. Chandrasekhar, R., R. Padmavathi, S., JR. Geddes, R., M. Issac, R., R. Thara, A., N. Sartorius, A., . . . R. Padmavati, R. (1999, January 01). Community mental health in India: A rethink. Retrieved November 20, 2020.

[2] Cupina, D. (2007, June). Community mental health services–the New Zealand experience. Retrieved November 20, 2020.

[3] Mental Health and Wellbeing. (n.d.). Retrieved November 20, 2020.

[4] Patel, V. (2010). Mental and neurological public health: A global perspective. San Diego, CA: Academic Press/Elsevier.

[5] Thornicroft, G., Deb, T., & Henderson, C. (2016, October). Community mental health care worldwide: Current status and further developments.

Chawla, Singh, T. M. (2020). An Overview of Community Mental Health and Depression in India. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law, 01(02), 715–728. https://ijpsl.in/wp-content/uploads/2020/12/An-Overview-of-Community-Mental-Health-and-Depression-in-India_Tina-Chawla-Mahi-Singh.pdf

Human Rights in Kashmir – Violated or Restored

Rahul Bansal and Muskan Punia
Volume I, Issue II
30 December 2020
Page No.: 729-746

Often, one’s privilege is overlooked. One of these privileges is Human Rights. The recent abrogation of the special status of Jammu and Kashmir (J&K) has once again sparked the debate on human rights. This research paper has been written to assess what human rights actually mean, to give context to the recent activities in that state, what role does the government play, and to finally see the extent to which they are assured or violated. Every action has an after-effect and success of a decision can be judged by that after-effect. Through this paper, the after-effect of abrogation of article 370 and 35A is tracked. It is not to provide just our opinion on the subject but to make our readers able to make informed decisions and opinions on the subject. We have adopted comparative analysis to help readers understand the extent to which the human rights practiced in Kashmir is different from the rest of India. For this purpose, various articles are reviewed thoroughly; both sides of the argument are shown to know why people are divided on this issue. It is kept in mind to present facts as they are, and not to tamper with them. This paper will, thus, discuss human rights especially with respect to the recent decisions taken by the government.

Rahul Bansal
B.Tech, Computer Science Engineering, Sushant University, India
Muskan Punia
B.A., Political Science and Sociology, Jesus and Mary College, University of Delhi

[1] Ayyub, R. (2019, June 28). What a Rising Tide of Violence Against Muslims in India Says About Modi’s Second Term. Time. https://time.com/5617161/india-religious-hate-crimes-modi/

[2] Baruah, P. (2019, December 27). Not Just Equality, the CAA Betrays Constitutional Values of Dignity, Integrity. The Wire. https://thewire.in/rights/caa-constitution-equality

[3] Bhattacherjee, K. (2019, August 18). What is the UN’s stand on Kashmir? The Hindu. https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/what-is-the-uns-stand-on-kashmir/article29121025.ece

[4] Dutta, P. K. (2020, January 10). Internet access a fundamental right, Supreme Court makes it official: Article 19 explained. India Today. https://www.indiatoday.in/news-analysis/story/internet-access-fundamental-right-supreme-court-makes-official-article-19-explained-1635662-2020-01-10

[5] E-International Relations. https://www.e-ir.info/2020/05/29/the-case-of-un-involvement-in-jammu-and-kashmir/

[6] End Internet Shutdowns to Manage COVID-19. (2020, October 28). Human Rights Watch. https://www.hrw.org/news/2020/03/31/end-internet-shutdowns-manage-covid-19

[7] Gill, P. (2020, September 18). The difference between lock down, curfew and Section 144. Business Insider. https://www.businessinsider.in/india/news/the-difference-between-lock-down-curfew-and-section-144/articleshow/74789339.cms 

[8] handbook of urban statistics, 2019. (2019). ministry of housing and urban affairs, government of India. http://mohua.gov.in/pdf/5c80e2225a124Handbook%20of%20Urban%20Statistics%202019.pdf

[9] India: Ensure Rights Protections in Kashmir. (2020, October 28). Human Rights Watch. https://www.hrw.org/news/2019/08/19/india-ensure-rights-protections-kashmir

[10] India. (n.d.). RSF. https://rsf.org/en/india

[11] India Wants to Avoid International Intervention, But Needs to Address Human Rights in Kashmir. (2020, October 28). Human Rights Watch. https://www.hrw.org/news/2019/08/17/india-wants-avoid-international-intervention-needs-address-human-rights-kashmir

[12] Internet Shutdowns in India. (n.d.). Internetshutdowns. https://internetshutdowns.in/

[13] Kashmir: UN Reports Serious Abuses. (2020, October 28). Human Rights Watch. https://www.hrw.org/news/2019/07/10/kashmir-un-reports-serious-abuses

[14] Kumar, A. (2019, August 16). Why Article 370 had to go. The Indian Express. https://indianexpress.com/article/opinion/columns/article-370-scrapped-jammu-and-kashmir-5908599/

[15] Nazmi, B. S. (2019, December 19). Why India shuts down the internet more than      any other democracy. BBC News. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-india-50819905

[16] OHCHR | Press briefing note on Ethiopia. (2020, March 27). United Nations Human Rights Office of the High Commissioner. https://www.ohchr.org/en/NewsEvents/Pages/DisplayNews.aspx?NewsID=25751&LangID=E

[17] Press Trust of India. (2019, August 14). Scrapping Article 370 to bring immense benefits for J&K, Ladakh: President. Www.Business-Standard.Com. https://www.business-standard.com/article/current-affairs/scrapping-article-370-to-bring-immense-benefits-for-j-k-ladakh-president-119081401595_1.html

[18] Subramanian, N. (2020, January 24). Explained: The Kashmir Pandit tragedy. The Indian Express. https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/exodus-of-kashmiri-pandits-from-valley-6232410/

[19] ‘UN declares Internet access a human right’ – did it really? | DiploFoundation. (2011, June 10). DiPLO. https://www.diplomacy.edu/blog/%E2%80%98un-declares-internet-access-human-right%E2%80%99-%E2%80%93-did-it-really

[20] United Nations Human Rights – Office of the High Commissioner. (2016, January 19).SDG HR Table. Retrieved November 07, 2020, from https://www.ohchr.org/: https://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Issues/MDGs/Post2015/SDG_HR_Table.pdf

[21] Wani, A. (2020, January 29). Life in Kashmir after Article 370. ORF. https://www.orfonline.org/research/life-in-kashmir-after-article-370-60785/

[22] Westcott, S. P. (2020, May 29). The Case of UN Involvement in Jammu and Kashmir. Phartiyal, S. F. B. (2020, January 10). India’s top court says indefinite Kashmir internet shutdown is illegal. U.S. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-india-kashmir-internet-idUSKBN1Z90FR

Bansal R. & Punia M. (2020). Human Rights in Kashmir – Violated or Restored  International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law1(1), 729.

http://ijpsl.in/wp-content/uploads/2021/09/Human-Rights-in-Kashmir-Violated-or-Restored_Rahul-Bansal-Muskan-Punia.pdf

Animal Cruelty and Rights: Review and Recommendations

Navya Jain and Muskan Jain
Volume I, Issue II
30 December 2020
Page No.: 747-783

Each creature born on this planet is gifted the same resources by this bountiful world. We breathe the same air and live under the same sky. However, one species claims itself to govern and command the lives of the rest: humans. Humans exploit the lives of other creatures to satisfy their worldly desires. These non-humans are killed, maimed, poached and trafficked in brutal ways. Occasionally, they are subjected to cultural rituals and sacrificed in the name of God; other times, butchered in horrific ways for their skins and meats. Confined, chained and tortured, they are coerced into putting up shows for their human counterparts.

This paper analyses the acts and policies mentioned under the Constitution of India and discusses the opportunities wherein new rules could be introduced for the protection of fundamental rights for these animals. It also aims to suggest a model that ensures the security and the wellbeing of strays at the local level.

Navya Jain
Indraprastha College for Women, University of Delhi
Muskan Jain
Kirori Mal College, University of Delhi

[1] Actman, J. (2019, February 12). Poaching animals, explained. National Geographic.

[2] Akhtar, A. (2015). The Flaws and Human Harms of Animal Experimentation. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics, 24(4), 407-419. DOI:10.1017/S0963180115000079

[3] Animal Ethics. (n.d.). Animal Ethics. Retrieved November 5, 2020

[4] Animals in Entertainment. (2015, September 10). Wildlife Rescue & Rehabilitation.

[5] Animal Protection Index. (2020). India | World Animal Protection.

[6] Animals Used for Clothing | Animal Cruelty Exposure Fund. (n.d.). Animal Cruelty Exposure Fund. Retrieved November 6, 2020

[7] Animals Used for Experimentation. (2020, October 5). PETA.

[8] Arasu, S. (2019, November 18). Nearly 100,000 Indian mongooses die every year for paintbrushes. Quartz India.

[9] Beetz, A. M., & Podberscek, A. L. (2009). Bestiality and Zoophilia: Sexual Relations with Animals. Berg Publishers.

[10] Burns, N. (2016, August 18). I visited the Faroe Islands to learn about the Grindadrap. Here’s what I found out. Matador Network.

[11] Carrington, D. (2019, May 21). Humanity has wiped out 60% of animal populations since 1970, report finds. The Guardian. 

[12] Collections, C. F. (2020, March 10). Is NIVEA Cruelty-Free in 2020? Cruelty-Free Collections.

[13] Daly, N. (2019, June 4). Suffering unseen: The dark truth behind wildlife tourism. National Geographic. 

[14] Digital, M. N. (2020, October 25). ‘She was in a pool of blood’: Female dog struggles for life after brutal sexual assault in Mumbai. The Times of India. 

[15] Estrada, O. C. (2020, July 27). The Devastating Effects of Wildlife Poaching. One Green Planet. 

[16] Express News Service. (2020, May 21). 68-Year-old man in Bhubaneswar jailed for sexually assaulting stray dog. The New Indian Express. 

[17] Extinct species, explained. (2019, February 5). National Geographic.

[18] Facts About the Asian Dog Meat Trade & Dog Meat Festivals. (n.d.). Animals Asia. Retrieved November 6, 2020

[19] Hajare, P. (2020, July 3). Wildlife Protection Act 1972. PSC Notes. 

[20] India. (2020, April 30). IUCN.

[21] Kavuri, T. (2020a). Introduction to Criminal Law in India | Animal Legal & Historical Center. Animal Legal & Historical Center ( Michigan State University). 

[22] Kavuri, T. (2020b). Overview of Animal Laws in India | Animal Legal & Historical Center. Animal Legal & Historical Center ( Michigan State University).

[23] LexQuest Foundation. (2020, September 21). The Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act: An Insight.

[24]  M, M. (2019, January 12). Justice for Sexually Assaulted Animals– Has India Failed? IndianFolk.

[25] Mahajan, Prashant. (2020). Negative effects of zoos on animals.

[26] Mahapatra, D. (2015, September 28). Can’t interfere in animal sacrifice tradition: Supreme Court. The Times of India.

[27] PETA. (2013). Animals in Indian Circuses: A PETA Investigative Report. PETA India.

[28] Petkovic, N. (2020, April 2). 51 Eye-Opening Poaching Statistics You Must Know in 2020. Petpedia.

[29] Pradhan, S. B. (2019, December 3). Gadhimai festival: Mass slaughter of animals begins in Nepal despite outcry. Outlook India.

[30]  Randall Reeves (IUCN SSC Cetacean Specialist Group). (2018, June 18). The. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.

[31] Russell Fielding (2013) Whaling Futures: A Survey of Faroese and Vincentian Youth on the Topic of Artisanal Whaling, Society & Natural Resources, 26:7, 810-826.

[32] Sharma, B. (2019, December 6). Nepal’s Animal-Sacrifice Festival Slays On. But Activists Are Having an Effect. New York Times.

[33]  Stop killing stray dogs in Kerala: Supreme Court tells vigilante groups – india news. (2016, November 17). Hindustan Times.

[34] The Humane Society of The United States. (n.d.). Animal cruelty facts and stats. Retrieved November 2020.

[35] The prevention of cruelty to animals act, 1960. (n.d.). India Code. Retrieved November 20, 2020.

[36] Toxic and Tragic Consequences of Product Testing on Animals. (2020, October 5). PETA.

[37] What do you mean by “animal rights”? (2017, March 31). PETA.

Jain, Jain, N. M. (2020). Animal Cruelty and Rights: Review and Recommendations. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law, 01(02), 747–783. https://ijpsl.in/wp-content/uploads/2020/12/Animal-Cruelty-and-Rights-Review-and-Recommendations_Navya-Jain-Muskan-Jain-.pdf

Revamping Public Education: towards Gender Equity and Women’s Empowerment in India

Tanya Chaudhary
Volume I, Issue II
30 December 2020
Page No.: 783-793

Women Empowerment comprehends the action of elevating the status of women through education, awareness, literacy, and training. Empowerment is also about equipping them to make life-determining decisions and giving them power in that space of society where they didn’t have it earlier. Though policies on women’s empowerment exist, there are significant gaps between policy advancement and ‘actual’ practice at the community level. Women in India are victims of crime, specifically- rape, kidnapping and abduction, dowryrelated crimes, molestation, sexual harassment, eve-teasing, etc., with the crime rate against women being 62.4% (2019)[1]. In spite of various measures taken by the Government, women are still discriminated against and marginalized at every level of the society- whether in access to education, economic participation, social participation, political participation, or reproductive healthcare. The lack of any serious effort to rectify the above issues against women further compounds the situation, ranking India at the position of 112/153 in World Economic Forum’s Global Gender Gap Report 2020[2]. The dignity of women can be upheld only by empowering them. This research paper explores ‘Revamping Public Education in India to make it gender-inclusive’, premised in the Education 2030 Framework for Action[3], Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 4 – ‘Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all’ and SDG 5 – ‘Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls’, and a follow-up multi-sectoral approach as a primary condition for women empowerment

Tanya Chaudhary
University of Delhi

[1]National Crime Records Bureau, Ministry of Home Affairs. (2019). Crime in India 2019, Statistics volume 1. https://ncrb.gov.in/sites/default/files/CII%202019%20Volume%201.pdf

[2]World Economic Forum. (2020). Global Gender Gap Report 2020. http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_GGGR_2020.pdf.

[3]UNESCO. (2016). Education 2030: Incheon Declaration and Framework for Action. https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000245656.locale=en

[4]Subrahmanyam, D. G. (2016). Gender perspectives on causes and effects of school dropouts. SIDA, 1–111. http://www.ungei.org/Final_Paper_on_Gender_perspectives_C2.pdf

[5]Ministry of Human Resource Development. (2020). National Education Policy 2020. Government of India. https://www.education.gov.in/sites/upload_files/mhrd/files/NEP_Final_English_0.pdf

[6]Odisha School Education Program Authority. (n.d.). Government of Odisha. http://osepa.odisha.gov.in/?p=submenupagecontentandpg=2.

[7]Ministry of Human Resource Development. (2020). National Education Policy 2020. Government of India. https://www.education.gov.in/sites/upload_files/mhrd/files/NEP_Final_English_0.pdf

[8]RTE. (2009). Ministry of Law and Justice. https://www.education.gov.in/sites/upload_files/mhrd/files/upload_document/rte.pdf 

[9]District Primary Education Programme. (n.d.). Ministry of Education. https://www.india.gov.in/district-primary-education-programme-ministry-human-resource-development 

[10]Labor force, female (% of total labor force) – India. (n.d.). The World Bank Data. https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.TLF.TOTL.FE.ZS?locations=IN

[11]Evaluating and Enhancing Women’s Participation in Scientific and Technological Research. National Task Force for Women in Science. http://insaindia.res.in/pdf/ws_anx_1a.pdf

[12]Ramachandran, Vimala. (2002). Gender and Social Equity in Primary Education: Hierarchies of Access

[13]ASER Centre. (2018). ASER. http://www.asercentre.org/Keywords/p/337.html 

[14] Bonner, M. (2020). Media and Gender equality (Reprinted ed.). Ed-Tech Press.

[15] The SHIKSHAKARMI Project Rajasthan, India. Ministry of Human Resource Department. http://14.139.60.153/bitstream/123456789/8162/1/THE%20SHIKSHAKARMI%20PROJECT%20RAJASTHAN_PROJECT%20DOCUMENT_D-4267.pdf

[16] Rajagopal, S. (n.d.). Learning from Innovative Programmes in Education: Lok Jumbish – Peoples Movement for Education for All. Azim Premji. http://publications.azimpremjifoundation.org/1184/1/19_Learning%20from%20Innovative%20Programmes%20in%20Education%20Lok%20Jumbish%20%E2%80%93%20Peoples%20Movement%20for%20Education%20for%20All1.pdf 

[17] MAHILA SAMAKHYA PROGRAMME: Genesis. Ministry of Education. https://www.education.gov.in/sites/upload_files/mhrd/files/upload_document/Genesis_ms.pdf 

[18] “Kishori Sanghas” – An initiative for empowerment of adolescent girls in Bangladesh. (2003, August 14). UNICEF. https://www.unicef.org/french/adolescence/index_13381.html?p=printme

[19] MEENA PROGRAMME. (2013). Sarva Vidyalaya Abhiyan, Karnataka Government. http://ssakarnataka.gov.in/pdfs/int_scstUDCGirlsEdn/MeenaProg1213.pdf

[20] OSEPA. (n.d.). OSEPA. http://osepa.odisha.gov.in/?p=submenupagecontentandpg=2 

[21] Editorial. (2020, November 9). Aishwarya Reddy. The Indian Express. https://indianexpress.com/article/opinion/editorials/aishwarya-reddy-suicide-7032700/ 

[22] Wikipedia contributors. (2020, December 10). Sukanya Samriddhi Account. Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sukanya_Samriddhi_Account

[23]Balika Samridhi Yojana (BSY). (n.d.). Vikaspedia. https://vikaspedia.in/education/policies-and-schemes/scholarships/pre-metric-scholarships/balika-samridhi-yojana-bsy 

[24]Gender equality. (n.d.). UNICEF India. https://www.unicef.org/india/what-we-do/gender-equality

[25]Status Report- Government and Private Schools during COVID-19. (2020). Oxfam India. https://www.oxfamindia.org/sites/default/files/2020-09/Status%20report%20Government%20and%20private%20schools%20during%20COVID%20-%2019.pdf 

[26]The Mobile Gender Gap Report. (2020). GSMA. https://www.gsma.com/mobilefordevelopment/wp-content/uploads/2020/05/GSMA-The-Mobile-Gender-Gap-Report-2020.pdf 

[27] Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan | Government of India, All India Council for Technical Education. (n.d.). All India Council for Technical Education. https://www.aicte-india.org/reports/overview/Sarva-Shiksha-Abhiyan

[28]Chandra-Mouli V., Patel S.V. (2020) Mapping the Knowledge and Understanding of Menarche, Menstrual Hygiene and Menstrual Health Among Adolescent Girls in Low- and Middle-Income Countries. In: Bobel C., Winkler I.T., Fahs B., Hasson K.A., Kissling E.A., Roberts TA. (eds) The Palgrave Handbook of Critical Menstruation Studies. Palgrave Macmillan, Singapore. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-0614-7_46

[29] Dutta, S. (2018, May 28). 23 Million Women Drop Out Of School Every Year When They Start Menstruating In India | Women’s Day. NDTV-Dettol Banega Swasth Swachh India. https://swachhindia.ndtv.com/23-million-women-drop-out-of-school-every-year-when-they-start-menstruating-in-india-17838/

[30]Swachh Bharat Swachh Vidyalaya Swachh Bharat Swachh Vidyalaya. (2014). Ministry of Human Resource Development. http://103.7.128.243:8080/Eng_Swachch-Bharat-Swachch-Vidhalaya.pdf

[31]Beti Bachao Beti Padhao. (n.d.). Ministry of Women and Child Development. https://wcd.nic.in/bbbp-schemes

[32]Menon, A. (2019, January 23). Truth Of ‘Beti Bachao Beti Padhao’: 56% Funds Spent On Publicity. BloombergQuint. https://www.bloombergquint.com/quint/truth-of-beti-bachao-beti-padhao-funds-spent-on-publicity

[33]Sharma, S. (2015, August 20). NITI Aayog pinpoints shortcomings in KGBV. Greater Kashmir. https://www.greaterkashmir.com/news/kashmir/niti-aayog-pinpoints-shortcomings-in-kgbv/

[1] Actman, J. (2019, February 12). Poaching animals, explained. National Geographic.

[2] Akhtar, A. (2015). The Flaws and Human Harms of Animal Experimentation. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics, 24(4), 407-419. DOI:10.1017/S0963180115000079

[3] Animal Ethics. (n.d.). Animal Ethics. Retrieved November 5, 2020

[4] Animals in Entertainment. (2015, September 10). Wildlife Rescue & Rehabilitation.

[5] Animal Protection Index. (2020). India | World Animal Protection.

[6] Animals Used for Clothing | Animal Cruelty Exposure Fund. (n.d.). Animal Cruelty Exposure Fund. Retrieved November 6, 2020

[7] Animals Used for Experimentation. (2020, October 5). PETA.

[8] Arasu, S. (2019, November 18). Nearly 100,000 Indian mongooses die every year for paintbrushes. Quartz India.

[9] Beetz, A. M., & Podberscek, A. L. (2009). Bestiality and Zoophilia: Sexual Relations with Animals. Berg Publishers.

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Chaudhary T. (2020). Revamping Public Education: towards Gender Equity and Women’s Empowerment in India. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law1(2), 783.

http://ijpsl.in/wp-content/uploads/2021/09/Revamping-Public-Education-towards-Gender-Equity-and-Womens-Empowerment-in-India_Tanya-Chaudhary.pdf

A Fiscal Federalist Perspective of the European Political Economy

Renuka Bhat
Volume I, Issue II
31 December 2020
Page No.: 794-803

The present essay focuses on the financial aspects of the European federalist structure as a result of the Maastricht Treaty and its accompaniments. The European Union (EU) was an initiative for European integration on three integral aspects, namely, the three pillars which managed EU’s legislature on economic, military, foreign, judicial, social, and environmental policies. The integration also laid down the “convergence criteria” to institute Euro as a common European currency in 2002. The Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) – the second of the two foundational treaties of the EU – discusses trade, domestic market, customs, taxation, and monetary policies along with other institutional and financial provisions for the member states of the Union. These two treaties form the legislative basis of European federalism. Drawing from the examples of both the Greek Debt Crisis and the Global Financial Crisis, it is opined that the European Union is better adept at managing crises that affect the entire world, rather than specifically its regions. Given the rise in secessionist movements as well as an increased resentment in the donor countries, the future of the Union post the pandemic-induced depression remains to be seen.

Renuka Bhat
Narsee Monjee Institute of Management Studies, Mumbai, India

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R.B. (2020a). A Fiscal Federalist Perspective of the European Political Economy. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law, 01(02), 794–803. https://ijpsl.in/wp-content/uploads/2020/12/A-Fiscal-Federalist-Perspective-of-the-European-Political-Economy_Renuka-Bhat.pdf

Post-COVID-19 Leadership in the Public Sector: A Behavioural Economics Perspective

Ritheka Sundar and Mahalakshmi Manian and Roshni. K. Mathew
Volume I, Issue II
31 December 2020
Page No.: 804-830

Leaders are perceived as torchbearers who can guide the world through the aftershocks of COVID-19. A leader’s success under crises is largely dependent on their ability to process information, act on it and influence others within and outside of their organizations. During such crises, they are required to make decisions- based on their limited cognition and imperfect information- involving high stakes. At the same time, they should be aware of their own behavioural biases that may affect this process. Social systems, especially the Actor-System-Dynamics (ASD) theory acts as a foundation for dynamic and innovative
leadership. The public service providers were necessitated to take quick action in response to the multilayered repercussions of the COVID-19 pandemic. Similar to how leaders face a multitude of biases, the general public also deals with its own set of biases. To act optimally, the leader must be beware of these biases and their effects. In light of this challenge, this paper gives suggestions for leadership in a post-COVID-19 world with backing from behavioural economics.

Ritheka Sundar
B.A. Hons, Economics, Stella Maris College, University of Madras
Mahalakshmi Manian
B.A. Hons, Economics, Stella Maris College, University of Madras
RRoshni. K. Mathew
B.A. Hons, Economics, Stella Maris College, University of Madras

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Sundar, Manian, K. Mathew, R. M. R. (2020). Post-COVID-19 Leadership in the Public Sector: A Behavioural Economics Perspective. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law, 01(02), 804–830. https://ijpsl.in/wp-content/uploads/2020/12/Post-COVID-19-Leadership-in-the-Public-Sector-A-Behavioural-Economics-Perspective_Ritheka-Sundar-Mahalakshmi-Manian-and-Roshni-K-Mathew.pdf

Gendered Impacts Of The Covid-19 Pandemic On The Health And Financial Well-being Of Women: A Narrative Review With Recommendations

Sakshi Shah and Shirley Khurana
Volume I, Issue II
31 December 2020
Page No.: 831-867

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused an upheaval in the functioning of the modern world, leaving all people with a sense of fear, anxiety, and uncertainty about the future. However, individual lives have been impacted disproportionately due to the specific privileges that people hold, or hindrances they have to overcome— women, in particular, have suffered setbacks that have exacerbated their living conditions exponentially. The purpose of this paper is to delineate how the coronavirus pandemic, along with the pre-existing gender inequalities across the globe, has adversely impacted the financial, physical, mental, reproductive, and sexual health of women. At the heart of this study are issues like the plight of the women employed in sectors that lack social protections, the increase in instances of domestic and workplace violence and harassment, the lack of access to healthcare services during lockdowns, and the burden of balancing unpaid care work and paid work and its toll on the mental and physical well-being of women. The authors have performed a narrative review based on journal articles on the impacts of the COVID-19 crisis on women and publications by major economic and health entities (like the United Nations, International Labour Organisation, the Organisation of American States, the World Health Organisation, etc.). A comparative analysis has also been performed to compare the current gender disparities in India with the objectives of the Sustainable Development Goal of Gender Equality. Additionally, a survey was conducted to analyse the impacts of COVID-19 on women, compared to men, through which it has been concluded that the coronavirus pandemic has affected the finances and health of women more severely than that of men from the same background. Some recommendations and solutions for the issues faced by women are also provided.

Sakshi Shah
SNDT Women’s University, Churchgate, Mumbai, India
Shirley Khurana
Shaheed Bhagat Singh College, University of Delhi

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Implications of Nutrition on the Academic Prowess of Children: A Review of India and Nigeria

Gowri Bhatnagar and Ezeanochie Chibuike
Volume I, Issue II
31 December 2020
Page No.: 868-902

Nutrition is one of the pioneering factors having an impact on the academic prowess of students. It is the fuel that propels a human being’s routine activities be it physical or academic. This research essay has been developed to examine the impact of nutrition, commonly recognised as a panacea towards the enhancement of children’s academic achievement. Research has proven that inadequate nutrition or nutritional imbalance inhibits normal cognitive development in students. This is attributed to the essential role of nutrition in exhibiting a direct effect on neurotransmitters, responsible for sending signals and messages from all parts of the body to the brain. This expository work aims to highlight the basic statistical figures of the current nutritional status of school-going children in India and Nigeria and the impact of Nutrition on cognition cum learning. The study also elucidates the existing nutritional policies and programs targeted at school children and throws light on its various successes and faultlines in the countries under study. It is finally followed by certain proposals and recommendations which are aimed at aiding various Governments and other nodal authorities to help ameliorate the nutrition levels of school-going children and by extension, their cognitive development

Gowri Bhatnagar
Lady Irwin College, University of Delhi
Ezeanochie Chibuike
University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria

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Bhatnagar G. & Chibuike E. (2020). Implications of Nutrition on the Academic Prowess of Children: A Review of India and Nigeria.  International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law1(1), 868.

http://ijpsl.in/wp-content/uploads/2021/09/Implications-of-Nutrition-on-the-Academic-Prowess-of-Children-A-Review-of-India-and-Nigeria_Gowri-Bhatnagar-Ezeanochie-Chibuike.pdf

Evolution of Women Entrepreneurship in India

Kriti Suri and Aishwarya Verma
Volume I, Issue II
31 December 2020
Page No.: 903-917

Women have been an integral part of our society but because of many societal norms, they stand behind male members of the family, not because they are incompetent but because of the male chauvinism that has persisted across different eras. Whenever we read about the role of women, they are always represented as the sophisticated, dependent, and professionally incapable human being, which stands to be false. Sexism is one of the major outcomes being nurtured under the patriarchal society. This paper highlights the evolution of women with patriarchy as the key focus across different centuries and all that needs to be implemented and changes that have to be made to eradicate it from the root, for creating a gender-neutral professional environment for everyone.

Kriti Suri
Symbiosis School of Economics, Symbiosis International University, Pune
Aishwarya Verma
India Institute of Forest Management, Bhopal

[1] Chavan, V., & Murkute, D. P. (2016). Role of women entrepreneurs in the Indian economy. International Journal of Science Technology and Management, 5(3), 604–612. <br>
https://www.ijstm.com/images/short_pdf/1459447053_1204B.pdf

[2] Drilers. (2019, August 17). Top 10 women entrepreneurs in India!
https://www.drilers.com/post/top-10-women-entrepreneurs-in-india

[3] European Union. (2016). Policy Brief on Women’s Entrepreneurship.
https://www.oecd.org/cfe/smes/Policy-Brief-on-Women-s-Entrepreneurship.pdf

[4] Gurnani, P. (2014). Changing Status of Women-owned Enterprises in Indian Insight. Global Journal of Finance and Management, ISSN 0975-6477, 6(9), 933–944. https://www.ripublication.com/gjfm-spl/gjfmv6n9_20.pdf

[5] Hariharan, D. N. P., & Murugan, R. (2014). Analysis of Women Entrepreneurship in India. American International Journal of Research in Humanities, Arts and Social Sciences, ISSN (Print): 2328-3734, ISSN (Online): 2328-3696, 95–98.
http://iasir.net/AIJRHASSpapers/AIJRHASS14-545.pdf

[6] Ibemcha Chanu, A. (2018). A Study on Motivational Factors of Women in Entrepreneurial Ventures of Assam Hills. International Journal of Research and Analytical Reviews (IJRAR), E ISSN 2348 –1269, PRINT ISSN 2349-5138, 5(2), 1049–1055. http://ijrar.com/upload_issue/ijrar_issue_943.pdf

[7] M. Charantimath, P. (2013). Entrepreneurship Development and Small Business Enterprises: Pearson Education India.

[8] Pahwa, S., & Chakraborty, S. (2007). Women Entrepreneurship and Economic Development. Sarup & Sons.

[9] Pirakatheeswari, P. (2015). Problems and Prospects of Women Entrepreneurs in India in the era of Globalization. Pacific Business Review International, 8(2), 128–134. http://poster.pacific-university.ac.in/2015/2015_month/August/15.pdf

[10] R. (2020, February 1). Success Story of Vandana Luthra – The Founder of VLCC. The CEO Story. https://theceostory.in/blog/vandana-luthra-the-founder-of-vlcc/

[11] Sharma, A. (2020, June 8). ‘Successful Woman Entrepreneur’: A Title from 70’s n ’80s. ChaaiCoffee. https://chaaicoffee.com/indian-women-entrepreneurs/

[12] Thakur, A. K., & Rahman, R. (2009). Women Entrepreneurship. Deep Publications.

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[14] United Nations. (2002). Women in India, How free? How equal? Data on population and literacy based on the 2001 census.

[15] Vijayakumar, A., & Jayachitra, S. (2013). WOMEN ENTREPRENEURS IN INDIA – EMERGING ISSUES AND CHALLENGES. International Journal of Development Research, ISSN: 2230-9926, 3(4), 12–17.
https://www.journalijdr.com/women-entrepreneurs-india-emerging-issues-and-challenges

Suri K. & Verma A. (2020). Evolution of Women Entrepreneurship in India.  International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law1(1), 903.

http://ijpsl.in/wp-content/uploads/2021/09/Evolution-of-Women-Entrepreneurship-in-India_Kriti-Suri-Aishwarya-Verma.pdf

Challenges and its Impacts posed through the Administration Process for Admission under EWS/DG Category, based in Delhi, under RTE Act Section 12(1)(c)

Amit Sharma and Delzine Wankadia
Volume I, Issue II
31 December 2020
Page No.: 918-940

The study intends to highlight and understand the disparity that exists between seats allocated in private education institutions, as per the RTE section 12 (1) (c) mandate, and seats which are in fact filled by the economically weaker sections and the disadvantaged groups based specifically in Delhi. The study identifies one of the reasons for such a gap to be an inefficient and improper implementation of Section 12 (1) (c) itself, under which the role of registration process and inclusion of technology in the admission process have been elaborated upon whilst considering the challenges the key stakeholders of this section faced as a result of the implementation mechanism. Additionally, it includes a primary survey analysis which verifies and supports the claim of an ineffective implementation mechanism from the perspective of parents of children admitted under this section, given parents of the children and children themselves under these groups are the direct beneficiaries of the section.

Amit Sharma
B.Tech Electronics and Communications, Uttar Pradesh Technical University, India
Delzine Wankadia
Symbiosis School of Economics, Symbiosis International University, Pune, India

[1] Badhwar, T. (2019, March). INCLUSIVE CLASSROOMS: A Study of Implementation of The Right to Education Section 12 (1)(c) in Delhi, 2018.

[2] IIM AHMEDABAD, CENTRAL SQUARE FOUNDATION, ACCOUNTABILITY INITIATIVE, & VIDHI CENTRE FOR LEGAL POLICY. (2015, March). STATE OF THE NATION: RTE SECTION 12 (1) (c). District Information System of Education.

[3] IIM AHMEDABAD, CENTRAL SQUARE FOUNDATION, & CENTRE FOR POLICY RESEARCH. (2020, February). STATE OF THE NATION: RTE SECTION 12 (1) (c) 2017. Centre for Policy Research

[4] National Commission for Protection of Child Rights & Quality Council of India. (2018). A Study on Implementation of Section 12(1) (c) of RTE Act, 2009 in Delhi pertaining to Admission of Children from Disadvantaged Sections in Private Schools.

[5] Quality Council of India.

[6] Sebastian, K. S. (2015, October 18). Soon, EWS admissions in Delhi may go online. The Hindu.

[7] The Gazette of India , Part 2, Section 1, Published by Authority, August 27, 2009 THE RIGHT OF CHILDREN TO FREE AND COMPULSORY EDUCATION ACT, 2009 

Sharma, Wankadia, A. D. (2020). Challenges and its Impacts posed through the Administration Process for Admission under EWS/DG Category, based in Delhi, under RTE Act Section 12(1)(c). International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law, 01(02), 918–940. https://ijpsl.in/wp-content/uploads/2020/12/Challenges-and-its-impacts-posed-through-the-Administration-Process-for-Admission-under-EWS-DG-Category-Delhi_Amit-Sharma-and-Delzine-Wankadia.pdf

Child Abuse: Is India Well-Equipped for the Challenge?

Sneha Roy and Indira Priyadarshini Madik
Volume I, Issue II
31 December 2020
Page No.: 941-965

The issue of child sexual abuse stems from the psycho-social structure and the archaic social systems that exist in India, where the vulnerable and unaware are misguided, sometimes oppressed and their rights exploited, resulting in discrimination that widens across generations. The scope of this study is not just to understand why abuse happens, and the changes that take place subsequently, but also to explore ways of preventing it from happening in the future. This is significant because it brings with it the inter-relationship of various stakeholders that engage with each other to make children conscious about the potential threats they may face. In such a scenario, sex education and awareness of sexuality helps in initiating talks about changes in one’s body and related physical and psychological vulnerabilities. The present research seeks to collate and understand the shift that occurs in the child’s psyche from sexual abuse, and his/her level of awareness of the various illicit behaviours that he/she may or already has come across. Moving forward, the research illuminates the role of the social apparatus that exists to redress the violence of sexual abuse and provide education, protection of rights and psychological support that may nip this issue in the bud. These apparatus need to promote an environment of openness about sex education, that may counter the shame and stigma associated with such a
topic, for their other initiatives to have a positive impact.

Sneha Roy
Indian Institute of Social Welfare and Business Management, Kolkata
Indira Priyadarshini Madiki
University of Central Lancashire, England

[1] Agnihotri, S., & Das, M. (2015, December 21). Reviewing India’s Protection of Children from Sexual Offences Act three years on. South Asia@LSE.

[2] Ahmed, T. (2020, July 24). Child Protection Law and Policy. Library of Congress.

[3] Ahuja, R. (2014). Social Problems in India: Third Edition (Fully Revised, Expanded and Updated). Rawat Publications.

[4] Brinkmann, S. (2015). Learner-centred education reforms in India: The missing piece of teachers’ beliefs. Policy Futures in Education, 13(3), 342–359.

[5] Child abuse – Symptoms and causes. (2018, October 5). Mayo Clinic.

[6] Commissions for protection of child rights can’t become means to obtain power: SC. (2020, January 13). The Times of India.

[7] Deb, S. (2015). Child Safety, Welfare and Well-Being: Issues and Challenges, (August 2016), 1–409.

[8] Fayaz, I. (2019). Child Abuse : Effects and Preventive Measures. The International Journal of Indian Psychology, 7(2), 871–884.

[9] Garg, N. (2015). Sex Education to Indian Adolescents: Need of the Hour. IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 20(1), 59–61. 

[10] Guidelines for Medico-legal care for victims of sexual abuse. (n.d). WHO.

[11] Healthy Sexuality Education as Child Sexual Abuse Prevention. (n.d). Pennsylvania Coalition Against Rape. 

[12] Hunter, W. M., Jain, D., Sadowski, L. S., & Sanhueza, A. I. (2000). Risk factors for severe child discipline practices in rural India. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 25(6), 435–447.

[13] International Journal of Legal Developments and Allied Issues. (2019, July 31). Child Sexual Abuse Laws In India. The Law Brigade Publishers.

[14] Jayasurya, G. (2012). Human Rights of the Child in the Context of Child Abuse. SSRN Electronic Journal. 

[15] Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act, 2015. (2016). Vikaspedia. 

[16] Kumar M Pramod. (2006). No One is a Stranger. (V. Kesari, Ed.) (First Edit). Chennai: Sri Ramakrishna Math. 

[17] Kumar, A., Chandran, S., Rao, K., & Maheshwari, S. (2019). The Need for Training Medical professionals in Child Sexual Abuse. Journal of Psychosexual Health, 1(2), 192–194.

[18] Ladson, S. (1987). Do Physicians Recognize Sexual Abuse? Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 141(4), 411–415. 

[19] Long-Term Consequences of Child Abuse and Neglect. (2019, April). Child Welfare Information Gateway.

[20] Manyike, P. C. (2015, September). Impact of Parental Sex Education on Child Sexual Abuse Among Adolescents. Nigerian Journal of Paediatrics.

[21] Mathew, L. (2016, August). A Multidisciplinary Approach to Child Protection for Sexual Abuse in India: The Law. Springer Publishing. 

[22] Medora, N. P., & Wilson, S. (1992). Sexuality education for young children: The role of parents. Day Care & Early Education, 19(3), 24–27. doi:10.1007/bf01617079

[23] NDTV Report. (2020, January 12), pp. 1–17. 

[24] Province of British Columbia. (2019). Reporting Child Abuse in BC, 2–4.

[25] Seth, R., & Srivastava, R. N. (2017). Child Sexual Abuse: Management and prevention, and protection of children from Sexual Offences (POCSO) Act. Indian Pediatrics, 54(11), 949–953. 

[26] Sherawat, D., & Kallivayalil, A. J. (2020, January 16). Analysis: The Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act, 2015. Lexlife India. 

[27] Sinha, D. (1984). Some Recent Changes in the Indian Family and their Implications for Socialization. Indian Journal of Social Work, 45(November), 271–286. 

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[29] Verma, R. K., Surender, S., & Guruswamy, M. (1997). What do school children and teachers in rural Maharashtra think of AIDS and sex? Health Transition Review : The Cultural, Social, and Behavioural Determinants of Health, 7 Suppl(Published by: National Center for Epidemiology and Population Health (NCEPH), The Australian National University), 481–486.

[30] Why don’t children tell if they have been abused ? (2020). 

[31] World Health Organization. (2020). COVID19-XIX: Child Abuse in India amidst the Pandemic – Law School Policy Review.

[32] Zwi, K., Woolfenden, S., Wheeler, D., O’Brien, T., Tait, P., & Williams, K. (2007, July). School-Based Education Programmes for the Prevention of Child Sexual Abuse. The Campbell Collaboration. 

Roy, Priyadarshini Madik, S. I. (2020). Child Abuse: Is India Well-Equipped for the Challenge? International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law, 01(02), 941–965. https://ijpsl.in/wp-content/uploads/2020/12/Child-Abuse-Is-India-Well-Equipped-for-the-Challenge_Sneha-Roy-Indira-Priyadarshini-Madiki.pdf

Envisioning Sharing Cities in India

Tarusha Mishra and Sameeksha Madhav
Volume I, Issue II
31 December 2020
Page No.: 966-983

India is one of the most rapidly urbanizing countries globally and is also among the least sustainable countries in the world. The resulting major urban issues include over-exploitation of resources and highly unsustainable and excessively consumption-based lifestyles of the people. The need of the hour is a sustainable urban transformation of Indian cities, and one such way of doing that is the concept of ‘Sharing Cities’. The paper attempts to analyze what the concept of ‘Sharing Cities’ — quite popular in the developed nations of the world, is and tries to envision it in the Indian context. It tries to investigate if India has the infrastructure, community cooperation, participation and other major aspects to enable sharing cities in the country. The paper also assesses the perceptions of the Indian population through an online survey, taking millennials as the target group as they happen to be the major sharing economy consumers and participants according to various studies done worldwide and the results declared some
contrasting observations worth noting. Recommendations are provided in the end, on how to strengthen and make the prevalent sharing economy more inclusive that can ultimately steer India towards the path of sustainability.

Tarusha Mishra
M.A. Urban Studies, Ambedkar University, Delhi India
Sameeksha Madhav
M.A. Development Studies, IIT Guwahati, India

[1] Anand, A., Sreevatsan, A., & Taraporevala, P. (2018, August). AN OVERVIEW OF THE SMART CITIES MISSION IN INDIA. Center For Policy Research.

[2] Ashraf, A. I. M. (2020, February 22). Digital slums in internet society. The Pioneer.

[3] Bygrave, K. (n.d.). Share your meal – NL (Netherlands Household). Share Your Meal. Retrieved December 14, 2020.

[4] Dlugosz, P. (2014). The rise of the sharing city: Examining origins and futures of urban sharing. IIIEE Master Thesis, 1–64.

[5] EY. (2015). The rise of the sharing economy The Indian landscape.

[6] Gorenflo, N. (2019, April 23). 11 core principles for Sharing Cities. Shareable.

[7] Kaka, N., Madgavkar, A., Kshirsagar, A., Gupta, R., Manyika, J., Bahl, K., & Gupta, S. (2020, November 12). Digital India: Technology to transform a connected nation. McKinsey & Company.

[8] Karabell, S. (2017, January 31). Sharing Economy: Nice, But Does It Create Real Jobs? Forbes.

[9] Kaushal, L. A. (2018). The Sharing Economy and Sustainability: a Case Study of  India. Valahian Journal of Economic Studies, 9(2), 7–16.

[10] McCarthy, N. (2017, June 26). The World’s Most Populous Nations In 2050 [Infographic]. Forbes.

[11] McLaren, J. A. A. D. (2014, September 29). “Smart Cities” Should Mean “Sharing Cities.” Time

[12] Millennials, sharing economy and tourism: the case of Seoul | Emerald Insight. (2018, March 9). Emerald Insight.

[13] Online, F. E. (2020, November 11). Closing the digital divide. The Financial Express.

[14] Owyang, J. (2014). Framework: Collaborative Economy Honeycomb. Jeremiah Owyang Blog. Retrieved August 19

[15] Palm, J., Smedby, N., & McCormick, K. (2019). The role of local governments in governing sustainable consumption and sharing cities. In A Research Agenda for Sustainable Consumption Governance. Edward Elgar Publishing.

[16] Palm, J., Södergren, K., & Bocken, N. (2019). The Role of Cities in the Sharing Economy: Exploring Modes of Governance in Urban Sharing Practices. Energies, 12(24), 1-12.

[17] Raja, V. (2019, May 14). Where to Donate Clothes in India: 7 Orgs That Will Ensure They Reach the Needy. The Better India.

[18] S. (n.d.). CIRCLING BACK: SHARING IS THE NEW WAY FORWARD. City Speaks. Retrieved December 14, 2020

[19] Salvia, G., Morello, E., & Arcidiacono, A. (2019). Sharing Cities Shaping Cities. Urban Science, 3(1), 23.

[20] State of the World’s Cities 2008/2009 – Harmonious Cities | UN-Habitat. (2008). UN-Habitat.

[21] THE 17 GOALS | Sustainable Development. (2020). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs.

[22] Welankar, P. (2019, August 28). Public cycle plan in Pune: Award-winning project now a smart-ing failure. The Hindustan Times.

[23] World Economic Forum. (2013). Young Global Leaders Circular Economy Innovation & New Business Models Dialogue.

Mishra, Madhav, T. S. (2020). Envisioning Sharing Cities in India. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law, 01(02), 966–983. https://ijpsl.in/wp-content/uploads/2020/12/Envisioning-Sharing-Cities-in-India_Tarusha-Mishra-Sameeksha-Madhav.pdf

Redefining Poverty Line

Kritika Garg
Volume I, Issue II
31 December 2020
Page No.: 984-993

Throughout the various plan years, efforts have been made consistently to reduce the poverty levels of the country through various programmes including Integrated Rural Development Programme, Jawahar Gram Samriddhi Yojana and many more, but India is still far away from achieving the Sustainable Development Goal 1 (SDG1). These large numbers of poverty alleviation programmes function in silos. There is no systematic attempt to identify people who are truly in poverty, determine their needs and address them. The base of any of these programmes is correct on the ground data. India’s definition of poverty has been frequently debated by developmental economists from around the world, with several finding it to be too low and leaving out a handsome number from the benefits of Government schemes. Confusion erupts as multiple expert groups have worked upon a new methodology to measure poverty. This paper is thus an attempt to revisit India’s poverty line trajectory and recommend a finer definition to eradicate Social Inequality in the country.

Kritika Garg
Shri Ram College of Commerce, University of Delhi, India

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[2] FAO, IFAD, UNICEF, WFP, & WHO. (2020). The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World (SOFI). FAO, IFAD, UNICEF, WFP and WHO.

[3] Guruswamy, M., & Abraham, R. J. (2006, February). Redefining the Poverty Line in India. Research Gate.

[4] J. (2013, August 5). Poverty estimation in India. PRSIndia.

[5] Ministry of Rural Development. (2020, September). POVERTY MEASUREMENT IN INDIA: A STATUS UPDATE. Government of India.

[6] Perspective Planning Division, Planning Commission, India. (2012, December). Report of the Expert Group to Recommend the Detailed Methodology for Identification of Families Below Poverty Line in the Urban Areas.

[7] Poverty: Definitions, Measurement and Controversies | Part 2 – Civilsdaily. (2013, October 13). Civils Daily.

[8] The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World 2020 | FAO | Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. (2020). Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations.

[9] Wells, T. (n.d.). Sen’s Capability Approach | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Internet Encyclopaedia of Philosophy. Retrieved December 24, 2020,

Garg, K. (2020). Redefining Poverty Line. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law, 01(02), 984–993. https://ijpsl.in/wp-content/uploads/2020/12/Redefining-Poverty-Line_Kritika-Garg.pdf

Climate Anxiety and the Consequent Lack of Will to Procreate among Gen-Z

Sanya Sud and Pritika Das
Volume I, Issue II
31 December 2020
Page No.: 994-1012

This paper offers a unifying conceptual framework for understanding the relationship between climate change and the unwillingness to procreate in Generation Z. Available evidence indicates that this relationship is characterized by a vicious cycle, whereby climate change impacts the decision to procreate in generation Z. The paper identifies seven main reasons due to which climate anxiety has left an aggravating effect on the choice of procreation. Mockery of the young people’s climate movement; lack of political consensus and action; and the disproportionate effect of climate change on marginalised communities are a few notable ones among them. The paper presents evidence to illustrate each of the processes mentioned above. It also notes that the same analytical framework can be used to discuss the relationship between climate change and its negative impact across the globe. Finally, it points to the ways in which the analysis can help make relevant policy decisions

Sanya Sud
B.A Hons Economics, Hindu College, University of Delhi, India
Pritika Das
B.A Communication and Media Studies, Mount Carmel College, Bengaluru, India

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[2] American Psychological Association, Climate for Health, ecoAmerica. (2017). MENTAL HEALTH AND OUR CHANGING CLIMATE: IMPACTS, IMPLICATIONS, AND GUIDANCE. American Psychological Association.

[3] BBC News. (2020, July 28). Australia’s fires “killed or harmed three billion animals.”

[4] Clayton, S. (2020). Climate anxiety: Psychological responses to climate change. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 74, 102263.

[5] Coronavirus and Climate Change. (2020, July 6). C-CHANGE | Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health.

[6] Goal 13: Climate action. (n.d.). Sdfinance.Undp.Org. Retrieved December 12, 2020.

[7] Human rights are at threat from climate change, but can also provide solutions. (2019, October 4). Unenvironment.Org.

[8] Introduction to Adoption – Child Welfare Information Gateway. (n.d.). Www.Childwelfare.Gov. Retrieved December 13, 2020

[9] McLean, C. P., Asnaani, A., Litz, B. T., & Hofmann, S. G. (2011). Gender differences in anxiety disorders: Prevalence, course of illness, comorbidity and burden of illness. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 45(8), 1027–1035.

[10] MGH Center for Women’s Mental Health. (2019, June 20). Postpartum Psychiatric Disorders – MGH Center for Women’s Mental Health.

[11] Pierre-Louis, K., & Schwartz, J. (2020, December 4). California Wildfires Explained: Why Does The State Have So Many? The New York Times. 

[12] Rojanasakul, Sullivan, M. B. K. (2020, December 5). This Year’s Wild Hurricane Season Is an Ominous Sign of What’s Ahead. Bloomberg.Com. 

[13] Roszia, S., & Maxon, A. D. (2019). Seven Core Issues in Adoption and Permanency: A Comprehensive Guide to Promoting Understanding and Healing In Adoption, Foster Care, Kinship Families and Third Party Reproduction. Jessica Kingsley Publishers. 

[14] Times Now. (2020, July 26). Assam flood 2020 photos: More than 2.8 million people affected in 26 districts as situation worsens | India News.

Sud, Das, S. P. (2020). Climate Anxiety and the Consequent Lack of Will to Procreate among Gen-Z. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law, 01(02), 994–1012. https://ijpsl.in/wp-content/uploads/2020/12/Climate-Anxiety-and-the-Consequent-Lack-of-Will-to-Procreate-among-Gen-Z_Sanya-Sud-Pritika-Das.pdf

Reconciliation in Afghanistan: Role of Art and Cinema

Sufia Shaikh
Volume I, Issue II
31 December 2020
Page No.: 1013-1026

The Conflict in Afghanistan has spanned for more than four decades and we are expecting an end to it through the reconciliation process initiated after 2003. The Afghan Government and U.S, as well as the regional actors, have made efforts to politically resolve the issue by holding talks with the stakeholders and in the Hague conference, a framework was drafted for the achievement of Justice, Peace and Reconciliation of Afghanistan. The study intends to understand the role of Art and Cinema in the process of reconciliation by beginning the initiative through voicing the crimes and injustices that were committed during the war, further the paper addresses some of the vital questions in peacemaking: ‘How’ is it happening, ‘What’ is being or been done, ‘When’ is it going to be fruitful, ‘Where’ is it happening and ‘Who’ are being involved. But the effect of the reconciliation can only be understood if there’s lasting positive peace in Afghanistan.

Sufia Shaikh
M.A. Peace and Conflict Resolution, Jamia Millia Islamia, Deli, India

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[12] Hindu, T. (2019, February 6). Tough-talking: On Taliban reconciliation process. The Hindu.

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S.S. (2020b). Reconciliation in Afghanistan: Role of Art and Cinema. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law, 01(02), 1013–1026. https://ijpsl.in/wp-content/uploads/2020/12/Reconciliation-in-Afghanistan-Role-of-Art-and-Cinema_Sufia-Shaikh.pdf